ΩԸƽˮʹ罭ϣ
et revelabitur quasi aqua iudicium et iustitia quasi torrens fortis

 

ְҵ

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2000ССҹʦ޸ֱճ̡Զ׼һʦ޸ĵص֮һʦְҵλ⡣ڷְҵҹν̵壬ѧʦְҵλϵͳͷͳϣְҵǹʦְҵλҹʦĸƶȣǽֲִIJڴͼԷְҵԴڵйӰһ۸ʽϵͳʦ޸ĹУΪѧߺͲֺ;ʱṩɿIJο

һΪͳķְҵ

ͳϵġְҵProfessionҪָijѧʶȨеεijЩضķҵνģɣְҵ壨Legal ProfessionalismǣͬĴ׷ҵ֮רҵԡԺԣӣɣҵΪְҵProfessionʵۡ1ֵעǣѧΪɣְҵҪӢҵһʵ¹½ϵҸְҵProfession2ʵǷνְҵṹкְ֤ܹ֤ܶҵ壬Դŷ½һŷ½ңǰְҵƶȵ3

һְҵʯ
ְҵ徭һdzӵķչ̡ʱգʹڹĴְҵӪڲҲȻ죬ֳʮָӵĹϵΪӷְҵʯרҵԡԺԵ໥ϵ֣Ч·

ΪһԴprofessĹϴְҵ߿ProfessionӦþҪ1ۻϵרҵڽʵüɵĹרţ2Ϊڷּб׷˽ҵӪҵBusinessܣְҵҵһҪ룬Ҫϸ룬Ǹ벻ҪĿĶֻǸĽļֵΪڷľ񡣣3γij־ʸ϶ɳͽݱϵһ׹ƶȵ壬һġ֡Occupation4һ仰һҵȣְҵҪڣרҵԡԺԡ5

ʯУְҵProfessionʹҵְֿҵĽǶȳҲ˵ʵְҵְҵ׷λĿ꣬רҵԺ͹ʵһĿҪ;ΪְҵһõȷְҵڲҲͻ˶ԱЧĹͿȨʵֶԷɷг¢ϡܣԵⱾ磬ʦ뵱˹ϵʦҹϵľգҲIJ죬ѧɣǣͨصǿ˵ǵۺͲΪԴڶרҵԺ͹໥ϵİղͬһ˵ְҵڲ۷磬ϿԹΪֱӷɷרҵΪĽкʹְ񹫹Գ˼·

ְҵֽ·
1Ҫ߼뼼Եֽ·
ֳ㲻ͬ˼·ںܶഫͳķְҵ߿ǿͳһġ

ȣרҵԳ˼·ΪʦṩķɷԸ߶ȵרҵ֪ʶΪģ˶⣺һְҵԱ֪ʶء£Ϊ޷գί˼ƻ޷רҵ׼ȷУַУγϹָӵ龰6ʦί֮ķտռڣṩһָ߶ȸ𻯵ķԶͳһί޷жϷɴеǷ׵ַԱ͹ۻгԼôֻʦԼͨԵԼɴ˲Եۡ£ֽʦҵΪıֶε뷨޷γɶʦЧԼŽһΪʦҵĽ涨ְĹۡ7

ΣְҵĹ֤ҪҲһֱӴԨԴڹŴġΡΪְҵеġײ㡱ײ㡱Ĺ8Ǵķģ׷ɵIJ߹ߣǴģִߵְҵȻҲ;Ϊڷԡ9Ӻְ֤ĹԿֱƵɣһǷԣȻƵִ߱ΣΪʹίܸ÷ɣΪʵַһߵʦŬ߷רҵʣɴֵרҵԡԵۡ10

2ͻְҵ
Ȼڷֱʯ˼·ıѧۺι۵ȷľ޴ͳͻԺͼԵĹϵʦְҵһֱ˵һ11

ڴͳְҵߵ߼УӹԵ˼·ᳫʦԹеΣȻʦӦðݡʿĴȽɫҪ˼·£δʹʦִҵҪ͵·λڴˣɵĹԾ뼼Բ˼ҳͻΪΪְҵϷԵһʯԵġרҵԵۻ̶ܴӦ鹦ڷѧۣ壩Էɺ͵·IJиŬں߿ᳫְҵĹԣԷɵȶԡʽԲصв

