ΩԸƽˮʹ罭ϣ
et revelabitur quasi aqua iudicium et iustitia quasi torrens fortis





ɣ

תԾŶվ

һй˼봫ͳһǡһǡߣĴͳ֮Ҳ

й

νй⣬ָڽһٶйǧδ֮ǣ浽ش⡣һ֣йζȫת͡漰Ҫζϲļֵתͺζ²ƶת͡ȻһٶѾȥˣйĿǰתȻصϰڼֵ棬ȨƲȨȨƽȨȻȨΪĵֵʼûеõͳԴ֧֡ˣӳҰijЩͳֵֵٳٲйеĻͳֵйٳٲĻȷֵȷƶ߲棬ΪֵƶƶҲȷƶȵеļֵԡŷʲôļֵ۾ѡʲôƶȡڼֵȱֵ֧£ѰƶȲͻƣУ·;֪֮תܵĹע̶ҲֺܴIJ죬ƶתܵĹעֵܶ࣬תܵĹע٣ ԣֵϵͳתǧδֵ֮һҪɲ֡һת͵ıҪԣĻߺȨֱ̬߳⣬й㷺ĹʶĽ㣬ѾҪҪתͣתͣο⡢ϱͳֵתͲǰȫȫ渴йͳһ֧һѰйijЩԴֵʱлϡΪһת͵ij·йġ[i]˼ŵΪֵĽϣ塣֮һǷȥϵĻѰȨ뱾ͳĽϵ㡣

ΪʲôҪԴ

ֵƶǽһijֵ֮ϵġйسֵѧϵϵһ֡๲еɴͳ벻صѧ֧šֵ֮ƶȵ߲ϵijֵۣǵĸԾ֤ӢŵΪͳУֵ͹ԶԵصıֵǾ̫̣ԼбȻͳûִͳԴֵƶͲܾò˥ּᡣ

й˼ηУӽй˼˷ᶼʹȨȨȨƽȨȨƲȨ츳ȨɡɡɵȱΪֵĸʹߵij޳ɻǷԡЩйֵĸԴֵϵҪɲ֡й˵ЩֵIJ֮ˣеһֻϱ֤дʱڵйܷΪ޲׼Ļ1975ܷ[ii]ȻһȴʼûеõشΪʲôԴļֵһҪдйܷûд𰸣ֵƶڴйһٶ֮Ȼû޳ɡǽһѾأʵ벻ЩġֵǵͳûΪЩֵƶ巢š֤ͨ

ΪʲôֵбͳгԴ֧ţΪû֧ţֵƶ͵òֵͬƶйʵ벻йij鴫ͳ֧֡ǣйͳԴδֵܸƶйʵṩϵԴȪֵûתй˵ıйǶйͳԴܷΪֵƶṩһֱϲѡйδйǷҪʵΪͬͳֵƶɹ㷺Ĺʶ˶ԴͳǶҴͳѾں̶ܴϷӳһ㡣ȻǶԴͳ̬ΣûбĴͳԴ֧ԮֵƶԴIJϵõڷͬ׷ƶȾ޷йš

˰Ѷֵij֧ŵϣйĻ̻ϡǣɻ̼ȻΪֵƶṩ֧šѻ̱йıԴôֵƶ岻ͻԱij֧Ӧdzġǻݻйͳָտɴ顣԰ϣȫйĻDz̫ʵģοйķչƺϰ

һ棬йһƾĻͳĴȫԼĻͳȫƾĻͳΪֵṩ֧֡˿ܻ˵ձӡȵȵûнijԴҲɹʵֵƶȣҲǴҲĻͳйΪʲôˣΪйӡȲ֮ͬڣӡй൱һʱӢֳͳйûһͳձڵڶսսܣʹ½ֵʵйûľҲδĿܡձӡȡĹҶдֲĻĴͳԣйΪЩһĴֻӢһĴͳԴѰҳ·ĴͳйʵֵƶشԣǹĴͳֵʿܺӵ⡣

ԴѰ

ȻֵƶйʵйѧԴ֧֣ôԴйͳܹݻһɵıͳԻΪڵĻ˼רǼݵģҶΪdzƽȣ֧ġ̴ӼרƵ֧ƽȺһڵݻ̡ڻ̵ľлʷ϶ҵΥֵĶdzɹشӻ̴ͳݻֵ֧ƶijԣǻ̲ר죬ҳΪƽȺҳϵİ¡[iii]Ȼڵйͳûݻһʮ׺ɵĴͳһ״ʹúܶ˶԰ҴͳڵйͳеdzʧdzɥȻδܴҴͳпֵĻӦڴйͳзֲļֵԴȪȥδ鲻δһ棬ݻṩһɹҾнĵ䷶ΪԻΪĻͳɹΪֵʵṩϵԴȪ

