ΩԸƽˮʹ罭ϣ
et revelabitur quasi aqua iudicium et iustitia quasi torrens fortis


ѧ֮عˡʡǰհ:
------ӡ̬ۡۡȷ

ְ
̨ʦѧϵ

Ŀ¼
һIJ֮
ۡ롸ͳּۡڰʷҵϰ
֪ΪڵdzԽĵ
ġǡǼ¡\ѧǡԵǡ
塢ѧۡġǡԽͳ㡹
屻ۻԽʽ⻯
ߡġΪڡ֮ȷ
ˡ͵ת롸͵ת֮Ա
šѧѧǡһ塹֮ѧ
ʮۻרơף֪ṹ
ʮһӡԵѧѧ
ʮ֮ĻͶԱȣʵ\ʽ
ʮ̬˵Ļṹ
ӡеĸԴеĿԡеִ
ʮġе̬ۡѧ˼ά
ʮ塢ԡ̬ۡͨ塢䴫ͳ
ʮӡʶѧѧѧڹ
ʮߡӡԽڤ塹ʵ塹


ģ

һIJ֮

IJѧһνġۡȥνĴۣͨ¡ijԽ֣ΪνִĴУ硢ǽִĴУԣڡDZеһ£̸νִࡹ롸ִࡹĶգǽĴۣ˵ִĴִĴ㡣

ĴۺͿµĽʵDzͬģѧĽص֪ʶ۵ĽҲ֪ͨΪȻ˵δ͹֪ʶǽǸݣ˵ܼΪֻСдֱsensible intuitionСǵֱ intellectual intuitionֻϵ۾ǵֱIJϵͳ棬ͨйͳ塢̹۵ĴͳǿͨʵĹ򣬿ʹ˴ΪһԵĴڣһߴڵ״̬һߴ״̬ʱΪһȻ֮ҵ״̬˵һصĿ״̬ĻһСǡ״̬Ҳ˵ġǡ״̬״̬ôͳʹԼνġǡôңáǡʣáǡʡ ҵǡҵǡ̵ĿǣIJ˿¡ǵֱʣ˵ѧֳģ˵˲ֻǾидֱǵֱǵֱдֱкβͬأдֱֻܼڡ󡹣ǵֱԼڡҲ˵дֱץ󣬶ǵֱͬһ࣬طԼԿǵֱдֱܵǹ鵽Ǹģ鵽Ǹһ˵

ǿԷֵ򵥵˵Լ԰۵Ĺ죬鵽һĿšǸ˵νһĿIJˡۡĹ죬ķֳũźšӦǽ磻Ӧľһ磬Ŷһġ IJ۵Ĺ죬һĵطصѧѧʱȥأǸĿҵ״̬أǸʵһġԽġԵңǽңԼǸңǸҲǾƵģҲʷƵģԶʷ֮ϣھʷ֮еģIJһʵһԽġʽ֮ңǸµңڷǸѵңڵĻǸӹǸңΪѧߵһ֧


ۡ롸ͳּۡڰʷҵϰ

ǿԷֵIJѧʷķչϣһҪǣ弸ǧʷҵϰԼھСʷմϵЩӦˤѵĶѧһѾܽӽʽǻϾǴӡġ壬ݵԽ壬ҲڵǸԽĵ壬ͨΪһɽϵͳУͰ߳׵ͨΪһҲ˵ȥʾڵıԭıԭһͬһԣѧһͬһԵѧ͵ͨΪһ ѧУѧɻϲôֱӰѵµıĺǸͨΪһǣҲǿҲҪͨΪһġѧdzҪĸڣѧ͵ѧߵ·϶ˣҲǾһĹڵıȻ֮Ҹıԭܹͨ͸ķʽѧҪ֮Դ ѧһҪķʽǾһֵͳ۵ķʽһʷԣʵġϺIJݸȥԵľֱ׷Ң˴ġ䡢ܹӡӣһֱ絽δδѧĵͳࡣȻѧûķʽȥ˵Լĵͳۣĵͳ棬ҲһͳۣҢ˴ġ䡢ܹӡӣȻɽʯȻǵȨµĵͳۣǰѵȨ˼Ҳ˼룬йĻͳĵͳһˣȡȨζϵĺϷԡ ֪ΪڵdzԽĵ