෴ӼԵĽǶȳԷɵԣԣµޱȻϵͼΪ߼㣬ΪѧôͻҳϡԹڵΡҪͬʱΪʦĽɫͨĴʵ֣ƶҪʦڵ˵ĵ¶ְܾҵϱöԹεġԱҪ£ʦĴΪڿ͹ϱȻ֡빫ԡ𺦹桱ˡĽ빫Ե˼·䱳ͬʱںܶǿԵְҵ߿ּԵ˼·ʵϻɷҵӹ׻ǵڶԷְҵΡеĸԴڡ12

Ϊͷķ㣬棬ǽֱԹְҵͼְҵָʵбʲ˼·

ְҵ
ʯӦǣΪһְҵΪ֮ܶҲҪ룺ɵĿѧԣְҵͬ壨ԣԼʦμңԣ

1ɵġѧӹְҵְҵת
ͨ˵ΪְҵԴϣ˹µġΡԼġΡ13ܵ˻ڽѵ룬رְCalling/BrufӰ졣14ֱ£ŷڷְҵעְĹԡףӽײǼԺͨӢͳб绤ʦͥʦʦ״ʦϸֻ֤15

ǣŹҵĵְҵѧԡѧʶҵݣҵ׷ʧı£һþ޴չ16ģְҵ۵ҲӹְҵתΪְҵ塣תԭҪڣһŹҵķԼڽ̵IJʽ΢ǶڸֲƷͷ񣬶׷ʵԡڶҵͽλһְҵ˾޴гһ棬νʵ񡱣ְҵѾԶԶ޷󡣵Ҫǣִѧķչԭѧȡ֪ʶɿԻעʽںŵȻʽ˼ķѧΪѧȨ1819ܵصսԣЩ£ְҵάְҵȨĺϷ֤ȻҪԭȸһȵġ׼ת˵ġԡɷʹԡ͡ɴԡͱȻҪѧʶڼԷܹṩɿıϡԣ19ͳķѧԼѧ׷ɵļɲԵķѧɣԷְҵӦʱʱչž޴塣ģ19ĩ20ͳԺʦְҵҪݣҲʼǰǿʦڵˡʼᳫҳϡ͡޹ڵΡԭ仯17

2ʦμңһְֹҵ
ڸڡȨѧһһܹᡢѭӢȺ壬ܹͳϴҡ͹ڵ档֮Ϊײ㡱General Estate£Ƿ׷ԼĽײضаġײ㡱ְҵҲ⡣Ҫɣ1ʦע棬ʱ׼ΪԼ档ְҵʦμĶɡ2ķģ׷ɵIJ߹ߣǴģִߵְҵȻҲ;Ϊڷԡ3˾£һҪ˼ǡĻҪ18

ִᣬڷηң̸ո𲽵ĵңʦˣȷʵҪνɫ19ͳνײҪְҵԴˣҲ˵ξǷ֮Ρ20ʵϣ˵ʦǷʵͳνײ㣬˵ʦǷκѡ׻ȡְλְҵɿԸΪ˶μ졢˵ִҵʽδͬ͡ΪְҵߵʦʱͳΪϿɵȷ档21

ڡʧʦһΪְҵʦμʧȥ֮ΪְҵΣһ档ҪעǣʦμţʦΪͳνײʵ״սᡣְҵΣı̾Ҫǹְҵߡνʦμ롱ɥʧ22ʵڱְ̾ҵɥʧǵĹǿרҵҵʹѾʹʦְҵΪͨҵӼĽǶȿһΣƣִ·ɷҵȻռݡͳνײ㡱ĵλֻΪɥʧ˹Ե룬ܻԷӰ졣23

3ְҵͬ
ְҵߵְҵͬdzԽ硢ڽ̵ҵͬ塢干ͬ塢Թͬ塢湲ͬ塢ͬ塢ͬ塢͹ͬͼֵͬȵȡһ棬ְҵ幹ְҵԱ֮Žᡢ໥ͬŷְҵͬڵľ֧һ棬ְҵͬڡоʵϵĴڣǷְҵԴʵ

ְҵ۵߼ͬγڷѧƵĹרҵϵͳͨеijԱͨѧԺܶķѧ֪ʶѵɹͬγһ֪ʶĹͬ塢ԵĹͬ塣Ժ֪ʶͬĻϣγԼص˼άγһص˼άͬ壬γһʮļֵͬ壨ͬ壩ֹͨͬĹʹ÷ɱõ͹᳹ΪʵǣֵijDzԼģγһֵͬʹã1ͨڲһµġ֧֣ʹùͬĸڸѹǰܹԭά壻2¹ͬ壬ͬʱҲһйͬ壬һķʽԱγμֵѹб׼֤˷ɼִֵеļغ͹᳹24