еչйͳݻɵĴͳΪֵƶйʵṩȫܵġɡƽȡֵ˵Ĺͬ׷й˶ɡƽȡ׷󣬲ܲйĴͳŲֻҪԵձԣֻͬͬҪŷΪ๲ֵֻͬҪйһɣ岢Ϊ֮ŬŬһйĴͳ»Ųй׷ɣ·dzۡ۲˵й˲ɣֻ˵й˸ҪɡһڻĮе˿ܳʱûеõˮDzܾʹ˶϶ˮû ˵йͳпݻ֧ɵ´ͳ˵ݻĹУҪѧϰеɵĴͳΪ⣬ɵ׷ҲȻҪڴͳӡǺͳɹЩɹŲһ𹹳ȫɵĴͳȻйĴͳDzģҡҡҡīҡⲻǶԹĻͳIJţͽɵĴͳɴͳIJɻȱһйˣӢҲˡ֪ʹǻҲԴӢȹǺȴӢҪĴͳԣйĴͳɴͳţɵĴͳйĹдͳпӢȹݻɴͱɵĴͳ Ҫָǣ˵ͳݻɵĴͳǰ˵йκһִͳжͬݻ̺ḻֵɴͳ漰ο̽йͳ׺ֵijԴʱһӾйͳij֧ijɣȻִһˣ๥ڦͳ֧ٱǷյġһɲġ˴˲ܲġѴͳǿŵġݽġġҹעΪһйͳЩܹΪҸͬܵ˼ԴζŴͳһɲģʷʲôͳļ̳кתǸ߶ѡԵġͳѡͼ̳ݻġͳݻеõ£ڱԭԵͬʱµҪأγµĴͳȥδҲؼѡʲôʲôݻ[iv]һ棬ԭκδͳǿݻֵ⺭Щ׺ֵĴͳݻֵıԴԣйͳʵIJ֣ɴͳԴԵתȫпݻֵıԴ һ棬ֵ棬һԴڱij鴫ͳ̼еĸ߼Ȼۣƽȣһճľ飬籣ֲƲȨԴҶкôĶǿԹģ࣬𡣵DZij鴫ͳȴǶصģ˺һˣԾͬ⣬йıԴɵĴͳͬѰйֵ֧ƶijԴôδйıͳҳҪҵijԴأ ΪˣҪһб׼ԴҵĶǷϺǵҪҿһͳҪܹΪֵṩ֧ţһִͳԴҵѴڵģұǻģձӰĴͳִͳ걸ӱ۵ѧѧѧ˼ϵִͳ븻ɡǿȨ̺ḻֵӡ

ϺģйֻѡҺ͵ҡīҡûձӰ졣˼ȻӰûѧ˼ȻҲһЩƳ磬ŷרǿȨ˵ļֵϡҺ͵ҶȫԵļֵϵͳкܴӰұȵҵӰ󣬵ұܹṩֵ֧ԴһǵҶԶԵΪֵṩԴΡΪɵġ˼ʵıѡߡйͳϵͳеŦΪһй˼봫ͳһǡһǡߣĴͳ֮Ҳ йӿġ˼DZͳһŲΪԽټ˼ܵйͳ˼ΪҸͬ˼봫ͳܷǡĪȻ˴˸ŻӺͿڶԡϺͨ[v]йĴͳңĻһۿȥֵô롢ͻҲһֵӡлĻͳ²ͬķ֧ͳУйƽȵֵеֻǶ֮𣬶һ޵⡣

Ȼ

ʷϣÿĴͳעijζϵ淨淨һЩҪڽ̺ѧϵĹͬ磬ԴӡȵķСĦDharmaȻ͵·ڵ淨򣩣̫̺ͻ̵ĴͳȻnatural lawڵҺѧСTao the Way of HeavenȻͳж֧иֵṩǿ֧ŵǻ̵Ȼ˼롣˵ȻҪ̵ָȻ