͵ѧԣҲûŬȥ֮IJͬҲûȥŬصԼĵͳۣҲǼ̳ۣΪѧѧԣҪ֧ۡĴͳ֪ѧĴͳ⼴ͳۡĴͳһǡۡĴͳ̸ν֮νԡ̸汾Դ֮£ѧݣ̸ıѧˡͳݣ̸ҲѧˡǴžץס֪ۡѧȣ賹׵ķӡ ֪ѧһӷʽIJУﵽһߵĸ߶ȣ֪Ϊڵһ壬ͬʱҲһԽĵ壬IJ˵ˡȳԽڡһ֪ϣǶѧ֪һԵһµڹ͡µڹIJбѧĵطǿ֪ѧǾչչḺ́뾭һ͹ۻ̣󻯵̡IJ˵ν֪ҿݡԿ֪壬֪忪֮˼µͿѧ˵һǿͿѧйͳ֪ѧ֮䲢ҽִ֧Ϳѧյ֪ѧ


ġǡǼ¡\ѧǡԵǡ

IJһбڿѧת򣬿ǿҪǶ¡IJй۵ĴͳݵǸԺ͵µıԴԵµıԴ֪壬֪չͿѧȻνԵǡĴͳ

ԵǡĴͳǼ¡Ĵͳ˼ķʽDzͬģķʽȻͬǼ¡ĴͳһҪѧ֪ʶοܣһҲҪĿ͹֪ʶĽ޺ڣһ˵µġ򡣵ȻҪģڿµϵͳ棬һµߣҲϣ³Ϊһֿ͹۷۶ĶԿһµķߣµߡIJڹ͵ѧѧϵͳҪʶѧΪȻҲ̸ң̸̣нϽ˷̵һЩԲ̡ԲƵĹǽڷ̵н̹˼뻹ҵġҶԣʶȥ֪ʶܼľ羿ڣҲҪȥΪѧѰһ͹۵֪ʶѧĻصھɵʵȥ֤Ǹڱʵij֣һѧ֤IJҽһ֮ԴһȻij֣ٴᆳɡ׾ɵĹתĶ󻯻ķʽǿ֪ҿݡ֪壬֪忪Ͷ֮٣Ϳѧ


塢ѧۡġǡԽͳ㡹

ʵIJһ֡ѧۡǸǡԽͳ㡹µĿΪ˵ǿ˵䲻㣣ʵϲΥʵǿԹ棬ת۵ĿҲ˵IJһ۾ݣ˵֪ѧοԾ֪ҿݵĹȥνͿѧIJ˵ĿۣȻ۵Ŀ۵ĿֻҪ˵֪ͬʶ״̬֪ʶϵͳ֪ʶϵͳһ飬ԵѧΪģϵͳĽϣ֪Ϊʵѧ֮á֪֮õijԽǣ˵Ϊʵѧ֮ʵġʵķѧϵĶֻһϵijԽ

ҲIJֻһѧġԴ׷ݣһϵͨشij׷ͳߡѧߡߡ߱󳹵׵ķͳ˼ǶΪйĻͳʵǷִͿѧķչIJһ۵㣬˵ԵġһԷϵԡIJ۵ڸǣйĻͳִʹִ֮Ϳѧ֧Ȼѧ֪ѧΥǿԷIJĵȨǿѧɷϵĵط