ȻְҵͬĴôıҪͬʱ׵ܵ˺ԣҪһֹܹʴĶƣǷְҵҹƣSelf-regulationơְҵڲĻʦЭᣬҲѧԺعְҵڲ񣬰ְҵԱְҵѵݡ䲼ְҵԴ߽гͽȵȡһƲάֺͱְҵͬ壬ͬʱҲǷְҵͬʵдһֺ֤͡ݡ

ģҵģʽʢµķְҵ塰Σ
1971߷Ժ󷨹BurgerְҵһΣ۶25˺ְҵⶼʼһְ̾ҵΣ֮Уʧʦ26ְҵ27ְ̱ҵ28ְҵ29ְҵı30ȵȺŵ˵ϵءճϯķְҵǷΣԼγԽⳡΣۣʮззġεΣ֮ۡȥ˶Ȼһ˸оѧͷְҵƺѾߵ˾ͷ

ְҵ羫ӢʹͳѧΪְҵΣҵģʽ͸ΣԱΪһµĺҵʵΪ¼Σ


ʦְҵһ֮⼴2070ǰδеij̶ȡһΪڡްԡʦ֡ʽɷģʽʢԼԿʽϳʱڣرʦ棬ΪͻУһϵڶʦعע¼һЩǾȫӰģˮ¼ȣ編ʷǰδеġЩ¹ʵķ˷ְҵΣ31


ΣڣһʹԷְҵʵɺͷ񶨣һʹ÷ְҵڲְҵΣְ͡ҵΣǣ¹ʹְҵʧ񶨷ְҵ屾Ρ32

3оΣ
ڡҧĶԿʽļ˻ŮȳԱ뷨ְҵԼҵһӾְҵڲķֲֻԭΪһ֡оķְҵҲʼΣΪһ֡оĴڡְҵԱڲʼԷְҵͬ˺ѡߡڡġо 33

4λΣ
ְҵĺĻʯǡְҵʵصвŶԿģʽġɼԱְҵۣҵĴʦ˾ɷ񲿽ṹ֮еġӶģʽҵѹǿòԵǨͣҵķչǿĵˣгõ·չǿĹҵȵȡͬʱҲֳŶڶԷְҵIJϷѧ۵ְ֤ҵҹƵʵҲܵdzкս34

ϣְܷҵְҵƵֵУȻΪʦְҵλֵģλҲ᧿ΣΪܹõʦְҵλۺʵķչΪҹѰҵһѵķбҪ˼·˽⵱˼Էְҵкֱ ˼еķְҵ

һ۵Ҫ۵
Եѧ˵зѧѧԼִ巨ѧСְҵ塱ǷdzαƵģʵʦְҵIJȡȨƻĻӺ߲35ҪУ

1ԹѧѧƵŬ֮
ڵѧ磬ΪѧƹרҵԱͻȡȨϵѳΪ̸׵·dz¶ǵָ֪ʶΪԤԤΪȨ36ڷѧ磬кܶѧ߰ѷˡ󲢹һΪ޷ķԣ϶ΪһֹŪְҵ塣粨˹Ϊͳѧһַ񺬻ѶĻϵͳԱ޷˽һְҵо̡37˴ͳι۵ĻʽͿ͹塣νʽŷ֤ķȷʶ̬ѧۣԵķǿܵġΪDzܵģѧְҵԵ38

2ͨưʸԵ׼Ƶȴʩ֮
ѧɡзѧԼѧ֥ӸѧɵһЩѧǣΪЩƴʩʵĿ¢ϷɷгһЩƴʩյĽǵ·ɷƷĸ߳ɱµķרҵѧϰͿԵijɱնɵеġڶƴʩ˷ɷεĶԡijЩɷʵϲҪṩ߶߱ˮƽѧԺ˾ʸԵȷʽõ׼ƣһ棬Ȼܱ֤ÿһλɴҵ߶ȱųġ׼ҵߡ㡢ϸһ棬ڱ֤ҵԱƷЧʵҲֵûɵģҪʵ֤յĽۡ39

