ΩԸƽˮʹ罭ϣ

 

ӡʥԡṫ塹Ϊĵѧ
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ְ
̨ʦѧѧϵо

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Ķԭѧɡʥ˼һתָ
ӡʥһո¿ܡ

߶ԡѪԵݹ᡹Ϊڹйͳᣬ
Աȶԣǰ̨ѽһԡ˼Ի᡹Ϊĵġ᡹
ڴͳѪԵݹᣬ[ӡʥ]Ľṹ˼
ԻΪһ[ӡʥ]ո¿ܡ

ߣָ߽ԭ[ӡʥ]ԡΪ
ģˡṫ塹෴أ[ӡʥ]
ǡ˽ǡ˽ڡ롸ṫ塹
һǡĺⶨΪǺѧո˼

ؼʴʣʥṫ塢ѧ


һǰԣԵ

ʥ⼸ѳΪ̸ѧȻҪõһʣ
ƺҲһȷָɡʥʥΪ壬Ϊ
壬ȻܿΪá˳·ѧǿ
ĹҪȻΡ塹أ֮ǡ
ȥĿģСʧ´󡹵
Ʒ۶ʥһʱǿխ֮౻ˣ

ʥָڵָڵʵ
ڵΪڵʵ֮⼸ûʲôģ
ͳ⼸ûʲô¡ǿ⼸ûʲô
ʱ֮뵱ȻģΪʥȻĿƳڵ
ȷڵʵҪ̫̫ˣ
Ͳ˼ڵʵ⡣ȻʱĿں
⣬ͨΪһʵڴ˵ǣ⣬⣬
ԭǿҪʥ˵㷴תΪֻҪʥ
һҲͽˡʥխɡİѣ
ܶԳʵ˵İ°ӣ

⣬ʵǴ⣬ȴγһǿ
ص㡢Այ㡢Այ򣬿ܵ¡
ܡʶγɡ֪רơµŰ֢ͷ
Ȼأ⼫Ϊֻʥѣ
ҹѧʶײķչ룬ý⿪ǰ
дһָӡ롸ѡĵ²ϵ磬Ǵ
֮̽һע1ΪIJ봫ͳۻרƻ
ѧйϵ⿪˵ʽѧѧԶûС̹Ȼס
һ졣

˳ڡʥ˼ǿһո¿ܵǡ
ʥҶ˼֮һΪǼѧǿ
ġʥĽһ˼һѧ˼
߽ݵʥԭ˼ԡѧ˵Ҽǽ
ΪΪ㣬ָһ硹Ļȣͨ᡹
ﲻ۶ϡѧġԱۡġۡ
̷ָѪԵݹĻṹѪԵԵȻᡢ˸
ĵᡢԵᣬأ߽⡸١ġ
ġȨġȨġ˼⿪Ĵá
֮ΪһʵСĴڣĴʵͨ
֮ʡɡѪԵݹ᡹˼Ի᡹Ľע 2

ΪһԵĵ߸롸Ȼбǰ֮
ԡۡΪĵѧ˼֮ԡṫۡΪĵ
ѧ˼


ڡʥ֮ԭ

ʥĻԭͨ͸ɡʥ
ڡׯӡ<ƪ>˵úܳףǡΪڣԵΪԵΪ
ţڱ仯ν֮ʥˡǡأ£
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ע 3 롶ӡ˼ϵģָ
ĵʵһ㡢Աʽ

硶ѧ۵Ŀ˳Ϊıʾǡ
ҼǽΪԭ˵ġ֪⡢ġ
ǰĴεڣʵ˵һ۵Ĵ򡹣ǡʵĴ
Ҳ˵ǰĿʵһҲǶָ
ŵȷġ֮֮񡹽ɡ֮
񡹣֪ɡ֪֪֪֮ϣ
Ǹʹ䲻Ҳһǡ֪
֪֮壬ǰƽ˵֪ǡ⡹
ǡġġ⡢֪ͨΪһһ£ʵǡ
Ϊ˵ҼǽΪǹ
ָ磬صҡιƽ¡ע4