ǣʵDzͬġΪ˵塢Ȩ塢֮ѧǷֿ˵ģͳڵȨ߶㣬IJͳ֪ѧ˼Dzͬġǣ˼ĻȻǴͳߣҲDZߡ

˵ǿԷֵνѧ۵˵˵ǡ㡹Ҫ׼ȷ˵ҲֻϵһתĿܣ˵ʵϡڷǾһ̣ȻͿѧĻһﵽ֪һ״̬֪֮ѧķʽȥת۵ת֪塣Ĺ̸۵£


屻ۻԽʽ⻯

ô˵ʱǿԷIJ۵ĹؼڣԿµ˾ǵֱξǵֱأIJĻֻͨҵۻݵȥطһٵǿ֪һ衹һ֡ʮ˵ķʽ˵ġһ۵Ĺ죬ʱıһƣҲһʵˣѪˣߵۻ»Խ⻯ˡ

һ˵壬һʽԵ壬һ壬նԵ壬ʵʵ࣬ʵᷢϵʵ١Ļɱ뻷@Ǹ˵ĵΪģչ͡͵ǸģͣǻصļǸͳʵлģݵǿ䴿ԺʽԣҲ½ģǿԺܶԡ

IJȻѧϵͳһǿǡмģڡ塹ǡġڡ塹ǡмᷨIJϵͳ֪˶ٴΣǣʵصȻڡУ˵ġĻʱĻȻһġʽĻһʵĻIJżǿǸǿֻһʽǿǿԿõġ


ߡġΪڡ֮ȷ

һ֮ᷨ£ʵѧкܴIJ𣬵IJǸмĻֻһġʽĻôһͱɸijͬˡҲΪʲô˵˵IJ˵ǡΪڡôIJԱΪһ͵ġΪڡΪѧ췽ʽһdzҪ⣬⡣IJڴϣϻͨԪķʽѡΪζµģΪһµΪʽµIJȽΪһԴǻصйѧĴͳĻԸ˵ֵǷdzḻģв壬Ҳж壬ڶݴķչҲɾʽ塣

ԡۣص֮Դзḻ庭IJۣʵͺѰйôӴġѧϵͳ̸ʱ򣬲ûһǡİ٣ԣΪ۵Ľϣ覴õġΪ۵صڻصǸϣıģΪܹʽȥǰ⻯ʽȥ˵Ǿʵ֮Դȥ˵ҲǾһڵıԴȥ˵ΪΪڵıԴȥ˵ʱ򣬺˵Ϊ͵ĶҲܹΪ죬ӦػصǸͽΪһǸȻΪһ״̬IJԵģҲڿ۵ĹпԷֵģҶ۴ϵһܡ


ˡ͵ת롸͵ת֮Ա

ѧһתḶ́תǰ̸֪ר߽⡵ʱʵ̸֪ѧһֱףĴͳרƵĴͳһ顣ѧҲʶ㣬Ҫ˼δתΪתʽһ֮Ի͵תһǡ͵תڡѧйͳѧʡ졷̸ӡ͵ʵ߼͵ʵ߼棬һ̸⣬ΪѧȻһ͵תʽһ͵תҲصǸ֮Դص֪רơһ棬ǸطͼܹתΪ;ôǿתҲ<⿪˼ͼ>һ⡣

˼ͼϾ֪רơһ飬˼ҲǾһġʥԣʽʵܹȥǸԭĶԴǸԴῪһdzǿǸǿܹıʵϵĸ״̬й˵Ϊֹһ֪֪Խijֵʵķʽһʽȥkһı䡣IJѧĿۣ֪ҿݶ֪壬ȥѧȻͣ˼棬֮Ի͵ת

Զԣν͵תҪȥ֪ѧףͳרƴͳǸӶϵǸӶĹϵ֮DzŵԻ֪ѧһǡķλνǡķλ˵֪ʵƽƽ̹̹ûôΰģֻƽƽѣν֪ѧ߽߸ǸףרƵĴͳǸۻרƵĴͳҷdzǿġΪѧûг׵תҲǣ浽ѧʷεĿ̫ǿϲε׷ݡҲǰд֪ר߽⡵ʱ˼йĻԵ˶һ¡˼ҲǿӡѪԵԵݹ᡹߳תһƽ̵ġͶеĺᣬӡѪԵݹ᡹ԵġʵĻһƽ̵Ļ棬DZ룬ȴҲһĹ̡


