ΩԸƽˮʹ罭ϣ
et revelabitur quasi aqua iudicium et iustitia quasi torrens fortis



ڽ벼ʲ塪ʲעڽɡĶ

ս6011λͳ֮£ĿǰεΡʲͳ˵ǶڽΪעǿһλڵ̸ʲʱܲڽĸ߶ȹעڽϵǿӲ[ѧΪ塱͡ȷˡDzʲһڵġʲ塱 ͡ǡ²ʲ塱Ҫ첼ʲڽ̬ȣԲʲͳͳơʲ塱]
2001겼ʲһͳְݽ, Ϊϵ۰Լδǣϵ۸һеǰ2003겼ʲÿ116Ϊڽ[䱳ݵ1786 116ոڽɷĵ]ʲڹ˵ףеڽʱʶϻкܶ޷ɡȫÿһ˶ӵȨͱPʵȨڽ¶ڽȺشǵѣó׻ΪʵһȨؽŬֻҪͬĺڽɣǿԸǵδ2006116ղʲ꣺ǼŬڽӲκڽɵȨΪ죬ȫƽڽɡκεطڽ̵Ⱥ
ʲΪǿڽɡڽɡԲʲζʲôڶӦοʲԡڽɡĸ߶ȹעҪ׼ȷش⣬ͱԲʲǿڽɵԭһȫĿ, ˽ⲼʲĻ۲⽻ߵһȱٵӽǡ
Ǵ߸з
һʷԨԴ
ûй̣ڽʼʷĽ̽ؽ֯һ𣬶ΡɡĻ⽻ȸ淢ž޴Ӱ졣ʷԨԴϽڽһͳڵͽƯֳ½һĿ, ϣӢ̵ڽȺԼ־ɵŷԼڽ̣ǿҵڽ̼飬ԡϵѡ񡱵ݿʼڱֳʵڽʵ顣DzǾ񣬡Ȳ뿪Ըֵλп±ơ뿪ʵļ԰dz㴿֪ҪǸԸֿѣȥʹһʤһȺڽڽ½Ѱʵڽġ
ǣЩڵͽҪ˶ǵܹݣȴܿݱ˵ڽűֳᾭõķչ, ʶ̷롢ڽ̿ʵг׵ڽɵҪԡ1663޵õڶ¹涨Ƿĵơһٵܹţά֡ڽϵijɡ 1786, ͨˡڽɷ1791, ܷ1ȷ̷ڽɵԭ򡣴ӴˣڽȴڽΡ̻Լڽڲijͻ
ѧпάڿд, ȫͬɷֽϵIJ, ֳɷڱǻųģȴ˴ں, ҽϵ÷dz֮á˵ֳɷ, ָڽ̾ɾ񡱡 ѧ᲼˵׵ĹңҲڽǿĹҡ ѧ¡Ŧ˹˵һʵǣԼĸУǴǻͽǺǻͽΪĵ»̵̫¡顱һص㡣
һ֡顱ʷͳڽΪһֻ, Ѿֲ˵˼֮, ˺Ϊ̵Ӱ졣ڽֱӲΣȴǹλҪIJ֡ڴһǿڽ̻ŵظֱɵγԼļֵۺڿԼⲿʱŻһġʹСһֻڽ̵µ壬Լǡѡϵıѡ񡱣ġ츳ʹʹšԼνɴȫ硱ʲڽ黳ij̶ֳڽ̴ͳĵ֡
һص㡣пάڿָ֮ƶ£Ϊ˷ַֹܵڲȨ⣬һԾġġǿᣨаֶڽ֯ڷֹר֡ƶȺͱDZزٵġҿ,ֵӵľڸԸġе»ϡϵصǸԸ¹ֵۡ۵ͬԣΪĿķҲΪҵġӮĿġΪʱңijɹΪ걸Ρơг֮⣬һҪؾе׿гЧᡣУڽͽɵڽеһҪأɺάлҪأڽܲɷֵĶعϵ
ΪάתĻ֤Ҫгֵɣڽɲζžϵɣұɡܱ֤ڽʵɡˣڽɾͳΪһȨɡᷢչ̶ȵأжشڽţڽԼڽɳ̶Σʵطӳһ뷨ִеĹȣӳһйȨɵķ̶ȣҲǺҪءˣлԾŴעڽɵ֯NGOΪǿԺѹţԱ˵ڽϱֶͳѹ[֥Ӹһ丣֯һ13ɵڽίԱᣬίԱĹ͹ᷴӳ11517ǧͽĺ]
ԴˣӢһıúĽ˿ȸcanary in a coal mine[17Ӣ˽˿ȸŵĿ˿ȸˣʾĿѴﵽжˮƽ]ڵĿУڽǼ뷨ƵһġúĽ˿ȸش󣬶ҶԺųƴͬˡʲˡúĽ˿ȸ ڽ116յڽɱʮȨĵһɺͽɵġһɡڽ軨иأԱǿDZطκַڽɵʲ˳Ӧͷиٹ̵׷άɣ֡