3Էְҵ֮֯
˼Լܴ˷ӰѧΪᵼ⣺һʦЭְҵ֯ΪʦӢְҵġΪʦơѹʦϲʦѹ²ͳԹߣ40ڶʦЭְҵ֯ΪʦҵʱġƽҵЭᣬʦЭ֯ΪʦҵԿġֶ֯Ρ41

4ԶضЧ淶ϵ֮
ְͨҵ淶ֵĻɣڵغϵӢڵļǰ粻׼⡢Ϊѱ绤ȣ硰ԭ;ܾҳϵȡЩ淶ѧҲе۹Դ֮磬ڵҳϵۣܶзѧΪʦȺĴۣʵΪ˳ųжֱΣڸ˽ֶεΪġѱ绤ҲΪǷְҵչҵġһһֶΡ42

5ԻȡϵĿ͹۽֮
ְҵҪʵֶĿƣ¢ϷɷгִȻҪùȨıϡԴˣְҵְͨҵֶﵽĿģᵽѧƻ֯ȡ43⣬ְҵأһЩƽͱȨͷνĻȥڷνᷢչзdzáȻҲ⣺һΪ湲ͬķְҵΪһȨֱͳΣײ󣬻ʶյķɻΪҵıȡȨ44ڶȻϰ߽һⶼתΪ⣬ڷĺƽȶзdz壬ǣλй÷ɳͷɹ淶ijЩ©ҲͷεתɸӰ죬ڶڷ˽ײ巴С45Ϊ˻ȡҶְҵȨɣְҵöɶҪļȨơʹսĹҾְҵձںִĹ۵㿴ǷdzµġΪ⵼רҵʿ֪ʶӺ͹ҵĽˣɶͬξӢγһµͳν׼46

۱ı
1۵ʵ
ΧƷְҵֵ֮Ǹͻ໥ģdzαֵǸַѧۣر巨ѧȻѧʵ֤巨ѧۣпѧķѧᷨѧзѧѧȾ䷨ѧ໥սְҵ֡սһҪսְҵλֺۣܶĽڷѧѧѧƵ˼֤

2Уڲⲿ߸
̸˼г̶ȵIJֿͬԷΪԺ͵߸ԵѧɡԷְҵҲ֡зѧڲˡзѧ˶֮ڵǧ˿ƵĹϵʹзѧԷְҵһʺѧоĶͶ൱ѧעִܶڷְҵоѧߣͬʱҲзѧġʿۺǵķְҵۣԷΪ֣Ľ밣˵ĵ߸С47ڶԷְҵоĽеص㣬ԣҲΪڷְҵijЩ۷棬зѧ봫ͳѧżĹϵ48ͨǿ˵󲿷ֳֽезѧߣڷְҵڲʵСһ˵޷ֻǹְҵԼְҵУƵְҵΣʵǹְҵΣ49

ְҵĵ߸гзѧڲ԰ΪһЩѧ⣬ѧɵĴﲨ˹ɡִ巨ѧɵijЩѧߵȡǵоɹţ䶰50ڲϵȽϸӣڴ˲׸51

𣿡ҵ
ͨԷְҵУʵĸۣҲ˶һʵǹְҵ˼·⣬ȽдԵҪҵ͹ģʽ52

1ҵģʽ
¹ŵ徭ѧӰķѧԼijЩִ巨ѧᳫ᳹ȫгѭȼ۽ԭҵ۲൱Ĵ͸ԷְҵҲʮֵλڷְҵⶼ൱Ӱ졣編ѧְͨҵ۹ҹƵĸɵġ߸͡⹹رǶҹ£ϢԳ޷ְҵ׼ƶڳԱͲƷƵЧͼ۸ƵȶڷɷɱԼԵ֤ȷʵʹ÷ְҵԭȵҹƺ淶ϵĺϷԻԶӦġΣ53ķԺʮ׷Է¢ϵɣЭijЩҹƴʩ粻ȡЭʦ趨ƣһ̶ҲӳҵڷְҵڲĽ̶ܳȡ54

ŵ徭ѧģ־ҵҲǷdz˵ġǵҵŵ1ڽͷɷijɱ2ϢԳƴ3ƽԭõʵԵƽѧ֪ʶԹŪȷʽȡڣҵҲʵоʾЩ⣺1Ŀǰûκ֤ܹ֤ϢԳƵ⣬ƾгܵõȫ2ڽͷɷɱͬʱ޷֤ƷʹͨгʵֶʲƷ̭ǷɷƷƷͬ漰Ȩͷεĸڸ˵κγ̶ȵġԴ3ȼ۽Ĺ򣬻͹ֵ򾭼⣬ɷΪ˵ר޷޷ֵзɷ񣻣4뼼ְҵȣɹ컯󽫸ء55