šѧѧǡһ塹֮ѧ

˵ѧĴͳǷҲ֮죿IJԣΪijԽֿ֣ŵĹ죬һֻ죬Ǿ볬Խ磬ӰͼԽһ졣ѧĴͳѾˣڽѧĴͳҲӣIJΪѧһҪţһ뷨IJ˼ʱ˵۵һ췽ʽЩƣصһѧϵͳбڻϵͳ

ʹѧdzǿѧϵͳIJĿѧֻɾһµѧûгɾһµۻµζѧһDzͬġΪڶѧһ̵Ĵͳ£ԳɾһۣûеģIJһֱǿġ

Ҫɵǣǿ۹ȻǴͳзdzҪģDz̫ǿˣʹò̫ǡҲ˵ѧѧѧҲѧѧһ֮ѧѧҲһ֮ѧһ֮ѧѧDzͬģǣ浽ҵȻҪ̸Ĵе̬ۡΪҪӡһĿšĽṹɵ̬ۡĽṹ


ʮۻרơף֪ṹ

۾йѧһ۵ĴͳĻһġDZģҲǵġǡ塣طϾǸ֪IJݺأ֮ԻйѧгΪһҪĴͳǺйĵרơԭȵףеĹΪйĵרƣǸʵdzΪһдֵ֮ġʵһʵϵĶ㣬йͳף˼ΪǸ߶ͬԣֻҪģֻҪ֮ͬԴһģôͺˡ

֪ѧһĽṹǿǸ˵ġߵľԵǴһµġ֪ʵ״̬ôҲͶˣڵҲˣǿԷ֪ѧĴͳﵽĵ߷壬ҲйרΪ߷

ô˵˵֪ѧǵרѧ˵֪ѧһ˵IJĵרƸѹͳ£֪ʶΪҪԿǸרγһ˼ڽṹһµģҲ֪ѧר˼ڱʽṹһģ˵ߣһdzһߵľߣһǿǸڵıΪߵľߣһڵ߾ߣǺȤĽṹ״̬Ҳ˵ijԽġԵġȨףڵġ֪ǸġǸ壬һڵͬһԣһͬĹָɡ

Ҳ˵֪ѧרԵĽṹ֪ѧףġ˼άʽר֮ףġ˼άʽһ£ѧIJ֪֮ͬѧǿͨһġʵʷṹ⣬ͨйʶ⣬DZڽ̵⣬ǡָ֪ѧʲô⣬Ϊ۵Ĺһ㣬ûиǡ塣


ʮһӡԵѧѧ

ʱʵҪǿǸһʲô壬֮Ϊ壬е壬Ͷ֮ν塣Ͷ֮ǰһͽ״̬µľʶǸ״̬ѧѧĻʵӦûصһijǸԴǸԴá׾ĻӦǡȻжͨǸȻ״̬Ҳһޡ״̬ʶ״̬һ˵ʵǿҪȥѧĽʱӦϵһԽζϵıġ˵ӦûصһڵġԴʵ״̬ȥ˵һͲ֡״̬һʶ״̬һȻּž״̬һѧǿһһһ塢岻ֱ֣صһ޷ֱ״̬ѧѧͬԵѧһѧ˵ǡѧ

ǿIJͶҲ塢ǿ壬ΪѧIJķʽ壬ص壬ؿԴ֮ơǵķʽҪص֮Դ֮ԴһͲ֡ʶصȻжͨ״̬صԴ״̬ڹͣ˵ǽеĸԴһɷֵ״̬õҵ˵һ˵ġ״̬ҵ˵ǡ֮¡첻ѵġ״̬÷̵ǡһġǸԡһ޵ıԴ״̬