ȻһֳǶճ顣dzԽģʱΪġڻ̵ĴͳУϵȻԴȻǹȨԴȻDZϵ֮ϵһֵ㷨Ȼѧ˵϶ȻƶijķΪȻձ顢㷨Ȼһֹһ׷ɻԭ򣬶һļֵϵȻһ׺ϺձġõĿ͹ԷԭdzԽƶȺʵڷڵġЩ෢ģǷֵġֻ˳ӦȻԵȻDzȻ

Ȼ츳ȨȨDzɷָöɡɰġΪ˱츳ȨȨƺԼзȨƺ⡣磬Ŀף1776꡶ԡʼģΪDzԶģƽȣijЩתõȨаȨȨ׷ҸȨΪ˱ЩȨǽϽͬκʽһƻЩĿ꣬Ȩȥıϳһµ Ȼ˵ȨռԴȪȻֿ϶˵ĶڵĵλȻֹ涨֮Уȫ˵ά˵ĸֱܺάȻϵ۵ԸһµġȻĸǶ˵ءΪ㣬Ϊָ[vi]

йʷȻûռλȻ˼ϵ˼Ȼ˼ѿй˼̵ȻͳΪϣŸĹ֮ͨй˼ȻԣѾѧע⵽ѧΪԡȷеľǡȻ[vii] ִʦΪӵ͡ѧȻ[viii]ѧҲ֣й˵ġ˼ȻͳDZȽƵģǶijֳļֵΪºεԴܹȷԼԭһע⵽йг֮άѷЩߣĻ죬йȱһЩζϱǻ̡˼ϣȻƵһΪṩյĺϷԣˡڶζһָƶ;ȨԼһֳۡģijһۡΪ֧ԣûȷɵݡȻȨΪĹҹۣȴǷdzƵġ[ix]

ȷӶѧȻǷdzƵġȻ֮Ĺϵ¾Ŀǣ˷أط죬취Ȼ[x]ѾȻӵ˵ѧ˵ķʱڡ޴С΢ʱϣģռϣ޵ġţӡȸй޷յġ[xi]Ϣ󣬶Ск㣬вֹ[xii]ﶼȻ֮ķУ־[xiii]dzġζϵģνζν֮[xiv]ձõķȻᶼѲ֧䡣[xv]

ѭĵ·ǹɡǹ淶塣˵˵˵˵һ֡һ˵־־ΪתƵԼ˵Ϊ˵¹ɣ˵Ӧ˳Ӧ˼һԽĽޡ಻ԽƾIJ˵Χڹ˵ɼȻnatural law

ӵġ̵ġȻй֮ͨ

һǶǹڹɵġ磺Ȼ磬ˮʹУȨҪܵġ

ڶǶǹڼֵġ磬ӦɵģӦƽȵģƲȨӦõõءЩйĻͳҲѾá˵󲻳ɷޡ˵ǿƵֶ飬DzкýġУйáǿŤĹϲǿȨɣdzҲкýɼȻĹɣǾй淶Եļֵ ǶձԡԺԡdzԽʵڵġǶǸ֮ϵĸ߼вԽijԽԡdzԽκ˵κֻ˳Ӧܸıġ

Ȼ䳬ԽȨ֮ϡ仰˵ȻǾƶģȨƶȻǿĻʵͬʹӶġȻйDZֵģDZƶġԡͳν׼־֡Щ˵ΥģҲΥȻġͳߵ־Ϊɣһַ˵ɣַ˵ϣַ˵Ȩ[xvi]