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գǿλԡйۻרƵĴͳе
ϵرΡԪ֮󣬲ȡġ¾伯עΪٷƾ
Ḻ̌ǽԭȵѧ·ϡɡ徭ͳת
Ϊ鴫ͳཀྵˡĿȥš
ҶѧԴĶΣȴֲ
ȥʧȥ˶ʵӡɽ֮ߣ֮Ҳ
ߣ֮Ҳ峺ĵˡġ˶һµĹϵ
ǡҿ桹ҲɽҲˡԡġ顢š
ͨΪһ˼룬ˡΪլԷ˼ǿ
һƺһһʥٶ
֡ע5ɽ㡢յ˼άֻصͨᡢ
һϡ

߳һȨѹһѧǿĿȥ
ʤǰ㡢յ˼άζ񻯣³Ѹµġѡ
ء

ѧԣ֮ѧ˷˴ʧĿʹ
ͼʥؿѰ㡢յӰȴʶ
Σл졸ڹѧ֮۴롸ѧ̴֮Ϊһı
ע6ڡʥ֮нǰܣ
ǡʥ˼Եᣬγ׵Ļطԭ
ĵͣתΪʥ֮Եѧļ߶ԣ
ȻһΪѵĹ


ҡԱơ֮ۡ

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ע7ָԱơ˵IJһȻԡ
һĽȻʵֻǡʼӡǡ޶񡹵ģ
˵ǡԱơǾ͡ӦȻΡ˵ġע8һĽ
߿׷ݵ˵Ծԣ˵һʵġԴԵľѣ
ϾһĽԳġˣDzΪԱ
һ͹͹ģֱӱֳҲ˵ǵǡ
ơֻۡǡԱơ֮Ƕһ
ơʱӦһĽ⣬Ӧڱʼ
ӵȻ⡣

Ȼԡ֮ͯ޲֪ߣ޲֪ߡ
Ľ⣬Ϊǡͬ£Immanuel Kant֮
־Ϊ·򣬲Ƿ
Ľ⣬ʼΪǡȻأѧĽһ
ѪԵݹĻṹע9ѧĽһ
Լ۵ĻṹܿµĵѧӵԱۻпͨ
֮漰Ľ֮ͬ޷ӵġ

Ҳ˵ʥ֮ԱۣԱѪԵԵ
ݹ֮ṹΪҪ˽⴫ͳʥ֮صôӴ˱t
𣬶˼ʥ⣬֮ʥ
˼ʽ˼ĿǰԶԭȡѪԵݹ᡹˼ά
һ˼ԵĻ᡹˼ά

˵ѪԵݹĻṹɡѪԵԵȻᡢ˸Ե
ᡢԵ᡹ɵġѧ˵
ѪԵԵȻ£ǿǡТ㩡˸Ե£ǿ
ǡ塹Ե£ǿǡҾԭѧǿ
ǡТ㩡塹˸ԵĵѪԵԵȻ
Ϊչ磬˵ɼͥΪɵ磬ǡ
ġסϵɷ򸾡ӡֵܡѡһչġ
׹ϵδΪѧĻȣǿ塢
סб𡢳šΪ˳ףȻת
ԡԵ᡹ΪġֱǿΪ٣ΪӸ
Ϊ١Ϊһ컯Եġݹġġ˳
̬ȡ

ͬǡʥ֮ԭġסԷ֮ƽమ
޽ļͥ㣩ںġ١Ծ֮רƹϵΪ
кܴIJͬرδԺ뼯Ȩǿٵ
ңԭԱ۵ĴͳɸԴԵġת
ΪԵġ˳ԵľȨ߱˸ԴԵĴ
ߣγصġĴáMisplaced Tao֮״̬ע10