ѡ־뾺ѡ
ʵνȨȨ˾벻ѡ벻ѡ١ͳԱݼطԱ˾ijԱ϶õѡϿɡ͡Ա޲ȡѡ֧֣Ա̶ͨ⡢ӳȡѡƱѡײ㡢IJͬڲͬ漯ţע⡢Ҫܲͬ໥ͻġ治ͬҪͬڶѡ˭Ҫ뵱ѡ볬Խ磬
һ£ϣѡ˵ѡʲôĹ۵㡢ӭϴѡҪһ临ӡѵ顣ֱھѡץסֳԽַ⣬޶ȵطӳ⡣˿90%ϵϵۣڽᡣܷץסϰյǾѡɰܵĹؼѡڽܵ˵һȫġԽ塢ײ㡢漯ŵȲһǵIJԡ
ֶԾѡԵĿǣӵطԱԱͳھѡк͵ѡῼѡڽϵĸ飬ѡڽⷽ棬ԱıΪԡڹԱֻʮּңΪ˵ѡΪΣԱԶЩܹȡúӭѡбȻڽ֧֡
Ȩ໥ԼȨڣԱڽϵֻ̬԰׹ͳΪҪӰ졣ʵڽһԵõֵ֧⣬ͳϷͻ᱾ҲϷ硣ѡƶʹٽڽɳΪȡѡһ־òIJԣʹսڽɵͻͳ޷ڡ
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һ棬ͨѡ˵ҪԱʱ漰ĸµĹΡáսԿǼDzܵģǹ۲ڹڽϵȴһס顣30ڽ֯ڽ֯ںдԱֵ̻֧ĺ⴫ԱذѺijڽ̷ڵⷴؼĽ̻ʱ̻֯ijԱѡݶѡĹԱעڽɵǿҪԴڻѡͨŴ󵽴ͳĶУΪעڽɵԭĹѡƶֹעڽԭDzʧġ ġƶȻ
2080ڽ̱빲͵ϵˡ1993꣬ڽ͵˵Ŭ£ͨˡ1993ڽɻָ(The Religious Freedom Restoration Act of 1993)ּԷʽǿڽɵҪԡ÷1997걻߷ԺΪΥܡ
ˣⲢû˿ڱڽĹע෴սֵĽ壬سڱѹֺڸǵڽʶԸ塢ڽìԽԽΪӰȫƽӰεһҪ1998꣬ѧѶ͢ٷݽָ鼰ڽ̸ʹڽȺڽɳΪҪ⡭ڽѾΪ͹εһDZء ͢Ϊ, ػֹû̫塣෴ڽֹҪҵȨϷԺڽϵڽڽȺ⽫ͻijЩʿҲʾᷴԹϵڽȺţ⽻ߺĹϵӦúڽһһ¡ ¶1997ᱨָڽʷݣΪǹԴ֮ͱѡձɵԭɵվһߣϵѡҰڷڽȺעڽγ˹ʶ
ǣ⽻𽥼Ӵ˶ڽӣڹٷļ˶ԡڽȺٽڽɡǿ³̨ˡ1998ڽɷIRFA1998꣬÷ԺһͨɿֶͳǩʽЧǩ˸÷֮󣬿ֶ˵ҵѾڽΪ⽻ߵһҪء
IRFAһ(1) ڹԺܹڽɵѲشʹ ڽɰ칫ҡ(2) ġڽίԱᡱعڽɣƶѯ档(3) ڽίԱᡱΥڽɵ״ύȱ߽顣(4) ҪԺ͹ڽύȱ棬Ӧȡʩ顣(5) ҪͳΥڽɵĹҲȡͬʩ⽻ͷƲáȡȫȣֹͣڽȺ(6) ҪṩԮչʹ㲥ʽĿʱȴٽڽʵ(7) Ҫͳÿ91ǰرΥڽɵĹƲôʩ
IRFAΪͨһҪɣעĿطӳڽĸ߶ӣʹڽڲ⽻ֱӹҹΪȨһ棬ΪԺճһݡҲ˵ڽɳӰ⽻ߵĴ⣬ѳΪ⽻Ŀһ֣ӴˣڽɵĹעƶȻİţٽڽɽΪij־Թ
ʲͳʱ IRFAѵõ׼ʼʵʩʼ IRFAЧȴڲʲڡʲǿڽɲǴ£IRFAΪʲṩǰδеĹעڽɵʲҲܺõIRFAΪִ⽻Ŀ˳Ϳǿڽɫʡ