ǸȻɵһסĻֻ©κ޷ѡֻطӣԴԵãDzΥܳԽǸˣǹң˳Ӧ߲淴ͳ˵ĵĩձͳߴ캦Υ˻ĸԭ򣬾ͳԱȸߡ

йȻôܷȻһͳݻ֧ȨƶȹߣȻȻйıǴȻģԴܺ϶Ϊһ

ν壬ָй˼ŵ˼ϵںϹγɵһй˼롣Ǵзɵӣùŵ⡢˼룬ͨʹݻйɴͳΪֵйṩ˼߼߼ȫһµġ˼ļֵָļֵָ¹ӦָģĵǣףʹҸǣ˵ΪȡڡȻԺԷԣȨսĻ[xvii]Щʹ

ΪԼĸͼֵԴȪǹĸݡݡ[xviii]īӾʹпȻƵĶ ֮й˽ʩ£ö˥ʥ֮ΪΪض죬֮Ϊֹ֮޴С֮Ҳ׳֮ҲԻߣظ֮ߣػ֮[xix]ɼйͳ˼Ҳ̺Ľۣ֮໥ƽȣDZ˴֮Ӧ˵IJƲȨȨȨһƶȰţӦÿ˵Ϊ͹ޡÿһ˶صԺȨ¾ÿһԼıԣͨ˳Ӧɡ²뿪ܱߵĵ¾˳Ӧ ڻ̴ͳУȻ˸ϵۣйġ˸޹ءйͳе˼룬Ȼ߻νA򡱡˸񻯣ôϵۡй˳ԴȻġȻȨnatural rightsΪ츳Ȩеġ츳йͳĸջ̵Ľ壬˵ȨȻȨϵ۴ġˣ˵ȨҲϵۡݻȻ˵ĸȨӦǡ񣩸Ȩйͳ˵ĸȨġ츳Ȩйڷ̵ġ츳ȨʱѾйıͳԴýȥˡ Ȼ˵ȨȨƲȨṩ˳ԽκʵڷζϵijݡһеĹ۵ΪȻ̹ҶеĻͳйûȻĴͳȻйûиеòͬǣָġȻйıĻȻĹʮƵȴй֪ʶӺмٹ̡ȻһΪ˵ȨȨƲȨṩռı绤ÿй˶ͬһɱԽݡھ仰ںǻеõʲôأǷ֣йһȨͲƲȨһΪȨͲƲȨκķɲַκǿȨܰ츳ȨɱַȨԽַƲȨȨģġȨҲȨͲƲȨġֺȫֺ˲ƲҲȻֺ˵ɡ϶˵IJƲȨȨҲͱȻҪȨûȨҲ޴ȨͲƲȨȨͲƲȨıһͬʵģ֮ƽȵġƽȨҲɴ˲Щ츳ȨһȨɺĻʯ[xx]κ׵ķɺ׵ȨزЩ츳Ȩ

ɼйҲûʽϵȻǣȻƵڵ˼֮УڳڴͨڵĴĻ֮С۵ôڻ֮ϻиߵǵȨ۶ôǿ󣬶DzܸıġȻ˼͹ȫһ¡й˵ĹΥ飬Υ㲻Υ캦й˵ĹгԽ߾֮ϵĶȻ֮йʼţ˼Ŷа񣬴ջع˼䣬¶ڡԵдģɦ׺죬ܻ˭ҲֹսЯ忭 ȻǷ񶨾ȨȨ񶨾Ȩ¢ȨЩйҲҵӦĶڽ죬ҲȻ˼ΪȨͲƲȨ绤磬±ʯͰǹٶһͰ[xxi]˾˼ӪʯͶ˵IJƲȨµأʯµʯͣүϵ۵ĶͣӦΪУఴĹԭʵйֲ̫ĵΪǵ֪ʶûǰɽ壬ɽ߻ʵԶȴе롰ʵۡȴԶ[xxii]ǡ족֮Ϊ֮Ȼֺ֮͡ƶķɼѭ֮˷˷˵Ϊ취ǡ캦ǡ޷족ͻ⡰˵ϰյΪϻԴġȻ塣ΪԲ֤,֮,֮Ȩ,ÿ˵ǡ춨֮[xxiii]

йϴһ˵ϵٲ,ȨʹǵȨʱٲ߸ȣй˸ϰյΪӡдֽϣȴÿ˵ͻʱǺԥȡֻƾеıǿѰ·ĺʹǽҸͶе ɵijͬʱҲǺһ׼κһ򶼽һֳļֵ֮ϣԻԻڣԻij޷ʵ֤ʷȻۡԷڡӦɱѡ񣬶ǷڱߵġԷĻ츳Ȩ Ρ˶ӣһԼֲõ֤һֳԸķӡǻڱߵԸͬͳӦ÷ĻԾӣΥʹרȨΪΪ

ΪȨĺϷṩֵ׼ԡ޵͡еΪȨԵı׼ӾͳͳߵұһȨǷ塣˵еƶҼɣҲ޵ҹɣҲ[xxiv]һڲĹ˴٣һǸ˲Υ顣ضμֵ͹淶Ȼһϱ޲񲻶ϷݻΥά塣ǡȻΪǷġеṩѧݡжı׼ڵƲɵķɲǺϺķɡ

