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ʶ뷴˼ѧ

֪ʶ״ĸֲѾڶѧ磬Ϊйѧһ""ﲻǵһҲһĻǵѧˡʱ"ѧ"ͬԼй½ѧ˼ļ⡷ûзŵźûµָء෴߳˼ִһЩ˵ؼָһֿԵ룬ʹǵԴӶӽʡ֪ʶиӶεԼءڹѧ磬֪ʶΪоڽʮܹעҲǷѧҲ϶Pierre Bourdieu"˼ѧ"Reflexive Sociology1⡣й½ᄈƵ⣬ڷʡǵѧ״ṩһµҿǺĵҪڡҪ漰⣨ԹΪWhat, Why and How˼ѧ״ʲô˵ǵ⣨What֢ڣWhyӦθƺͽHowҽȶߵҪ۵ۣԶԸչһķڴںߣϣΪƽһ۾΢֮ һ ʲô"ĵʵ"

ȣڶ20йѧ˼״Ļع˷Уߵۻʧ֮֮ԵٵĶڹ20ڣйѧ400Ҫ˼ȷѣٶȡں￴һδ""Ŀ񻶽֮УDZۺ͸ʢ磬ȴ"ա˼ʷʵ"ַ˼˷ȴ֮"ԵĴαѧ"ƣ"ӡ"ǣƺ鵽һ־ѰĿУҪôڴһ;ӭµ˷ܣҪôһ۳롣һʷͼҳһı ΪйѧҪ20ʱҰԻһѧ۵"ͼ"һŴĵͼϵ졢ãȻ޴һСĽչҲǶ˼Ͱ档ֻҪκһ20ǰѧͻڶԱз֣ʵĽǶȺͽо·ѾȡԹչ磬ȥȫȻİ"Ⱥ"ȷΪѧ̽ṫµ˼㣬Ѿ봫ý빫Ϊµ˵⣬һ̶ϸı˹ڵijЩͬģ̬߳ȡû�"ᄈĹϵ"ȵȹû缪ȵġĻĽ͡ķܣﱾ˵ƪ¼֣ܳҲȫһָ֡۵ȻҲܲ󵼣ʱʧ;ڷµĴ󣬺οĺѧҲȻѧһڴгɳ"յҵ"

йѧ紦صۼ״̬Ҳòһ"ʳ"Ľ׶Σпۼ""⡣ȻּڶԹȥ20֪ʶȫ湫ʵ"ʷ"ڽʾµĽ⡣һϣеͬСֻΪΪѧȥ20;ʧܣǡǡijɳ׼ﵽһԳĽ׶ΣʹԳΪһֵ۵""

ȷʵһת۵ϡھ˱ȻDZҪ"ʳ"Ľ׶֮DzܲʱˡһЩѧУر"й"ΪоУһص�"֢"DDпյĸ""Ӽʵʷľ⣻ߣþϣķʽӭ⣬ʹ"֤"һDZۻʳ֢DDܾ۵ʾȴδʡԤǰ֮Уäʽ"ʵ֤о"϶ָ"û۵ľоäĿģûооǿնġʮźǣ죬ռ֧λѧģʽǡǡǾоʹۼҵ'޶'֮ɭϵʵе໥ѽڡ"2йѧ"о"ģʽҲͬģǸΪصģ"ʮź"״״µ֪ʶûʹʱٵشȵõij뿪룬Ǻ˵"ĵʵ"

·ڣ

ʵ"ſЧؿ˷ĵʵ"

ǵõһȷĻش";֮һʷʵ"ΪγһҪн飬ɴʹʷʵ֮"һ̵Ť"ʵġĻͨŤụۺ͹�"еǶǵʷʵ"лǵ֪ʶ˼룬ʹоЧָӶγԵ֪ʶơû߶ضЩĴǣҪԸ£뱾ʷʵЧн飬н飨⣩ʧĿǰ֪ʶֱ׶˵ҪһϣȫͬߵĹ۵㣬ţҲ߳""ѧԵĹؼһԸⲹǣһܹΪнγʷʵ̻й֪ʶҲȫϣս䡢͸д۲ۺ͹ӶԱоѧס ǣʲôʷʵ⣨׼ڣоߺ֪Ƿǵʷʵоݺڣβܹ⣨;ΪΣǡǡЩؽڵϣƺɲꡣ