ڴˡĴá״̬£Ա۵չʽ˺ܴIJͬԭ
Ҫͨ͸ʥ֮תΪһյġ
㡢յ״̬£ȨԴDZģ
˼ġˣDzܾԱ۵⣬
ֻܾԱ۵ԣԼҵѡ

յġҲؿ´֮ԴȴҲ
ԵȨѹȣγһԵġѪԵݹַ
ϵͳǵĵ־Ű棬Ҳʹԭ
ߴԱۣתһµѹŰ

ԱơۡǼΪҪģΪΨӴ漰ġĽ
IJ֣Dz峺и⡣


ġѧ˼ӡ١ס

ͬĽвͬԱơۡѧ
ԱơۡڡѪԵԵݹ᡹˼۵Աơ
ֵġʵػ䳬Խһԣ
ĺ׼ķԣؼʷ
֮Ϊףʵػ

յۻרƵĴͳġ١֮˵Ϊ١
Ϊ۵Ƶ˵Ҫò
ν֮ҡʵػֻū۰ֺ
ĹػҪǵΪӣĹػȻDz
̬ģģҪDzбȨߣɵġĴ
Dz롣

ΪӸ١ΪѪԵȻ㽫Ӿ
ʱġȨĽɫԶڡסĽɫ
ġȨƵǡҪӲܲν֮Тԭ
ȵġסˣֻСӡԵ˳ڡԭȵġТ
ǶԴij羴ֻί˳ʵѡʱν
ġѪԵԵȻ᡹ʵǺܲȻģĻʹ
ΪȻɡĻ£һūĵʣ
ʣȻһġԱʽĵ˼صĻ
ͻǰġŰ֮С

Ϊ١ǡΪ١ıΣ˵ġơ
Ϊɼһߡ򸾡ԭһģƽȵģǹ
ص㣬׾̡㡹ʾӡ项
Ǵ֮ף˼֮һ컯ɡΪ١תΪȨ
֮ƣĽԵʵػཫתһūʽ
˼༫Ű֮С

Ȼأ١֮˵ԡѪԵݹ᡹ΪĶģһ
µġʽ֣֮һԻʵΪĵԡȨר
˼£ǵĵʵܵŤó
ľѪԵݹΪĵĴ£νġʥ޷
˼ʶڵֻԡ֮ʥȥ֮͡
ۻרȨʹô֮ʥΪͿԡһ
ơԾ̬֮ʵʵ֮磻컯һ
ڡĵŰת³Ѹµġѡɱ