˼ʵһ᳹һҪԵȨҪʵ˼룬Ϊͳλֻǡִ߶ǡֻǷġȨܵƵȣȨܵơͳ캦ΣΪ趨ĿġĿľDZϰյȨǵIJƲȨ෴ˣͳλһȨԼС޼ܵȨһᱻΥ

˵˳Ϊ˵еһΪתƣƣûԼĶһСȨ޵ķdzСӲҴꡢףأڰ֮ϣ֪֮ѡһϰη塢ꡢͱ[xxv]

ĹԻڡͱʵзΡ˼ľִķξȫһ¡УͲ˰ѹȨΪ˽УУͲͳ߰Լ־ɵķɣ֮ϡͳӦǰתɷɡͳ߲ΪԼںܣԼ˽˵⡣ͳſ˵ģǾضֵģ˽и

һѧĴڣÿ˶зֲĿܣκ˶ûȫׯӡҶţĹ£͵˵෢Ḷ́ѭΥĴۡţṹǹϵͳ־ҵģΪɵġҶţȥţǾͻӦ֡°빦Ҷţ͹ṹȥţͻ±룬ڣУ˼ţҶţ͹ṹҪҶڽţĹвϻۡţʶκ˵ĶеȨÿƽȵȨһЩ¢ȨƾǿȨԼȫʷɣԼ־ǷɣзȨȲڲҲɵ̽оڶֳ̽ġˣÿ̽ɱӽͰıҪÿˣȨƶѧʶûȨΪֵǿӸˡĽܺϿֻܳԸǰÿ˶޵ĴڣܶռķȨҲ¢ȨͬʱΪ˷˳ӦɡҪѡ١顢ɡɡ˼ɡɡɡ̽ɱƵԽ࣬õͱȻԽ١ΪԼΥĴиĴ۾Խ󣨴Ӵǧ˵Ĵ󼢻ľһ͵ӣ

˼һԸƲʷʵУ˼ֵɷٷ

⣺ĸ

ڽй̸ӵ˼ŵĹϵҲǸʵĻ⡣˿Ϊ˼˼֮ǣǿᡢ޻̸֮ȻȴձΪ˼Ϊӵġ¾йĻеҪ롶ʥĻеҪ൱¾dzй֪顣ӵ˼֮á֮㣬൱й˵

Ϲ̿֯ͳƣУַģˡʥ֮⣬ǡ¾¾ʷİ汾࣬ⷢй䡣ǧԵġ¾Ҳϴľ֮һGoogleվϣTaoism˼룬˼룩ȡnatural lawȻĿҪࡣйȡ¾Ӱں⣬¾ȡӰʵϣӵ˼벻й˵ľƸȫľƸ

ӵ˼ǹҵѧԴй㷺Ĺʶѧףֻ֣һǹɵѧһǹȨѧӵ˼й˼봫ͳеĹɵѧŸȨҺžȨķҲͬӵ˼ڰѸ˴һרȨ½ųˣӵ˼һרȨСӵΪţǸȨľʱ̶Ҷεǿ˵۹ȨǵĻϡ Щй˳̸ѧϰȽҹľ飬ǺʶҲѧϰйŴιҳɹ˶˼룬һҲܿõߵĸ߶ͬĹŵӺ˼ʮƳ磬˼Ϊ๲ͬɴͳһҪɲ֡˹͵Ϊϵһŵߡ[xxvi]ѧ߰ʿġŵ徫⡷һ飬ǹŵһˡӢĹŵ߷֣ӵ˼˼벻ıϡ[xxvii]

죬ڵȥ·ϱסд¡¾ĺȹ̫һѹǰͳɵ¡ĴƬƬ˵дǰͳ1987ӡ¾е䣺δСʡ[xxviii]Ƭڽһ仰ʱµġʮӵ˼롣Ҳ͵ıصĹŵ˼롣 δСʡ˵ʩӷֵι֮ 2001һ飬Ŀΰͳ֮һڶĸ߶ִɾǷֲġΣ֮䡣ʱھõԣڳɫǿк¼˥Թҵǰ;Ҳеʮ㯡ΪԱûд¾ҵľ飬ҲվľۣûıȻȴ漣ѸŤת˵ƣһȸߴλͨͣҲ˳սߵʡڹƾԼִŵʵȡʱ͵սʤʹ緶ΧڵļȨӪ߽⡣ ιϵijɾôأбΪ֮Tao of Reagan͸¶һЩ[xxix]̽ijɾ˼ĹΪǸˡȻһ׹ڸȨĿ͹͹ۼֵΪһежϵԴȪεץס˼룬ѧһ֮ϣܲɸıͳεġΪԡɲ츳ȨĿƪǣʧ޼۵IJƲ֮׵гļᶨʹΪ޲Ϊÿͨϵ֡DZܣΪ䷢Ӵ޶ȵҸͳߵĽϰնԾģӸͳߵĽÿ˶ԼġǰӵĽȥġ1976꣬μӾѡͳ˵ǿҪһǶԼĵ[xxx]ǿӦΪΪģûġ