2ģʽ
ҪһֽʦΪҷɹ߻׼ͳεĹߣʦӪԷɷƷͳһͳһһְҵṹģʽģʽʢ2090ǰҹǰҡ56

Ϊ˼ǿʦĹԣⷨɷΪ˺ȨߵרԡΪ㡱ĹҸԤһַdzĽ˼·֮£ɹҶԷɷʵСͳͳʦͲؿӪĶѣɷҲΪIJֲƽȵ⡣ְҵλͷɷģʽʵѾ֤ʧܵģҪı׶˱ڣ1ʦյҵĿƲƽṹ֮УͲòͼʱʦӪʧˣйصҲӦػˡȻʦΪάȨݷľȴƱر˸ΪһΪȨõְҵҲʧȥ˸塣2ʹûγҲʹӪʦΪ̡ҴʦȫɷѻߵͼṩˣζűӴԤ˾֧ıءԮ÷ɵΪԾҽ᲻ظ573һβεĹɷԴĹлҲݹлı׶ˣķɷջΪijЩŽײȨ֧ԴȨŽײרᡣ58

ģع˷ְҵ
ͨķȻѧ˵ҵ͹ģʽҲ޷ְҵλڵ⣬ְҵĽ;ܴҵ塢ְҵ֮⡣ôѰµģʽ֮ǰع˷ְҵ壬ܸ׼ȷذȫ֡

1ְҵ
ᳫʦԹеΣҪʦھİа άߡĴܹʵЩĿ꣬ɻἫƶȶձʵάڶʦȻάһȽϸߵˮƽٽڶԷεʦִҵеҲǿȻְҵһһ޷ʵֵаʣһ棬ضᄈ£ܰݹĴƵ֡롱еĸнɫΪijЩȡȨġӡߡ߲⣬ԵºͷɡʽʵֵģڷȶĸӰҲԶ׼ġ

ڽڽ̣ڽʽ˼άʽ΢˼г͸Dzһ֡ʵ塱۹ְҵڵĺϷԡԽԽǿʦҵ֡Ϊڷ񡱵ְҵ壩ҪǽǴһҵ˾ռߵĶиҵԡְҵΪĿ꽨ƵĹ淶ܣԸõӡ󡪡ⲢʵԵ塣ԣΪһѰԷɷг¢ϵְҵλģʽӷɹļԣߵʽĹĴνġԡڽҲǺѴﵽĿĵġ

2ְҵ
ԷɵԣԣͼΪ߼㣬Ϊѧְҵ幹˽編ְҵҪŵǣǿķԡǵԣԻ÷ɹĿɲԣڶԸȨıͨʦġ޹ԡʹԪͨƵİõȷάⷨɹھ巨ɷؽɫݶµͻеļԣΪάְֺ֤ҵȨڵĺϷṩɡ ְҵڣǡɫ͸ġʵֵ淶֮ijͻ⣬ԣͼʦļ֮ԴﵽˮƽDzܵġְҵģʽ£Ӫܵ£ּϡҳϡȱ׼ṩʵбȻʦֻΪЩǮơġˡ񣬶ѰɷĿΪΡı׶ˣ1עص˵ĸձ壬ְҵڵƵͻڶʦְҵȼ½592ļԴ컯⣬ظĹݡԹڵ޵εȵȣʹʦְҵȽһܵ͵ˮƽ60

ȻѴְҵλģʽ⣬Ҳѧ߿ʼѰµĶλʽˡͬ塱񹫹򡱵˵δһ־ͬʱ˵۽ʵķ61

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һ۽Ƶְҵ˶
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ɼԱ ʿ ҷɹ
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ʦ״ͳͼʦְҵĶλ

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ʦеӵְҵ
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ģְҵλʶһгĿ
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ģʦ״ͳͼʦIJԸķʽѡ86