ϵۻר𽥱߽ˣѪԵݹľҲ
⿪ˣѧԵĻһոµĿܣǿϲġΪǰ
ĽӦԡѪԵݹ᡹Ϊģͣܿһ˼Ե
᡹Ϊס˼ԵĻἴ˵һסģ͡

ԡ᡹ΪĶģԡ᡹ΪĶ
ģסԡ᡹ΪĶġע11

ΪĶڡ֮¡֮ѣǿ
ΪĶڡ¾ҡ֮Էӣǿ
˳ΪĶڡƽȡ֮໥ͨǿ
Ǭϼá˵Ϊ˽ԭڡԷӡµġ
нΪĵǿһ˼ԵĻᣬԵ
۸Ȼ

ǿаףֵ飬ţȺ塹
޵İƽȵģѭ־ķģ˶˵
֮ΪѪԵݹϵ˶ϵת
Ϊһڹϵע12ֵ֮ڳ׵˳ϵӦת
Ϊġ˼ʵĹϵ֮ʵ㣬ѵġšɴ˶
һȺġ塹Ҳɴġ

Ӧڱߴ˴۵ġסһѧ˼
ѧһҶʶڵķչ


塢ʥ˼ṫĵ˼

֪ѪԵݹµľڣġʥ
˼һʽġԵ˼ѧ֮Ȥ
ΪӿӵѣһѧʽѪڡ밢ѣһ
ʷڹ͡һô˵

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δڷ⽨ۻרнųڴľ
µʵʶ޷ķչ컬תΪһµ
ʶԭ֮תΪһµʶΪҪ鷵
ȿʵʶͳ֮Ҫʥָͨˡǣ
ʥͨȥΪۻʹǵµʶ컯Ϊ
һҵľ֮׷󡹡ʱ֮תΪһ̬֮
ʵʵ¡ԭȵĵ¾񾳽׷Ϊҵ뿵
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񾳽Ϊһٶݵľ硣ٶ컯Ϊһҵ
Ρ롸ҵС˵ɣʵΪ飬նһ
ٲħҵ֮СǼɥ޷ȥʧ֢IJ
Ҳֻԡµľʤ۰ˡ

˵ӡ롸ѡ߿ԹһȻϵס
ɡµʵʶתΪµʶٻתΪ
ҵľ׷󡹣컯ΪµҽΡ롸µ
Сն鵽ԡµľʤתΪһҵ
֮ۡԽӡ롸ѡʷĹ
Ҫȥ˵йȺ֮ΪΪɽܵģҪ
ڹʹﵽһƵãֵ߽壬йĻ
ڴгйһĿܡע13

Ϊνġ֮ܣҪıʵ
ԭȵѪԵݹɵڷᣬתһԼ
֮ҵѧԴΪ⼰ʵĻף
ԡṫ塹ΪλĵѧԡΪλĵ
ѧΪṫۺĵĵѧбǰġʥ
˼ʽһתΪʥ˼

ṫ塹ָǾһ˵ġ塹᡹
societyһָǾɡԡԼ޽ɵ塣
徭ɡԡԼ޽ɣʿɳ֮Ϊ᡹
Լ᡹йͳѪԵݹ֮бһ
ڡ㡹֮ġڡġڡѭIJǡѪԵ
项ǡԼ񡹲ھš˽֮
񣬶ǽ롸֮

񡹲ͬڡ񡹣಻ͬڡ񡹡ǡȻˡ
ǡˡǡԼˡйͳר
֮ǿ֮ǿĿǰ䡸
֮Ϊй֮ءѪԵ项Т塹֮ͳ
أ˼һ֡һ͵ĸֵ֡עǣ
ѪԵ项Т塹ֻƽչѣʶڵ
ͨ洴֮ԴйͳףеĹϵɴ
תһ۵ѧ

ҵġ´ۡڴˡ֮ۡɣԹ
һ͵ԡĴͳСע14´ۡԭ롸
ʵۡǺ϶ΪһģڡԵ᡹ĵۻʸѹ
£´ۡۡ𽥺ˡʵ
ۡίһԸ³Ѹµġѡ
ⶼǴͳ۵ıŤ컯

ǿ˽ˡ롸˽һԵָ棬Ȼؼ
һɡ˽֮Ȥǣ⡸˽˼ԭʵ
һѪԵݹ᡹˼ά˼ģɡ׶񡹡
ȥġȥӦǡ˽ߡ꼰
켰˽ȴתΪһ˽ʵߣ⡸
˽ۣ֮Ҫͳ̵֮ʶ̬̫ǿ
ڵ壬֮Ķڵɵʶ̬ܣ߽
Ϊһɷֵ塣ڵۻרǿ˽ǿ֪
ͨΪһɵġۡԭȵѪԵ
µġۡͬ