Ϊܷǽֻϵġ־ǡۣǣ񡱣We the PeopleҲԡеҪĹؼʡ1984꣬ͳڷϺѧݽһͻӵ˼ĸʶÿŮŮٵϡƶǽڶÿ˵츳ͲŸɡÿȨӻ֮ϵġܷΪʲôرΪͳµġԷͳΪĿĵܷͳ쵼Ϊµܷ[xxxi]ͳ1987Ĺж˵ڱܷУôǵܷУôֻܷܰϹ涨ȥĸµͳȡɵͳߣǵĸȴΪˣΪˡ˵㡱[xxxii]

λ˼ӵ˼һСλϣйͳû˱Ӹס˵ΪԻҺþ¶Ըӡ [xxxiii]˵иӵһҡڵȨ֮⣬ʲôȨҲûС ˵ƣ񴾴죬ȱȱ[xxxiv] ֮,ʳ˰֮,Լ֮Σ֮ΪΡ[xxxv]˵ǽİ취⡣˵DzԼģ˵ľûΧǽĽûϰԼΧǽϰΧǽϰġ

ԱûܹߵȽûƾҲûְƣ֪ʶȲҲԨԾ͹εѧ֪ʶν֮١֪֮٣ɾ֪֮ʶɾͳɷȣΪʲôΪ֪ԼòҲȥԤijͳΪԼòҲֶȥܸԤúӵĻ˵Īɡ쵼DzãʹҲΪԼ֮ͬڴˣй˶Թ쵼Ҫ֮Ҳڴˡ ľ޴ɾǶѧ˵ʵֵһõ֤ͬʱҲ˵ӵ˼ǿʱģҲǿġͷǿǿ䷽ӵ˼ʾ䷽ƶ˼ȫһµġֻǻصƶȵĸӵѧƶȱļֵͻӵѧΥ֮ɼӵ˼Ľ˼ڸϲв㣡ǿǿ֮ƶ主ĸ֮ Ҳǻ޷˵ڶ̶ϡЩĹ۵ܵӵӰ죬ǿԿ϶ġһӵ˼ѾҰͬӵġڶѧִ뱣صĹŵ˼붼ȫͨġζţDzȥ׷Թŵ壬ӵ˼롣ӵ˼ΪڶĹŵŷ͡أǿԾݴΪӵ˼ڱŵһµġ Ӽ˼֤йƾõ֧ɵıͳΪǽһչ͹йɴͳʵйͳɴͳĽṩ˼ʵĻͳγɾʹ˼ӡǣйʷÿһʢӺľ֮ΡƵ֮ΡԪ֮޲ѧĹ͡ϸϸ䶦ʢʱڣΪι󶼡ûϣʾ[xxxvi]ϻѧ۸

ȽʷйIJǣ˼һµĹŵ֮ƶȵ裬תΪƣ߲żƫ룬Ҳ˹й˼ֻܱݱ֮ļȰ˼߲ͣ棨֮һתӵѧ㱻׵⡣ԣǿʢ˥йʷϵǿʢʱ꼻һ֡ؼҪһǷܰѧΪ߲꣬ļҩһĻйƶȱȷķ˼⣬ǽڣȴǽ⡣ڴţ˼ǽɢġӳ־õķҷ

йǰػ

ν֣Ǿƶߵ˾ͷǰ˶·ɹѡ񡣶Ŀǰⳡֵij·һλѧ߸Ľ飺йǰ̣ͨŷչӵ˼صɴͳλѧԣ¾й¡ӹΪ˼룬ǵ˹ܵһǵµģҲʵõģ˵ǵµģΪ»ϣ˵ʵõģΪܵ١ݻǹҮԷйij·ͨСҵĹģչгĹģ[xxxvii]Ϊ𰸾塣

