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ʮȫҪѡгΪǿִҪ֮һץµףй뵳Уٰʡ쵼гרֻᡱϷĽУԺгһȷĶ壬ڹг̵е롱֡

жԡгᡱгᡱƺҪغжеһݺԸЩأǰѾ˹ᡢСĿ꣬ˡѧչִۡ˼롣ֵڳѧϰогᡱͬʱӲIJȥʵĺгáгᡱΪһֿںšΪˣһӽǣִѧġгһڹг̵ֵòο⡣

һг䱾

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ѧʷĽǶȿָĺгϣѧϴ˹ΪıԴΪȻһ͹ɶģ�"ĺг"Ĺϵ

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гֺ졣Ҳ֣׷ĺггĸĹ,еԱܵҪϵͬʱо泩û̫Ǻ͵ǡ ϴ˹Ȩ˵"һҪƻƻ˺гĶ"Ժ˼ҶԹͺг⣬˼·еġѧҶԡгǴӵʱIJгٵľѰҺг۹Ӱͼġ¬˼ҵġԼӹŵξѧǵ˹ܵġúг˼ҸֵġκгԼ޶˹ġƽ塱ʼչᴩŶԺг۵ֹԼʵ;ơ ִѧҶԡгƺ׷

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1Լۣ춨гĵ»

1ԴԽ

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νԼۣΪƽȵһֲȨԼȻ״̬ҺԱձͬԼӵеĸȨöɵĻ֮ϡԼڲͬ˼ŲͬĽͣӶŲͬİ汾˵İ汾Ӱ

˵Լ۽һ֡ȫɺȫƽȵ״̬֮ϡ趨ƽȣرȻ˲ᡢַȻȨ໥κȨκ˶Ӧ˺˵ɺͲƲÿһ˶Ϊ˱ԼȻȨִȻȨȫɵ״̬ҲȱݣûĹ涨ķɣеȻֻһֵԼڲ֮䷢ľףȱһȨշȥһִĹߣȱ֤оִеȨӶʹþ޷׽ȻȱݺͲгʹÿеȻȨִںܲȫ״̬ʹ໥һԼÿһ˶ԸطһȨÿһȻ״̬еȥִȻȨ佻ᣬίиػָרԱǰȫԱĹͬ־ʹͨԼ߼γ˹һεȨڴ˻ƺ齨Ȩͷɣﵽһݵĺг״̬ǣִΥԼƻ⣬Ĺ͹ҸʱرǵɡƲȥʱȨȡԼƲٶ

˼趨ġǰΡġȻ״̬ǶԹһ߼ѧ͡ԼʵľŶԼ˫еݣƽȵĹϵijŵݡɴ˿ƳԼ趨

2ƷȨȨƺƣùȨеĺг

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3ɾҸֵ󾭼õġг

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4嶨ȺȨ硱ıȨ˽ȨԼͬ˼۵ĺг

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1в׼гķĴģʽ

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2ɣעг

Ϊ,ɲDzǿƵɡɲζǿϲ£ϲʲôɲζһ˻һЩ˿˵ʧΪ۵ɡ2һֿյġõɣؽһ̱߽жɡڴ²ġ˵ȱʵȨԴ

峫һ֡Ȩ"Աǿȥijֵܵ£ЩҲ˹ͬܵ¡߿ɵĺľЩ롰ʵҡֺͷչصݣɽҸһضڡ3ԱӡסҽƱСֵȨұȨȥռкȥʵȨԴͻᡣ

3ʵгķɱ֤ƶȱ

1ͨūԵԼɣԶƹӶ뱻Ӷܷ֮ijͻͲг

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ڵѧɵУȽϻԾ֣޶˹ġƽ塱ۡŵ˵ġ¹ŵ塱ԼֽġƽȨѧ˵ǷֱʷϴͳļҪڵͷչдг۵ƪ¡ һ޶˹г˼Ϻ