塢ݸ뱣
1960Լѷġΰᡱʹ1930ʼ˹ΪĽﵽ߷塣1933굽196936䣬º͵Ĺ͵˰ɭִ8֮⣬׹ȫ֮СҲɴ˹ɵӢº͸ᡣ
ѡȨʵԼִڴýķչıϰյβ룬Ҳոıִεʽȥ֪ʶӢֱ׳Ϊûײԡ㲥ռ֮Щǰٽεƽײ㿪ʼֱӷͶԹȥǴԾӵ֪ʶӢս1960֪ʶӢջֵijͻռһʮIJݸѡ
ηʼ1964ѡǽȨһĽڵȷģҪȴǰ˵һȨЩʶǿң԰ΪΩһʱƶ͸ˡİߣ͵Ա»غͱɾѣȴΪ͵ͳѡˡ»δѡͳȴ߸˹͵ӢڵڵͳΣΪ춨˻ڵݣϲʲս˱ԱϲʲΪͳø»ص˼Сʲ
Ļʼ1970ɽ˶ĸԽźȨ˶ⳡ˶Ȼչһ߷壬ȴ֪ʶӢ̴ֻͳֵ۵İƽڵķѡڴýι֮ʱ˴ͳڽ̵Сǰ²еӰ죬ɥʧ᲻ͬ漯Ź˵ĵλ֪ʶӢһзͳĶɽʱеͬʱϰȴΪջȨ߸ϡԶʵʵ֪ʶӢԿѧ壬̤ǵĴͳ׼¢ֵĽȨСļͥ壬ԼʧȥĿơӵԽԽ෢Ȩ֪ʶ⡢Ǿǵдͳֵ۵˸еԼǰδеΣս̥ͬΪյߵİ˲ݸǿҷ
͵ͱʱϣع鴫ͳڽΪмᣬڽĶݸɱɳ֮ΪĬĴʱΪŭİˡʲʱ򱻳Ϊѡ񡣳ƺı仯ʾڽӰ
2060Ļɶͳֵµĺж꣬Ѿǿڽ̱ܡ2004ѡ٣ʹеڽ黳밮屻һֱͼڽ̸˵ڽпѡĹ͵صһճɾ˹͵Ͳʲ̴ͳֵᵽҪĵλڽ͵¼ֵ۳ΪѡעҪ⡣˼תĴ󱳾ڽ̨̱֧IJʲǿڽֵ̼ǿҹעڽɣ˵ǶԹȨıһҪġȻĽرڽͬˣҲֲ֧ʲһءһΣʲ߼ý϶һλΪɵļ˵DzǾòʲǸɵϣ㲻÷ϣôΪģҸ㣺ǸںǵĸЩڿҹǡDzŦԼʱʢʱɼʱǵǶһϲϲ·ӡơšǹôʵĴͽIJʱȴϲǡݸ߼ǣ֪˵ЩݵĶˣҲ֪ǰǿ޲ɼǾDzǵˡصĻͽԲʲӰȫڽҲϲɡһͽԣֻʧҵϵҲͳΪʲһҪ׶ΡʵϣʲڴǰȥѯԼĸסΩһսͳҪʾߵȨϵۡýΪšĻͽ˵Ǵ͹Ļʽϵ۵ƣǵΪȡڶʵԵķȡϵ۸ǵָʾ