ѪԵ项µġۡǾһ֣֮֡㿪
ʵ̬ȣһ֮ͨԡۻרơµġ
ۡ뿪˴˾֮ͨԣ쵽һԵɵ
壬ҹ涨֮Դǡ˽ʷϵĵ
˽޹Դ˴˽Ϊ󹫣˸Ѷһ
ڡ

ǽ롸֮ġ񡹲ǡˡ
һԼˡһиԵĸɵġ֮
ΪһˡȻɡԼΪһ񡹣
һ˵֮˵ڹԼ֮£һˡ
ġˡ뵽򡹲ŷ䡸ԡųΪһ񡣻
˵ڹ·óɾһձ־ձ־νġ

塹ָ䡸ձ־Ϊ֮Ϊ׼֮ʽ
ԭ򡣻֮塹ǡ˽֮壬ǡй˽֮
塣ġ롸˽ǽȻ໥ģԡ
ġǽڡ˽֮ϵģ˽ǡԻҲġ˽
һ֮λġ˽ΪĻġ˽ֵעǣ
롸˽ԣڡͨ
ǽھɡԼɵԡ⡸ԡڡ
ĸͨµԣڡ˵۶µԡ
ԵԣԼԡ

ɵṲͬ壬䱳ĸԴڡձ
־ձ־ǡԼĸԴԼձ־ʵֵ;
ձ־ͬڡΪձ־֮ǡ
֮Ϊ񡹡빫񲢲ͬ£
I.Kantɴˡձ־תԡ Categorical
Imperativeע15֮ͬɡתԡ֪
ѧԼ۵ĴͳأѧѪԵݹ֮
ءѧ뿵ѧΪͬ

֮塹ǾڵɣǾһ˵Ĺ
򡹶¡ԼǾ˵ĹģǾɱ˴
Ľ̸ֵġɵ׵Ľͣڡ׵
һ̸һڵһ
̸ȻҲһ׵ڵѪԵ
Ϊ̸Թ񻥶ΪǰԼͥΪλģ
ԸΪλģɸ˶һԼᣬǰһ


ӡ̸

ԭһڵתת˳
ѧ컯ı֡ڡָǡͽڡ
ָ֮һˡҡ˼ͨΪһĽ״̬һ
ڡ֪νġʵ廯˵
״ӽڡ׵ͬ

Ե£컯һ˳ΪȤ
ǡ˳롸һɷֵ塣״
ʹѧרһⲢѧ֮òǡĴá
Misplaced Tao

֮ڵ˳һ
䡸ѡԵ׽ϵ̸׵
һ롸ṫ塹ѡԵ׽ϵ˵
Դͷڵ롸̸죬ͨԽϴ
νתӴԡԴˣֱйͳۻר֮˳
ǿ̸֮ϣͳ֮˼
롣Ǽ׶ʷ֮Ҳ⿪ĴáDZҪģ˵˳
ڽɴ˽תӽ̸Ϊ
ܡע16

֪롸ṫ塹һԾٵ˵ǰָ
ʥָ뾭ɴߵĹϵ
ʾ࣬ױ߲Ϊġʥ
ҡʥǻǡȾʥ
λڡڵ˵֮ʥǼΪȻ˳
ġۻרƺ󽫡ʥλڡ˵֮ʥ
Ǽ֮ǹ֮֮߶ǿʹ
ʧȥ˱˴˻̸Ļᣬۼ۵
֮Ǿʶ̬֮˵ߣѧ֮漴
Ȼۼ֪֮ѧ֮Ϊʶ̬̽
Ҫģɺԡɡڵ򡸽̸˼˳
ⲻؾɡ֪ҿݡ۲Ϊڵ
һ۵Ļݣ޳ֵĹ򣬶һɴ
¿֪ҿݡ֮˵ѭ֮ɡ
ɴݼԴһ
ܡѧ֪֮ҿݡ˵ǽ彲ǽ
ǻݵѧĽڵȼһ
塹ټתԿ֪塹Դ˺
תһʽ˼

ڵ֮תΪ̸һѧϰʵḶ́
һϵתʽߵݱԼ֯
ı仯ȻػӡѪԵݹ᡹˼ԵĻ᡹
ıȻһʷıȻһ֤ıȻԭԭʼѧ
ǿĴ֮֡ʡĵ¸ͨȻ֡ʡĵ¸
ͨԡһֱۡͨһ壬ÿһΪԪ
ԼԵĹԼԭһ壬ͨͨͬ
ͨͨɡ˵ͨԷ˵ġΪ