ȷ⣬ﻹǸһЩʾDDӦ⽫⼱ڷijһȳɵĹۿУҪϵؽ"ûԭʷ龳ȥ"źƴֹ�"νʵʷһǴ˴۵ĸ⡣"ʹ";"ʧ֮ͳ

Եظе˼άšһ棬"ۣ⣨н飩ʷʵ"ĻܣָԵͼӻĹһ棬ȱȷı׼оݺ;ķʹһԿڲڿշƺо߶ص""ƾ򡢶еԴزִܵ⣬ŷ򡣡3"""�"˼άڽűƣܹųĿԿռ䡣ǻֽţҲܻ谭ϣõģһĴ͸ͨ峺ķβܲڼϣḻIJβܲʧ֮ɬÿѧ߶òԵս

˵֪ʶҪʧû⣬ôĹؼ⡣ǣǶ;Ի򷽷ķͽ飬һֻʽ߼ȷۣǷԵν""͸"ԭ"";"ԭԣѧ缸ͬ⣬ֻ""ʷʵȱʷʵģ⡣߳˶Ҫǿ֮⣬ʲôµĶ

½ֹڴˣǿûиۼֵҪǣȻûи""ṩ˾Ÿ⣬ԴΪǵ"֢"ṩḻķ˼ʾܹ˽"Ϊʲôûܹ"whyǽ"β"howĻشʵԵĴٽµںṩʾ£Լ֪ʶеһڨDDѧое"ʶ"DDһͷ

Ծ⡾4

ҿĿǰ谭ѧоչҪ֮һʶߣȱ˼ԵԾ

ǰһλѧߵݽһʵؿоݽʼ˶۵ľ̬ȣΪԤᵼΪƫ˿͹оĶ׿ֳɵۣʵؿչľ鿼죬ȥʵ⡣Ǿһƺ˵ļ⡣

׿ۿԷеʶоǣûۺ͹Ԥ費κ⡣ָ뿪۵"͹"۲Ȼѧожܡʵϣ"ۡ͹۵ط"һ۵㱾ҪԤDDʶۿ͹壨epistemological objectivismֹ۵ѧߣѾо"Ĭ""ʶۿ͹"һɵģԤ裬ҶԼһ"Ĭ"˫ⲻǶ۵ľäĿ

ۿܻᵼʶƫֻͨԤԾ˼ſܱͿ˷ʵԵ׷ҲҪ�"Ծ"׿۲ܻá磬۲ϣ"öӿ"ӦȷʶԽӽѧķΪԤǰᡣһ﷽ʽIJΪԾʶһԤ裬ô۲߽ѭѧҪDDʶ""ּеĹڽ뾭ʱϾп֮ܵͬʱоҲѧ۶ѧоԽޣΪо׷ṩ˼ݡ

رһ۵ĺڲ֪֮"Ĭ"ۣ۵óڶԺЧ߽δֵķʡ�"ʳ֢""֢"иԵףһ֢ȴǹͬģǾо߶"ʶ"ɵڱЧӦȱֵķ˼ԾںоٵľŸУһЩdzDZȴɱΪʷʵԵĸɿ"Ŀ"մ"оɹ"ʵԺЧһҪԭʶ

磬ۼ""ʱָһƫĹι,"ϰڰҵľٶɵؽΪֱӵľȨ�"ҪΪĹо"ʵ"realpolitikۿԼϵϣÿƷϵı仯ʱǵרҺٴӻΪͻIJ·ʡʵε۹⣬Բ˵"ϰ"ά͵Чԡ1980ĩڹог˾ҪӰĽѧۣйѧ߻൱İ5"ֻԶ"Ȼָһռ""ûн""һ̬Ḷ̌ͺѰնԪĻ壨ȨߣἯţ˾ȵȣ""ĽƣҲԽĶԻ"սԻ"""֮䷴ҡڵסͬھӢڵϣȴоߵļֵȡҪʡ֮⣬ڽ""ڣδַʡģ"ṹ"ۿУʹɱΪͳƵ"ָ""""˰"""""ȵȣַѾڱΪ"ʵ"Ŀܣˣǵ"ֵ߼о"ȵҲͲܽоߵҰΪֵöԴ⡣