ң壬Ϊ壿ҿָҽ̻Ϊᱳе塣עΰᡣһ棬ϸ;ʮоʱҶӵ˼Ӳ[xxxviii]һһֵָּΪҲΪֵṩ֧֡һֵָּΪֵṩѧݣйͳĻҸͬͬġΪ

彫й塣ǧ˼ϪӻƵйһ˼ȡɶԿǿȨĴͳжϡһͳļֵƶʩһֱ˼ǣӶضظҪΪΡׯӴʥ˲ֹԽ̶ȻԨԴƴӹĴ޾ĩĵĻݸǴ󵨵˵ʵ֮ۡҲ[xxxix]ԡ֮ȡġһ֮

ΪйԴͷֵԴִй˼߲ûȫӣdzdz漰ֻȱойһλϸԽ˼ʼй˼뷢ݵıԴϸӵ˼룺֮֮֮Ҳܡ'Ϊ޲Ϊ'ǿߣ֮Ҳ ι֮ɡԻι˳Ȼɣɶ桱[xl]й˼ʷռλãȫ̷񶨹йĴͳǶԻϵΪε˼ȴжӡԵ˼ĴƷӡоˡĹ塱͡塱˼롣ΪʵţʰѡӡȺγ͸ʯھ÷棬ʵ˼룬Ըָ˼СдˡΪκũȼáΪΡƪ£ͼõ˼ʱũ⡣[xli]ѧʯԪҲ֣ݵ˼ἰƺٵ彨ijЩƵĵط˼еһЩȻΪԻȣҲƺһЩͨĵط[xlii]

ʷκһΰ˼룬ǰʷܽᣬδķչܡһ˼롣ϸ90йʼˡ߶ѵΪҪıԴϸ;ʮдɵġ͡һΪһʷͳлۡľijҲǻ˶µҷ֣϶Ϊġˡ϶еƣֱеĶ˵ʶأκܷ˵Ҫȱݡ岢DZġȮġԵġֵģܵȻ˼ȼֵԴֵ֧ġ̺ʵͼһɣordered libertyƶȡԷΪʯɲ֡ĿIJҪֹרơ˵ļ̤Ϊǹϸõṩᡢųϰ [xliii]ѧһֱùŵ˼Ե¾ӵ˼пDZĶϵͳشӵ˼ھŵ˼ԴɾȻ[xliv]ڡ֮dzֱӵġִִ֮ʧ֮Ϊ֮߰ΪźԹŴҲԷ˼йĿ졣[xlv]

£ѧ˼룬½뵱˵ҰζţйٶıֽһؼԵĽ׶ΣսٵĽdzڴġձ䣬ܻⳡֽԡػԲľš

ڡйĻ 20065ºš

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

עͣ

[i] ˼Բμʱһʮٳļ2001ꣻӵ˼룬Բμн̡ԭڶŽ磬1995ꡣ http://post.baidu.com/f?kz=17691677

[ii] ⲿܷйʷרܷˣлп϶ֵġμеĵ¡

[iii] ŵĴͳԭ࣬ѧ磬2005ꡣ

[iv] ڡŵĴͳһģͳǿŵġͳݻģͳݻѡԵġע3

[v] Ӽ֮ͬһִѵĻ⡣ҲһֿΪϣһͬԴΪֿһĵӡԲͬӽǣͬIJزͬһκȨġ塢ѧɳʹá죩롣Ͽ׶˶ľη׷ִһޡ˵ŵϦӡʡУԻ־ڵڵ£ʣա ӻģУὫںΪ޵ҹ󣬳Ҳ˵ġ޵϶ָҵͳΥζǸͳߵģͳ߲ΥҾ䡶ǡΪ룬ν֮ҲΪˣͬԴϵIJͳѡݻģDzԽһķ´ԴϿ׵˼룬ϸ֦ĩϵIJȡ˼ӽֵIJֵ֣IJ֡

[vi] ȻȻȨĹϵμHeinrich A. Rommen: The Natural Law: A Study in Legal and Social History and Philosophy, Liberty Fund, 1998.