ʲڽ벼ʲ˹˵ڽеĹϵʲ׳ɳڻ̼ͥʱڽ̫Ȥ2070-80ڵÿ˹ݿսŰܺʼơ1985꣬ʦһΡıij̸ת۵㡣˺󣬲ʲ˽ܲμ120֮ڵĵ¿˹׵ʥϰ࣬ ʼڰ˹͡μľۻᡣ80ĩǰѾȫȻͬˡת䲢ijĽܵ˸һĺ١2000ͳѡУʲʹˡborn againԼı仯ҮջԼݵѧҺ˼ңԸıǵ顣
ѧ߱ޡϸ۲ʲĻʱ˵μҵձܵɵĵԺŵ˵ʲָ롣ѡͳǰļ־÷ܶһ׻ʫĿʫǿͽҪҵԸ£ĺȥɾʹ¡ʲһҵԼ꣬Դ˻͵һͻ͹ĵÿ˹ð칫ҵǽϡʲҲֶϵ۵ְ׹Բΰ칫ҡ׹ĵһ쿪ʼÿ糿͹µ档ÿڸҲԵ濪ʼÿĺܶ12㵽1㣬׹ŵԱеͲ龭ۻᡣȻʲ˲μӣȻ֧ЩۻġлЩΪˣڽһϯ֮ءʲִ̨бޡѷ֮Լڽ̱ͳʲڽڱصĻ̸ɣӮ˻̱ɵļᶨ֧֡ʲ˵The president of the United States' job is to set an example, to make sound decisions, to respect religion, and, if asked, to herald religion. But the key is not to hold out, you know, my religion is better than yours. )
˹ΪʲҪĺ쵼֮һ⽻ߵҪƶߣҲϵǿҵڽ黳˹Ϸdzϻʦѧʱع̻ᴫͳĸ˼Ȼ˹ûй͹ʥӰ⽻ǰе档2005˹ʾڽɺȨĻҪء
˹ͲʲмǿڽǹִͬҲżȻԣǸ˵ڽȻԲʲκηڽԵӡʲٹĸΣսʱְڽɷȿǵλãͼڹǿСƹͲΪˡ

ߡҰȫ뷴ֶ
911ʹĹҰȫսĿ귢˸ת䣬Ҳʹʲ⽻˼·ȫ뿪׷Ȩƽʵ塣ʹϵĿˣѵı׼ҲˣֲͷŵˡʲΪǶʷʮȷǾǻӦа硣ֲͼ磬Ŀڽǵǿˡǵɣǵڽɡɺѡɡϵⳡ־壬аĶвᱣ
ʲڽΪֲ֮һɴˣڽֲ塢ɵԭ򡱡άĶ˹Ȼصõ˲ʲĸ߶ӡ
ʲ֮ԻһΪʲ̸ʿԡ911Ϊ־ĿֲϮһǿҶʮָӵġ޷ڽ⡣ڲʲͻ̱˵911ǡķҲգˡҲգIJǵijˡ֯ңһΣյġаʷ˹̳ͻڽļǶΪĻսһӻ̡ϻֵ̼˹ԭּضԸַʽΪСʲڡ911֮󷢱Ľʹáʮ־˵Ϯ¼ʵͶ˹ֲ̿ķŭԴ˼ԻͽΪĴڵİ顣ܰ׹󷢱IJʲȡʣֻDzʲġ ΣԴȫֲΪĽ⽻߱ŴͳĻ̡˹̳ͻڽᡣ
Ȼ˹磬ġ˹ͽ˿ڶ࣬漰ң临ӡͬ˹̹ңĹϵȴͬΪڰ˹̹ȡ֧֣ʵĿǣֲֻ塱ڽֲ̿塱ᷴ˹̡ͬʱķֶʵرǰսսʹʲʶʹþ¡õӲʵֶζԸ˹ԭּʹֲ塱ͬʱȡĻȷǾµֶΣȫ淢ʵáⷽ棬ᳫڽɡɾٽڽ̶Ԫ˹ͽΪĹ˵Ȼ˹ԭּ壨ڽ̼壩ֻ߽˹ԭּڽ̼ʶ̬ЧˣԲʲȫԸеġԴ˹ԭּΪĵķֶԣᳫڽɾĺ塣

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ͨԿʲעڽɣʮָӡ̵ġ෽ԭ򣨱ķʷᡢΡƶȡĻ˼߸أЩȻЩֻͳ˵ķ仯йأЩⲿصӰ죬ijЩɫʻ׶Եص㣬Ͼ仯Ƕ
ʲǿڽɣȻصʱΪһȶΪͳڽĹעdzڵģϲͳֻӰ죨ڳ̶Ⱥͱʽϻͬԭⲿڲϲڻ㡣һ仰Ĺ鼰ƶȾġ
ĶУ˵ͳϲڹСáڽﵽijĿģ˵ڹϹעڽ⣬ͳ˭ĸ޷ڹεҪ޷עڽ󣬹ִλʵʡ

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