ΩԸƽˮʹ罭ϣ
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ֹ:е: ߵսҰ

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ܷ, ۹ܷ, ˿, ȻҪ ǿ[1]һձҸһ̵ļ֡ ׶Ϊ: ǵ÷ɵͳε˼루˵ǹΨһԭ򣩣˴ЩмȡѵѧߵĻ֮⣬Ǹڵġ[2]Ϊ, Ǻ׶ٲò<<ļ>>85ƪеһƪع˺ʷϵ ǿ, ս⡣Ϊ, , ս ǿ߱ʽ ʥ

1787ѳܻ֮ǰ, ˺ͷٵһͬ, Ŀǰİάϡ, ȨеȨһι̥, ɢ״̬ʹ´½ʱпܶս(սս)һ ǿΣ֮С[3]Ȼ, Դµܷ178710·ڼ沢ύ, ۾Ͳڶ, ܷȫͳսȨ⡣ЩִڸȨԼȨķ, ˶Щٺΰľ(militarists), Ϊе⡣
ڹ, ½û½ر߾, ʹð³-ѷһָٹ̵Ĵͳ˵ƫ, (Ҫָ½, )ɵһв , ǡ´, רƵķ, Ǵѭҵĵδͳ, Ǹmilitiaڱеá ǿ, Ǵ½ҵز, 䡰Ӱ족, ϰ˷֮ߵɵ塱 ūۡǵ, ջڳ鰵ϸ[4] Ϊ, ν޵һ޵ȨǿǼΪΣյġԸеΪһصľԺ, ෹Dz, ԸΪһԼԵƹ۵Դ

۲һ²ۺƶܷξӢı, Dzѷ, еĺܶǾ˳, ս̨̤, ʹЩƽıdzΪһӵѲߡ ǿ, Ӧսǵʱٵ, ҲȨкΨһΪ,пά˵,սǺһӵĿɿָϡ Ľ, ΪĿľɽ?׶ٽ ʱ, ׶ټս㽺, 22ʱʢٽ, Ϊ, ˶սڼеľж, Ϊ [5] Ȼ, սʵΨһijɾ, ս֮Ľж һսʿ, Ҳһ, ǰ, <<ļ>>85ƪ, ǹ˰ƪ, һ϶ս˼й, ļͻʯλִĽۡ[6]

<<ļ>> ǰ벿ڷһϢ: ڻ˹ʽȻ״̬Ŀ¾ǰ, ս(սս)ʱв, ´½ʱпܶ״̬Σ֮С ļĽṹз, սļ(ƪ5ƪ)ս֮ǰ, ƺڰʾ, ֮ڹҵҪв, ҲǸϵ־ú̵ ֮ڶսī, ƺڰʾ, ֮Զս״̬, ⱾǸʶ, ͡ Ϊ, ӵƪʼ, ʼת һЩҲӾ˵в, ЩвԸ֮ľ, ԹڵɱͶҡ Ϊֱʺ¶ǵĶƺ˵, ˵սǰٵijԶв, սвҲеġ ǵڰ, ǶȨ, ô, ƺڰʾ, һͳһȨ֮, ´½ɴ½һ, Ȩұ˴˽ս״̬֮, սɴݻΪս ʱ, ֮Ϊֹ˴˵, Ʊط׷ЧЩ±ŷ½, ͳһ֮´½Ϊط⽮, ԽӴij(½),±ڸԵĽ, ʱ׼ŻԺͷԵս

Ϊ, ȿս򡣹ս, ׵¼<<ޱսʷ>>ƺԶǺ˲ϻݵԴͷ ѭ׵µķ, Ϊ, ֮֮Էս, ʵԭ, ҲٵĺͲԭ[7] ʵս, ˵, ΥԼ͹ʷԼֱַԷġΪ, һͳһȫ֮,ݾ͸Эж, жҲ侲, , Ӷܹ޶ȵرս ʹżս, һŽǿĵǸͺ⳥, ҲпܱԷ½ͽ, Ӷսķա ڽ, ܷΪһܹø⽻ʵĿռ, Ӷս, ֺƽ , ںеĶѺԼĸ߶Ȳ, Ϊ, սֲ֮, Լ͹ʷʱûԼ, ǧټս, սȴԵĶ裬һÿԤϵսͼʱҪսġϵ˽ҰģΪܼǿԼͬ˽ԼЩԼָֻŻܵӰĶʹвԸķսΪ, սĶЩҲĿǰԵǻֶ֪õʱʱûнκͱдǡ[8] , ϺһЧȫʹ˴ںͱһֲսӶֹ谭ս״̬

Ϊ, κһۺ˼, ҪʶеĻҪԭ, ȻΪԺ۵ĸݡ ڼѧ, ѧͬˡ, ûԭͲнֶӦĿƣÿȨӦƣעҪӰһܽƵĿĵȨҲӦơЩԭڸԴڳʶ, ΪȻʹ֧䣬Լͬɿܵȫƫǵͬ⡣, Ȼ֪ٵijЩȱʧijЩǿҵȤлƫӰ졣[9] Ϊ,ѧеʶҪԭӦǰȫԭ, ҪӺвҲҪ֤ڹԭֵͬв[10]Ȼ, ΪԤ涨ҷķΧͱ仯ԼҪķӦΧͱ仯ԱȫȨܷϼDzǵġ[11], ˵ ս, Ȱս, Ҳսս, ˶ᵽ ԡ, ɴ˶սȨ, Լɴ˶޵˰Ȩ:

Ϊ˶ǷֱȽȷжϣ̸һҪ˰άֵĶҪ˰άֵĶ֮ıǻ֣ᷢǰȫ޵ģڷdzʵķΧڡоʱDZסDzҪԼҰĿǰʱڣҪհңԶδδ¼ܷԾӦһΪ׼ЩʲɹԲаյڿܷͻȻ±涨һȨ⣬ͣʲôطأȻһ˵׶϶ԿܷΣӦ׼пжϵģȻDzҪЩ϶ǵ۾ݣԿ϶Щ۾ݻǺģȷܴڶõκ۾һֻԤڲϮDzֵӵģȻЩԤҲƲ⡣ҪΪҵ壬гһȻΪܹҵߵһ֡άһ֧ͽкսһЩҲ㲻¼[12]

ǿԿ, Ϊ, һҵҪ볤ξð, Ҫ߱Ӧԡδ¼ս, ¼ͻȻ, ֪, ޵,һӦþ㹻͵Ӧͻ¼ֵע, δ¼֤, ᵽǷ, Ȼᵽ˺ͺս, Ӷ δ¼޴Ч̵Ĺŵʱ, ƺһθ,θдӸԴڼʵ½һʹ;ŵֵĵ, ޵Ķӵĺ̻¶˵ǰ, ʹùŴ½Ϊĵܵҡ, ټ̫-̵ СĴ۳Ϊijʶ, ԺһżȻԺԴһżȻԹͬӾ δ¼żȻԺԡһеŵսԼӦսƶȡ Ϊ, , ׶پᵽΪԭͳս:
ʷжϣǽȵó˵սķŭƻ˵Ŀռ֧λԶԶƽºͶУݶԳ־ƽƲǵƶȣָԵıȽԭ[13]
ƺ, һҵӦýǿҵļ鼴սּ֮ϡ, ƺΪ, ۹Ҫͨ ˼Ǻѡ񡱽һõ, ǿһʥ֧, Ҫǵս ǿ ʽ˿, սһһҪŬ㡢ʱʵúƵѧʡ[14]
ڴ, ˵ĽԱֳ˹ά̹ȫͬij(ս)ж(֮ͬϵԼ), Լͬľ, ͼ˷ȻԵ ǿ༴˹νġȻ״̬ ʩ֮ڹŽѭ,һĺ۹


עͣ

[1] νġǿ ǻ˹Լеٶ Ȼ״̬

[2] ׶ٵ, <<ļ>>, 28ƪ, : ӡ, 1997ꡣ

[3] ׶ٵ, <<ļ>>, 15ƪ, : ӡ, 1997ꡣ

[4] Richard H. Kohn, <<ӥ뽣: ½ƵĴ(1783-1802)>>Eagle and Sword:the Federalists and the Creation of the Military Establishemnt in America, 1783-1802, the Free Press, 1975

[5] ˶Դ˲ΪȻ, ɽԼΪ˹ ΪûнƵ, Э۹ƺǻΪˮˮԪԪл״δĺͽ⣬αע41ͳԭ, ͳΪһ塣 <<ļ>>ĵһƪһ, ׶νԼ, ¶˳Խ۹Ұ, һ͵ĵ۹, ۹ֲڹ ˼Ǻѡ񡱻˵ ͬ⡱ һ֮ϡ ˿, ֮ǰ, ʷ ֮͡ͽ, Ĺ͹һ, Ǻؽڶڽ׼½Թͳԭ֮ϣ ǿڲ Ϊ, Ĺ͹Ӧý ͬ⡱ һкϷȨĽྻԭʼԴȪ֮ϣʵκͽϡ <<ļ>> 1ƪ, 22ƪ, 39ƪ, 49ƪ, ȵȡKarl-Friedrich Walling͵ĵ۹Republican Empire: Hamilton on War and Free Government, University Press of Kansas1999ꡣ

[6] ܶٵľ ú˼ĵ¹˹Ӱ, ֱӴʹд<<ξѧĹϵ>>һ, Ȿ춨˹ͳһ¹ĵ۹ҵ Edward Mead Earle࣬<<ִսԼ: άϣ>>Makers of Modern Strategy: Military Thought From Machiavelli to Hitler, ˹ٴѧ, 1971, ҳ117-154

[7] ׶ٵ, <<ļ>>, 3ƪ, : ӡ, 1997ꡣ

[8] ׶ٵ, <<ļ>>, 4ƪǰҡ

[9] ׶ٵ, <<ļ>>, 31ƪǰҡ

[10] ׶ٵ, <<ļ>>, 3ƪǰҡ

[11] ׶ٵ, <<ļ>>, 23ƪǰҡ

[12] ׶ٵ, <<ļ>>, 34ƪ, : ӡ, 1997ꡣ

[13] ׶ٵ, <<ļ>>, 34ƪ, : ӡ, 1997ꡣ

[14] ׶ٵ, <<ļ>>, 25ƪ, : ӡ, 1997ꡣ



׫д ֹ

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