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һۣʦְҵλ֣̽ȷʵһ̽·ȣ˹ġ򡱲ձۣijЩضġǡǡǡת͡Ĺؼڣ̺ľӢأ޷رܡԡʦְҵȺҲ壻Σڹ˹ܵġУΪְҵȺʦǡеĻߣͬʱҲǡ۵Ҫһ棬ǰǡ򡱵ԭͻʵ͵ġ򡱺ܴΧƸ־ӢȺչģʦְҵǣҪǣһҪֶصľӢȺ塪ྫӢȺ壨ҽʦʦ˵ȣȣڡ򡱵ۺ͹ͨԵøΪԾֱӣһ棬ʦְҵеְҵְҵλҲǡ򡱵ɲ֣ҲҪɡеۺ͹ͨγɵĸʽʽƶȡʦְҵڡָĴʹҪעءе۹ͳԱʦְҵڡ򡱵롰˵Իľ֮Ļ;УۣͨͨͨΪĶֺ̬ܻᷢȷϳһֺϺͺϺ񣨵ˣ۵ְҵۣ͹˽ijͻֺձѺۡ92

ֵעǣܡܹɶԪۡijԽŵ㣬ǣ۹ܱij־ӢأȻ޷ӸϽӢìܡҪǣijλѧָģ˹ڡĽṹת䡷һġۡ۵ıʷ۵㡭ΪԵı֤չԱڳִήģʱķչʷԵķսơ93򡱵ķչʹԽԽױƺͲݣӶʹԭӦڡԡƶߵ෴ķýķչԹĹעۣȻýȴǰĽ̸ױƣӶԹĹעۡͽһУʦְҵпƲҲп亦á򡱵ʦתڵĶλʱҪ߶Ⱦġ