һ෴ӡ1954꣬IJ϶ӣΪ"Ӣ"ģߵʦѧԺҵͨѧְʸ֮ûѭʦķGeorges CanguilhemҲǸµʦȰڷѧоת򰢶ǿʼѧĹڶԿݶKabyle"ͥ"оУͼӦõʱеĽṹѧۣ϶ѡά-˹˹ĿΣоУҡֻΪŵĹ۵֮Уǽݶũͳṹһ֣ǿΣеߣֽʹʶṹ޷򵥵ĸ϶û׵طһԴ�""ķʽṹĸԭ"תƵ"ԼľоСԼ""ûṹе""ڲԵĸУжԲϵ"ƽ"ѧϰӦľһ"תƵ"IJԸжߵʵԣʵֲģΪ뾳ܵṹصӰ졣Ӱ첻ǾԵģṹ""ԵġԵġ6ȻDz϶ڵĹѾֳ뾭μַ˼ԵԾ

ۺ͹޷ԽĵƽߣҪ"ʷʵ"Ȳ""ۣҲ""ۡôķ־Կܣ

ڴˣͼһн⣺Է˼ָµ루ʷʵģķγһһ""һֶز֮Ľųͻ״̬˼ԵԾ"Բ˵"ʽɵ"ͽ"ӱܣҪءؽֽУּԤֳ""¶߽ʧЧä""ǢԱµ֮УԤڸǡڱλŤģʷʵ""³ֽͻر壬⵮ĸ塣۽ʱ̣УǼij۸еḶ́Ϊķṩ޴ĿܡȻⲢΨһġͬһо󣬴ŲͬѾشĺδ⡣һоݱ׼뾭СڲͳͻУ"ûҪϵ"

˼ԵԾҪо߲۾пҰ⣬Ҷ۵Դᄈݱʷ"ϵѧ"Եİաſ뾭бк;ſԲͬᄈеľԵطۡԵۡѰĽУڸּ۵ıȽ"ѡȡ"һָµĻƵۿܣڲͳ֮УԴԵ"תƵ"ȷʽγµĸ·ѰµIJ͡˼ԵԾоڲ""оʵлõһ˼άƷһֶԲ˵ͽӱܵ"ϰ"Ŀ˷ȱʧ˼άƷǺѵִķ

ģ

źǣ˶ʮ"ۿ"йѧ˼ȻȱĨDDΪ˼άƷЧоʽĨDDʶĹϰǸѧߵ⣬Ǵ"ѧ"ĹͬäȻ⻹ҪԵڶ֮һ֪ʶиӵĻƣԼԵģѧĻƶȡƶȡʵѡλƵȵȡ϶ѧĸͼ֪ʶ�"ʶ"Ϊ˼еĶ󡣿˷Щ谭Ч֪ʶأ޷ѧߵŬɣһԵҵԸɺǺۣܹٳйķ˼ѧ

ע͡
1ڷ˼ѧۣɲοһΪͨ׶׼ȷIJͶPierre Bourdieu and Loic J. D. Wacquant, An Invitation to Reflexive Sociology (Cambridge: Polity Press, 1992)ⱾѾһ൱õ뱾ʵ뷴˼DD˼ѧ 룬1998棩
2ԡʵ뷴˼DD˼ѧҳ214Ҳɴ˿ɼѽⲢйѧС
3˼άĽųйѧߡرdzѧרҵѵѧߵ˵ͬʱܵѧԴӰĽ
4µҪһ޶ԾѧƲ"˼ѧ"ƫȫΣաרҵ֪ʶѧеѧ߼ѧѧȾоDZʷʵֱӵĹϵȻЩרҵĻֺñѧĽṹҲҪʡ⣩ˣҽ۵ķΧ޶"й"ΪоѧҪ漰ѧʷо
51992David CampbellڷWriting Security: United States Foreign Policy and the Politics of identity (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota, 1992)ǽѧһԵо
6μLouis Pinto, "Theory in Practice", in Bourdieu: A Critical Reader, edited by Richard Schusterman (Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, 1999), pp. 94-112.



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