ʮ֮ĻͶԱȣʵ\ʽ

ǸԴ״̬ձѧɵĽӽڡޡ״̬ͬǣձѧ֮ޡ״̬ġ塹塹йѧǿҲ˵йѧص˲֮䣬ɵһؽ޵֮Դձѧص㲻˲ص֮Դؼչ֣ǸΪһǸ˾һġģȻڳһˣһ׵ĸԵġˣǸһľޣ⵱һ˼롣 ˱ԣׯ¸Уһֿ͹۷ԵҪ󣬵Ϊһڳг׸Ե˵ԣǼ׳ҲģνԸҲνӣԸ񡣾䷨һֶׯµҪҪձ˷ԵǸƽ˵ġ塹ôһͰߵʽ֮״̬˵ΪǸǸһߵġɵʶ̬ձϵͳձϵͳձáʡۣáӡۣͬġʡ񻯵ģӡ˺һ˺һģձġʽԡԶԣ˵йһʵԡձһʽԣһȥ⡣ ձޡʱصڡ򡹣ձƫ࣬к࣬ʽ࣬ԳʵࡣǿԷַйճƷ֮ڡաεĶձͨͨתΪѡաתΪڵǵĻա鷨dz֮Ϊ֮һͽڵ״̬һ׳Ʒ״̬ձ˵Ŀ͹ۻʽԽΪ֮Ǹ ֮أͨһʽĹ̡˺㣬ΪûУҪǿձҲ֪֮ڵҪŬ֮͸ʽķʽڵʽԾȻΪձִҪһԡйڽִʱǾɵڵḶִִ́һƵãձ˲ǾʽԽѧйΪ죬ҪģʮһĻͳִ֮ãձĻԵãҵжϡ


ʮ̬˵Ļṹ
ӡеĸԴеĿԡеִ

һǻصղ˵ġеĸԴ뾩ѧɵġޡĹϻͬġеĸԴǿǾе´屾Դ屾Դ֪ѣ֪һдڵͳͳΪһIJɷֵ״̬䡸֮ʼһ״̬˵ġеĸԴڼȻ˸жͨżУ˵˿˵侳ʶ˾ʶ֮ܡ ڶ׶μΪеĿԡ׶Σп֮׶μһʱԶδ֮״̬һʱǸ״̬״̬ԣԨԾ컯У״ֻ̬ǴȻ״̬ȻĽֹ״̬Ľ͸ԶΡḶ́͸ֵĹȥ˵磬νġеִķʽȥ磬νľ⡢ڹ͡졢ãḶ́˵ַܹϵͳ° ҲǴӴ˶Ҳ˵˵ij룬ǵĻҴ棬ڡԶΡĶ󻯡Ḷ́ʵһҵ̣ҵ棬һɾĿ͹۵Ĵڣͬʱ಻ɱص컯״̬컯״̬棬һ桸һˡıΡ״̬

ĺDZҪΡΣȥڱΣǸ䱾ԣҲ˵ġ֮֮֮Ƴ֮䱾Դ˵ν䱾ԴʵΪν¡ΪڵֵĹ죬Ķ󻯻ʹΪ֮γһѵơ˵ڱΡ롢컯״̬ʱͱ롸Ī¡صǸ֮Դ䱾Դ֮ԶʵΪԣԴ˱ΪΪ¾һһ䡸¡ڡơ֮ԼԶһҾкĶ˷dzѧ˼һлصҵƣҰ֮Իеơ


ʮġе̬ۡѧ˼ά

Ե˵ʱе̬ۣʵһѧ˼άھ֣Ķ󻯻Ĵִ֮һ൱IJ˵ִ֮ĴۣҪִĴ۸ƣƾǡĴȾ龻Ҳǿ϶еִıҪԣҲ⵽еִЩʹҪеִǸɴеִIJʹǡһڹͷʽʵҪ֪ܿѧ̫صĸҲԽ⿪֪ѧԼרԡ ҪǿľǻصǸ֮Դ֮Դʵĵεչ롸ͬһԡǾ˵Ǿչ˵Ƕ㶼˵壬˵䱾ԴǾ˵ʵΪʵ˵ҲԽڳʵ״̸̬е̬ۡʵǡۡǸ֮Դ˵ʵǡԡۡΪģе̬ԡۡΪĸ