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ʥʥһѧϰḶ́
һ۵׷ݡͬɴ۵׷ݽתΪ۵Ŀ಻ͬ
ߣ롸Ĵ಻ͬСڳԽ˵ڳ
Խ˵ԱΪۣΪڳԽ˵ִ֮
бȻϵӣΪڽ̴ͳ֮İʶ
бȻϵ˵ȻҲ¹˹͡˹֧֮רƼ
ɼ䷴ע17

˵֪ʵ˵Ϊṫ塹Ⱦ
ǡṫ塹ܳΪĻĻʹ
Ϊƽ̹Ȼ˿£һµ׳ü֡Ȼ
أ롸ṫ塹Ծٵ˵ǰָʥ
ָ뾭ɴߵĹϵʾ࣬
ױ߲Ϊġʥ෴أ
ǡʥ֮ԿܵȾ


塢ۣ

뵽ִ֮УԼԵѪԵԵȻ
ģԭȳѪԵԵȻġʰ֮ڵһṫ
塹е뵽Уɡ̸ɹʶ
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һͽṹڻע18ΪҵĴͳǼΪ˳
ķչֻҪ鷵ؼؿԴΪڡͬ
ͳһǿġТ㩴ͳһġŴͳ
ȻӡТ㩡šһ͵չ˵ġΪ
ıҺѽźָǡȺ塹š
ԼԵ᡹ɵִᣬ۵ġš
šĿܡ׵Ϊѧûεֻͼ
۵Ҫսġ

ѧͼdzĴӳйĻͳ
γɵĵʽѧ˼ǵ⿪ʽķ飬ؿѧ
˼ṫΪؿҡ¡ѡš
ʥ֮ѧ

עͣ

ע1׾̨Ļƣͨʶѧۡҳ135-139
Ļҵ˾ӡУһžž£̨̨

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Եݹ᡹˼Ի᡹ҳ157-176ʨĻҵ
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ע3ׯƪ۽ڴо֮μ
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ע5μ׾ɽʷѧ֮о£ҳ97-132
ͼ鹫˾ӡУ1987̨̨꣬

ע6μ׾ѧۣҵȡڶ£
ҳ36̨ѧӡУһžŰʮһ£̨

ע7ڡԱơ롸ơ֮⣬븵ٽ
ڻ԰̸֮Ŀڡѧ־
׾ѧҳ253-298
ӡУһž£̨

ע8ϣͬ⡸֮νԡͳ
Ȼ塹塹ΪӡӴͳ
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ע9ڡѪԵݹ᡹֮⣬ר֮꣬μ
ѧйͳѧ֮ʡ졷һ顣ֲμѧ
ѧȡҳ46

ע10μǰ飬ڰ¡ۡĴáѪԵݹ֮
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ע11˵֮ӣ˲֮ѧ

ע12˵ڽ칬Ľ̻רʱرǿ֮
ѳΪ˵֮Ŀ

ע13̨Ļƣͨʶѧۡҳ138-139

ע14ڡ͵ԡ롸֮ԡ֮Աȣμ׾
šѧйͳѧʡ졷£ҳ85-107
˵׼ڶάţ̸йѧеһģ
ָֿñϢijƩġ
еıۣԡϵ۴Ѵн
Ϊ񷲶ֵζѧȻͬйѧʷо
һŰһ꣬һڣһŰһ£ҳ 20

ע15ڴˣܿգE.Cassirer 1874-1915֮꣬
š¬󡢿¡ɭ룬ӡУ
ʮꡣ

ע16ڴˣμ׾ѧйͳ֮ѧʡ졷ʮ
£ҳ177-198

ע17ִ˵ߣΪμšİʶ
ͳӡУ198*̨꣬

ע18ڡ͡͡ȱȡԷТͨй
һ顣

һžž꣬ڼî֮ʮһգԪի