޶˹˼Ҫġ֮ۡСгúͲƸٷĸҽۺϳΪһϵͳġʵгĹƽۡ

1¼ṫĴ죬ƹƶȺͰ֯ʱӦѭԭȫг

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Aÿ˶Ȩӵ㷺ɣҴӵеڳ̶ȵģһӵеҪӵеܹͬݡ

BҪ뾭÷IJƽȴڣΪǰ

IʹЩᴦߴֲƽл棻

IIڻṫƽȵ£֤еĹְְλе˿ţ6

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ԭڹңܷһṹܷƶ巨ɵİУӦΪָ7 ʹȫгΪܡ

2ԭԵȻ״̬£ΪȫгɵԼ ޶˹ԭ֤õִʷƾʷԼͳ޶˹һǻûκι»ԭᡰԭ״̬״̬еԼǣڸԽҪƳпԵһ״;Dzȷģλø¡ײĹȻƸӵĶѡĸߵ͡ǵӡǵǿԱIJ졢׳ȡΪԼ˵Dzδ֪ܶԼδжİպʤ㡣£dz䵱Ľɫλһѡȡĵзߡᾡܵѡһܱ֤ÿ˽Ȳ̫Ҳ̫ĹԭڷȨ׵ʧ֮ԵԼɹʶѡƽĶԭΪڹг֮ ޶˹ġƽ塱ԭȻÿһ˶һգͬʱҲں̶ܴ޶һ˵ķչռ䡣ֲʵֵгΪһȱͻġᳬȶ״̬гָͬĺϳ˼ԣĺгζŲͬ۵㡢ŵĹںϡŵΪ¹ŵij֣Ϊֺгݡ ŵ˵¹ŵ壺޶ȹ֮֯ĺг

¹ŵǹŵڶʮ͵֣Ҫ˹ҮˡȡغɵĹ۵㣬ƽȣرDzƸƽȣתΪŻعгܵݻƸطĽɫ¹ŵϸѧ֤ŵ˵ġҺа1974ִгƾҵԴĺϷܡѹ̬ȡ 1һλջʤڡгٲ

ŵ߼ϽҶλһߡߡ͡ٲߡĽɫʤӰִܵгĹ۵㣬͹ҵԴ뵮ΪǴٲ֮֯໥̭ʣµһġٲá

ŵ˵֤ʼ˵Ȼ״̬Ȩѧ˵Ȼ״̬УȨάɸԼִУ಻㣬ҪһάȨĴߡŵ˲ûѭԼ۵ģʽ룬ɸԼԼȨ಻£ṩȨƷĻ֡Щ˴ڡгоĽֻʣϼѵǿ׻ǿ룬ʣµǿƻ֮ܳһ˴ս£Ӯһ𽥽ʧܵһĿͻߣʹ䷽ձ̭Ƿͬǿƻʱί˽ƾӵίеǸڵ֮ڣγһ֮һ֮սݣֲ¡ǣͬһٲߣһٲӵľȨһγһΨһǿƻ֮նγһijһеṩٲߡһٲû޶ȹҵijΡ

2ҵְ빦

ŵ˰ѹԴٲһ֮ϣȻȻؾͰѹҵԶλڹŵ˵ġҹˡһɫ޶ȹҡĺϷְڡеֹԡթƭԼеʮ޵ְܡ8Ҳʲô¶ܴκξٷĻκӵбҹ˸ȨĻһַ˵ȻȨ˶Υ˵ԭŵԴɣȨĵλἫС͹ҷǸԭΪҪֹҳΪһб˽ңȴȡǿҡ书ܷΧֻܸɸĻᣬʹҳΪԱȡֺôĸмֵΪ˵Ŀꡣ

عȨǹҵȻ񡣶Ը˵ȨDZַǺҼΪߵ±׼ӵȨЩκ˻嶼ܶġҲǿֶʹһЩһЩҲǿֶΣֹǴƽұĻԴƻãһϸ˵ȨɣȨɶԹΪı߼Լ˴ԽȨ޷Χ֮ġȥ飬һζ׷ƽȵʱ̣Ƹƶ 3ҵļܹ

ŵ޶ȹΪһġаܹһÿһ˸Լ϶õۣȥ׷Լа֮ϵаܹŵΪϵаһ֡׷аļܹɡԸؽϣѰһȺУȥʵԼõۣκ˽Լа۵ǿ֮ϡ޶ȹһԵĹҡһضԪֵɹҡĹУڽ¼ֵԣƵĹ۵㻥ྺ棻УDZַĸ˿ģκθ˲ᱻijַʽֶλ򹤾ߣDZΪӵȨϵĸ塣