[vii] David Boaz: The Libertarian Reader: Classic and Contemporary Writings from Lao-Tzu to Milton Friedman, Free Press,1997,p.207

[viii] ʣйŴѧʷŷࣺļ6ѧ磬1998棬205ҳ

[ix] Լhttp://zhivago.blogchina.com/2670709.html

[x] ¾ڶʮ¡

[xi] μ¾ʮ¡֮Իģ֮Իϣ֮Ի΢߲ڵʻΪһϲ븣²ν״֮״֮ν㱡ӭ֮ף֮󡣡¾ʮ¡

[xii] μ¾ڶʮ£ɣ⣬ģжΪĸ᲻֪֮ԻǿΪ֮Ի󡣴ԻţԻԶԶԻﻹԲμӡжԭѵߣԣķ˼߲ɼʣɲ⣬أޱֲ֮أ֮ĺʩ֮ϦԼţĶǿܸաά⡣ɽ֮ߣԨ֮֮ߣ֮ɣ֮֮У֮Σ֮衣

[xiii]μ¾ʮ£֮Уޡ

[xiv] סϵϡ

[xv] μ¾ڶʮһ£ ׵֮ݣΨǴӡ֮ΪΩΩ㱡⣬⣬ڤ⣬顣棬šԹȥڸ

[xvi] ֡ι˼μӷιΡ۴ӡ3ڣ꣬1997ꡣͬ͡Ϻ꣬1998ꡣ

[xvii] μ¹Ӧij塱ע뼰顷л֣1984ꡣ߻ӵ˳塣 [xviii] һһ¾ʮ¡

[xix] īӡǡ

[xx] ȨձԼ䷴ʱ־19981112ºš

[xxi] һļأάٿȫ顷İ棬http://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E9%99%95%E5%8C%97%E7%9F%B3%E6%B2%B9%E6%A1%88 ʸҳҪ

[xxii] ι±飺Ƶhttp://www.bokee.com/new/display/print/81667.html

[xxiii] תԣйԡȨĽɡhttp://221.237.182.96/~kjqk/xdfx/xdfx2002/0201pdf/020109.pdf

[xxiv] ̩

[xxv] ̫ϣ֪֮Σ֮Ση֮£֮Ų㣬̲ɡ¾ʮ¡

[xxvi] Murray N. Rothbard: Economic Thought before Adam Smith: An Austrian Perspective on the History of Economic Thought, Vol.I, Edward Elgar, 1995, p.23;ͬߵһFor a New Liberty: The Libertarian Manifesto; 1973. Online edition prepared by William Harshbarger. Ludwig von Mises Institute ? 2002. Originally published 1978 Collier Books, A Division of Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc., New York, Collier Macmillan Publishers, London.

[xxvii] David Boaz: Libertarianism: A Primer Chapter 2, the Roots of Libertarianism.

[xxviii] ¾ʮ¡

[xxix] Daniel Agatino: The Tao of Reagan: Common Sense from an Uncommon Man, Vinci Agatino Enterprises, 2005.

[xxx] ϣֵ˵ˡ磬1990꣬200ҳ

[xxxi] ͳݽӢȫģhttp://reaganvideo.com/FudanU.html

[xxxii] Põͳͼصͳݽhttp://www.reagan.utexas.edu/archives/speeches/major.html

[xxxiii] ¾ʮ

[xxxiv] ͬϣʮ¡

[xxxv] ͬϣʮ¡

[xxxvi] ڻ˼ʷϵʢĹϵμϻ˵ѧ磬2004ꡣ ԭ󣺡ѧ۸١ɽѧ磬1997꣬¡

[xxxvii] James A. DornƲȨ֮йӦüȡľѵ룬http://www.sinoliberal.net/constitution/Dornconstitution.htmּͬߣ"China's Spontaneous Order"http://www.sinoliberal.net/spontaneous%20order/spon05.htm

[xxxviii] ᡱйѧ1993ꡣͬ͡Ϻ꣬1998ꡣ

[xxxix]԰: µңɾΪΡhttp://www.tianya.cn/New/PublicForum/Content.asp?idWriter=0&Key=0&strItem=no01&idArticle=201059&flag=1

[xl] ϸӵ¾ڡϸѡ淶ؽ¬ ѡ࣬ϺԶ磬1996ꡣ

[xli] תԣ԰йߺ͵˼IJ֮Եhttp://www.tianya.cn/publicforum/Content/no05/1/29259.shtml

[xlii] ʯԪԷΪΡhttp://www.sinoliberal.net/china/spontaneous%20order%20and%20nonaction.htm

[xliii] ͡۴ԡڶг빫򡷣꣬1996꣬3940ҳͬ͡Ϻ꣬1998ꡣ

[xliv] ⡷йʷ磬2003ꡣ

[xlv] ͬע41Ե뷨ҹϵͶԵ˼Դķ򣺡ϡҰܡڡܵļաѧ磬2005꣬336355ҳ