ʮ塢ԡ̬ۡͨ塢䴫ͳ

ʣ̬֮Դȥ֤أԻطȡѧĴͳڡ׾νġν֮󡹣ʲôǡأ󡹾ǵ֮֡Ҷ֮֮ӡ֮µǸ޷ֱ״̬о֪޷ֱ״̬ǸΪѧһ㣬֪Ǿͽڶ֡һʱǸ״̬Ϊһ˵Ƶʱ˵һûԵġǸ״̬ˡ˵˵֮ϻһ߲֮˵ǽ䡸Ȼ״̬dzΪеĸԴԶ˵ν֮󡹡˵˵Ѿǡν֮ΡǾ廯ξ廯͸ԶΡν֮֮ǰǡ˵״̬ͨ֡Ĺ̶롸˵״̬ǡζϡ״̬״̬ν֮ǡζ¡״̬Ϊ׾νζ֮νζ֮νΡΪʣšԡ֮塣Ŷ䱾Դ˵ΪŶΪһڣǽ ӡׯӡ׾ѧжͨġѧӵȻ˵֮֮֮Ƴ֮Ī¡ҴԾ˵־ڵڵ£ʣաĶڵ֮Դһʵ˵ÿԣ֮пԣʵڴڵʵ˶һ֮¡֮ԣڵ¡ͱԴ˵¡ͱ˵ʣʡ͸ͨ˵˸֮ʵĸͨգǿκ֮СǣǾͰ˵ġ־ڵڵ£ʣա͵˵ġ֮֮֮Ƴ֮Թһǡ˵׾ġν֮ν֮ζν֮ζν֮ͨͨһ˵֮ʼ֮ĸһ˵ǡͨͨ԰ڶ


ʮӡʶѧѧѧڹ

˵ǾͿһ˵йͳͬԴʵһ֮档ܵ˵һģֻǴԾǿҴȻ˵ôһĻԻΪԵΪ˵ҲԻֻһΪ̬ѧ˵ҲԻֻΪһʵ˵һ̬ôͻصһ磬ʷ̸̬۵ŵ ڹϣƩ˵ӡѧӹ״ͿԳ׵ذ״ƳȥرܻʲôģҾǡġһķʽΪǻصǸijǸȥĻͻʹIJѧӡʶѧת뵽ѧȨνġѧҲԡ򼴡ؽ֮ıԴ֮ij򡹣䳡ΪԴмΪ ȻԺIJ̸֮۵Ӱӣת˺üתˣΪ˵ȽϽӽʮѧ壬áô˵Ǿ͹ɵ֮ڵ˴֮Ľ֣ʹֵģ壬ԳԭıԴãdz֮ԴĴΪ֮ãһѧ


ʮߡӡԽڤ塹ʵ塹

һ˵ɨһ̫ǿܹ涯Դ϶Ϊһգ˿Ծʽֱڤ֮ԴĶ䡣ǿ棬νġΪΣغѣԶΪѧҪľѧԡڽ֮ڤΪȣԡʷĴСΪȣ塣ڤȥѧʱ̫ȻȣǸȲѧҪģѧҪľǸղġΪΣغѣԶܹ֤ʣ˹ӡŵϦӡDzҪˣʣ˹ӵʱ˵ҶǸµĸͨһڵԸĻҾǸͨص⻹Ҫȥʵģڸڤڤľ֮ڤ ոսǸŵϦӡʱҪ㣺ǵʱ򣬲ܹǸߵģصһеĿ״̬ͷһڤ֮Сѧ̸ʱͨͨǰһĵ˵ġԣѧҪ˵һԽڤ塹ߣһʵ塹ߣΪҪʵȥλԵѧչ̫ԽڤĹˣʵijһĻѧʵĵһˣһֵӺ˼⡣

һžž괺ļΪѧѧоڡѧר⡹һ֮֮һ,λͬѧ,پ޶ɣ