*ϺͨѧѧԺʦѧʿ
ΪƻĿ۷εĵƶЦ֣׼ 04DFX 004ijɹ֮һԭءѧо20056ڡ߸лʦЦԼ֣ڡ־ڡڡڡڡͺʦЭλԱԱдṩĸְ⣬ĵɻ벻εԡ뽡λաԣֵ˵ֱӰڴһʾлйԺѧԺķǷ岩ʿԱһЩdz޸ģм֮ʵ޷ǡȻ˳еһ𡣡
1 Roscoe Pound, The Lawyer from Antiquity to Modern Times , West Publishing Co.(Minnesota), 1953, p.1.
2 Magali Sarfatti Larson, The Rise of Professionalism: A Sociological Analysis, Berkeley: CA: University of California Press, 1977.
3 Lucien Karpik, French Lawyers: A Study in Collective Action 1274 to 1994, Trans. by Nora Scott, Clarendon: Oxford University Press, 1995; Kenneth F. LedFord, From General Estate to Special Interest: German Lawyers , 1878-1933, Cambridge University Press,1996; Eugene Huskey, Russian Lawyers and the Soviet State, Princeton: Princeton University Press,1986.
4 Ľйѧ1999棬198ҳ
5 Roscoe Pound, The Lawyer from Antiquity to Modern Times , West Publishing Co.(Minnesota), 1953, p.20.
6 Colin Croft, Reconceptualizing American Legal Professionalism: A Proposal for Deliberative Moral Community, 67 N. Y. U. L. Rev. 1256 (1992).
7 μաТִۣձķ򡷣ƽ룬йѧ2002棬188ҳ¡
8 Amelia J. Uelmen, A View of Legal Profession from a Mid-Twelfth-Century Monastery, 71 Fordham L. Rev.1517 (2003).
9 ְҵ崫ͳŷdzеϵμT. C. Halliday & L. Karpik, Lawyers and the Rise of Western Political Liberalism, New York: Oxford University Press,1997.
10 Roscoe Pound, The Lawyer from Antiquity to Modern Times , West Publishing Co.(Minnesota), 1953, pp.4-10.
11 Ү³ѧǰѧԺԺΪְҵ֮һڣǵְҵֱȻͬ۴ͳһ˹µѧΪ˵ԣΪǰһҪιΪӪҲεһֱֹ֡ҪDZҪľ񡣿ִͳιΪ塱Դ1718ͻ˹˵˵ԼۣContractarianismΪ빲ڣΪ֮ԴڣΪǵ˽ᳫϿǵΪΪΪ˹µֻƼܹʵȨġ񡱣ԣʵϳְҵԴ֮һΪǿ˵˽ԣԳְҵΪҵԴ߶ְҵ֮УڽռĵλAnthony T. Kronman, The Fault in Legal Ethics, 100 Dick. L. Rev. 489 (1995).
12 Deborah L. Rhode, The Professionalism Problem, 2 William and Mary law Review 39 (1998).
13 Anthony T. Kronman, The Fault in Legal Ethics, 100 Dick. L. Rev. 489 (1995).
14 David Luban, The Noblesse Oblige Tradition in the Practice of Law, Vand. L. Rev. 717(1998)
15 μӢ˹أŷڵʦ硷ı룬йѧ1992档
16 Magali Sarfatti Larson, The Rise of Professionalism: A Sociological Analysis, Berkeley: CA: University of California Press, 1977, p. 6.
17 David Luban, Lawyers and Justice: An Ethical Study, Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1994.
18 һϣ½ϵӢϵвͬμ?ʧʦսʯ룬ɳ2002档
19 ѧΪʦе壬רתת͹Уʦݵɫ֮ҪԣҪԶڷΡѾͻᡣμWilliam. Bouwsma J., Lawyers and Early Modern Culture, 78 American Historical Review(1973).
20 ڴ˷ԲμЦȣΣ֮Ρйѧ2005档
21 ѧҢ뽡ڷ̨֮䡷ظȫϲࣺ2ѧ2005档
22 Russell Peace, Lawyers as Americas Governing Class: The Formation and Dissolution of the Original Understanding of the American Lawyers Role, 8 U Chi L Sch Roundtable 381(2001).
23 ?ʧʦսʯ룬ɳ2002棻Carl T. Bogus, The Death of an Honorable Profession,71 Indiana Law Journal 911 (1996); etc.
24 Elliot L. Bien, Toward a Community of Professionalism, 3 The Journal of Appellate Practice and Process 2(2001).
25 Mary Ann Glendon, A Nation under Lawyers: How the Crisis in the Legal Profession Is Transforming American Society, New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1994, p.3.
26 ?ʧʦսʯ룬ɳ2002档
27 Sol M. Linowitz & Martin Mayer, the Betrayed Profession: Lawyering at the end of the Twentieth Century, C. Scribners Sons, 1994.
28 Robert W. Gordon, Portrait of a Profession in Paralysis, 54 Stan. L. Rev. 1427(2002).
29 Carl T. Bogus, The Death of an Honorable Profession,71 Indiana Law Journal 911 (1996).
30 Chris Klein, Big-Firm Partners: Profession Sinking, NATL L.J.26 (1997).
31 David R. Papke, The Legal Profession and Its Ethical Responsibilities: A History, in Michael Davis & Frederick A. Elliston (eds.), Ethics and the Legal Profession, Prometheus Books,1986.
32 ˵洦ɼCarl T. Bogus, The Death of an Honorable Profession,71 Indiana Law Journal 911 (1996).
33 Richard Abel, The Contradictions of Legal Professionalism, in Lawyers in Society : The Common Law World, Richard L. Abel & Philip S. C. Lewis (eds.), University of California Press, 1988, pp.186238.
34 Mary Seneviratne, The Legal Profession: Regulation and Consumer, Sweet & Maxwell Press, 1999.
35 Richard L. Abel, American Lawyers, New York: Oxford University Press, 1989, p.1.
36 Maureen Cain, The symbol Traders, in Lawyers in a Postmodern World: Translation and Transgression, Maureen Cain and Christine B. Harrington (eds.), Buckingham: Open University Press, 1994, p. 15.
37 ˹ɣºͷ۵ʡ룬йѧ2001棬218ҳ
38 Roberto Unger, The Critical Legal Studies Movement, 96 Harvard Law Review 567 (1983)
39 ֹ۵洦ɼμRichard L. Abel, American Lawyers, New York: Oxford University Press, 1989; etc.
40 Elliot L. Bien, Toward a Community of Professionalism , The Journal of Appellate Practice and Process vol.3, No.2(2001).
41 Deborah L. Rhode, The Profession and the Public Interest , 54 Stanford. Law Review 1501 (2002).
42 Richard L. Abel, United States: the Contradictions of Professionalism, in Richard L. Abel & Philips. C. Lewis eds., Lawyers in Society: the Common Law World, Berkeley: University of California Press,1988.
43 E. Freidson, Professionalism Reborn: Theory, Prophecy and Policy, Cambridge: Polity Press, 1994.
44 ѧҢһְҵΣʱ𣿡ⷨѧ20045ڡ
45 ҹ̨壬ԳˮΪ׵2000ꡢ2004ѡõġɱݡɿԴ½ijޡμ͹涼кܴ𺦡μѧҢ뽡ڷ̨֮䡷ظȫϲࣺ2ѧ2005档
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