ԣŵ˵Щ˼Ϊ˽Ϊг˶ԶȨΪĵγṩһϸѧ֤ϵܶδͬŵ˵ļ˹۵㣬DzгãƱҪ˽вƲһгõĸŵ˼ijԺͺġ

ŵ˳ˡȨۺ͡͹ҡͬʱһλ˼ҵֽȴ޶˹ġԭ򡱳һȥȨġƽȡ

ӵֽġȨƽȡѧ˵г

ֽǵȻһλӰѧҡԴȨĴѧֽ޶˹ŵһȻȨȨΪļ裬ΪDzӦΥ˵ȨȥЧ档ͬǣֽǴȨƽƵɡ

1ӦͳεǸƽȵĹػ

˼ۡƽȡʱ򣬹עҪƽһе٣ֽ˵ġƽȡǣӦöͳεǸͬȵĹػأ˿ǵһȨӵȨǵϵһеȨǴƵġԭڣ֮ҪԾҪ͸ܹЧشﵽҪﵽĿġֽ˵ġػָǣͳεЩˣΪǻܿ༰ܴ۵ĴڡҲ˵ӦþʹDzҪܿࡢҪܴۣءĺָΪǸκúõعԼ뷨ܹ뷨ȥµĴڡּǣʲôϣӦñ̬ȣҪȥ񣬶ṩһƽ̨Թɵȥ׷ǵֻһͬʣƽȵءһͬʲʾڷƸʼʱÿȫһĶͬƽȶԴŮĸĸĺӺĺȫһչ˺ʳһֺûֵȵʣֻͳµDzСΪƽԴȨ ֽǿġƽȹػءڹĻڵµɣԱʱܻԡ˵桱ΪȺĻȨٵĻϵġ桱桱֮൱ȺȨΪڵֽ񡱡ҡ һնۣDZŬȨʵÿһ塢ÿһ

2. ƶȣгƣƣȨ

ڿ϶ӵСΪƽȵĹػءȨĻ֮ϣֽʵȨƶȰţгƣƣȨ

ѡгòΪЧʣΪƽȣгƻϿʹÿг˾ͬȵȥеĽףΪʹ촦ڽϲλܵΪƽȵĹػءԲȡḣߣгָʽƽȹػصȨ£ݵͳεͨͶƱһƶֳԸϣʹÿ˵ҪܵͬȹػصͬʱĶþԿַȨ¶˵ıˣбҪҪƶ֮ϣټϱϸȨŵƣʹˡΪƽԴȨƻ ۴ӲͬĽǶΪ򡰺гṩ۲οԿһԵġгΪǽĹгṩһIJպʾ

ġʾ

һ гӦʼڽӪг

ѧһֱڴӲͬĽǶΪʵĺгŸָ˼ʵơעصƺǶδij룬ǶԵһĿ˷ͽں̶ܴ׷ĺгһڸʵ˺гʱ򣬡гҲͽˡ

гᡱǡʺסġ

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ѧĺ塣Լ۵Ȩӻɵԭһɾȫϵĸгᣬ徭˴ӹŵ䵽ִ嵽¹ŵشǨֲͬ˼۵໥ںϣ˳İٶۡǽ칹гҲһͣӦйijȷ쵼£һһӡӾIJʵĺгʼ

ע͡

1 ۷ϵ˹汎۷ľ񡷣ϣ룬ӡ1982棬154ҳ

2 David Miller, Liberty, p. 21תǿ塷йѧ磬1998꣬107ҳ

3 G. H. Sabine: A History of Political Theory, New York Henry Holt and Company, 1945, p. 674.

4 Richard Hudelson: Modern Political Philosophy, M. E. Sharpe, Inc. 1999, p.70.

5˼1848ġԡзdzƳ۽˰Ӣ1909ʽ۽˰1913ܷͨжȷϵġ

6 ޶˹ڲͬĵطԭĽֺ˳вͬJohn Rawls: A Theory of Justice, Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1971, p. 60; Political Liberalism, Columbia University Press, 1993, p. 271, 291.

7 Rawls: A Theory of Justice, Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1971, p. 196.

8 R. Nozick: Anarchy, State and Utopia, Basic Books, Inc. 1974, p. ix, 26.

9ǰ20Ķҵңҵ÷ֶ޼ӵ120Ų䡢Ĵǡô󡢺ʱձʿӢµ¬ɭ¹йе94ȥǰ10

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