ΩԸƽˮʹ罭ϣ
et revelabitur quasi aqua iudicium et iustitia quasi torrens fortis




ý鼴ʶ̬ ۷˸ѧɵý˼

[ժ Ҫ]˸ѧѧѧѧѧijɾ;ĿڴѧϵĹڹȴʼо˸ѧɵĴ˼뼯ڶýƵʶϡΪڷ﹤ҵУýѳΪʶ̬ΪάͳεĺϷԵĻͨϵIJݺƭý鲻ΪЧĻķԣϵͳԺͷԵļͥԶͯӰ죬͵ȵ˺ᡣȻҪǶʱƶΪʶ̬ýУҲֵǷ˼ͽ

[ؼ]˸ѧɣоʶ̬ý

[ͼ] [ױʶ] [±]

Media is ideology
On media domination theory of Frankfurt School

SHAO Pei-ren LI Liang

(College of Humanities Zhejiang University,Hangzhou 310028,China)

Abstract: Frankfurt School attracts worldwide attention in the field of philosophy, sociology, political science and psychology. However, their attribution to the communication study is not well reviewed among domestic researchers. Frankfurt School mainly focuses on the theory of media domination and takes mass media as an ideology to be the legal foundation for state sovereignty in the advanced industrial society. Through the media manipulation and fraudulent conduct, mass media not only effectively eliminate the social-culture negativity but also systematically clear away the influence on children from domestic environment conceiving criticism and negativity, thus helped create one dimensional man and society. Although such criticism is mainly on the media as ideology in capitalist system, it is worthy for our introspection and reference.

Key words: Frankfurt School; critical communication study; ideology; mass media

һ

ѧʷϣоָijһϵоɱ𣬶ǰ಻ͬɺš[1]ǣڶУ˸ѧоʷáӰһѧɣҲǶԴرǶԴڴעоһѧɣоɹҲɵԴͷ

ڷ˸ѧɵоУкܶ봫йأΪŴԻʮֱҪġѧɵѧ߱Walter BenjaminŵTheodor W Adorno˺ĬMax HorkheimerHerbert MarcuseLeo LowenthalȣڲͬʱڶԴý飨رǵӰ͹㲥ȣĻҵķСЩоɹо֮һ˹ƶ(Paul Lazarsfeld)ڡڹĺеĴо(1941)һУ֮Ϊġо[2]ЩоҪΪý֯ĻҵʹĻ棬漰ý顢ߡýƷڼƵ⡣ڶЩͬоУý鼰ƵоڴоռҪλ

ǣ˸ѧɵġۼͨԸѴشϵͳз[3]ԸϽԼ۳Ϊۡ,롰ʵ֤ۡȷֿ˺Ĭ˵۲עִʽѾƶĿ꣬һע༰DZܡĿڰ˴ūнų[4]Brian Fay ڷָҪᡪʷʵ״п죬Դʾͨճеı׶˺ΣʵʩԹ淶[5]˺Ϳ˹Pollock and Cox˵ǡ׼ʱĶ硱ڽʾijͻѰҽìܵķʽ[6]ԴˣɽJeffery C.AlexanderΪʵ֤۽ڲ԰׵ġԡԡãʵ֤ǰıĿ磬ųԽĿԡ෴۰ѳԽΪ㣬Űģʽı硣[7]

ˣֵһֳԽʵǿʵ̬ȣһϣܴѵʶ......Ρм·ߡ˼ġ廯ģʽ[6]ϵĸֲƽ󣬹ĸĻijͻͼһаʵеһвͬڴоУ˸ѧɵۼҪģҲͼĶӡýҵʹĻĹУʾ̬ġεġıʺͶDZڶԼýʶ̬ߵĺϷΪؽ뻯ýͼʽṩ֤ݡ

˸ѧɵý˼룬Ҫڶԡýıơ˭ý顱ΪοơԼýʲôýοơƵĺĿϡýıƣָҶýĿƣýĿƣָýΪȨһۿƹ߶ĿơǰǹҶýĿƣǹͨýĿơҶýĿǶпƵǰᣬ˵ýĿƲǹҶʵʩƵһֶζѡˣҸԤҲͳ˷˸ѧý˼ĺݺо㡣

30𣬷˸ѧо˹ĸԴʱͿʼ˶ԹҵĿ졣ս˹ʱµķչ״Լ¼⡣˸ѧɵĹ۴ϿԾݴ˷Ϊ֣ǰһʱڵļĹۺͺһʱڵʵĹۡ

ĹԻ˺ĬͲΪΪԴʱתΪʱҲųΪҵĿԣʵ̬ԣǵصصġ塱ҡֶΪͻǡ֯ĿֲͳΡԼͨһ̶ȵҪʹ䡰Ըӡĸ߳Ƿ˹רĵ¹˹ּȨͳµ˹µǶҡֿԵطӳۼǶľ̬ǿѾӡ˵ǵļ۵ǿ,Ҳɱʵ˾룬Ӱ쵽Ŀ͹ԡ

սԺƽỷУ͹˹˶ʱҵʵ̬˸ĹעȻΪ͹۵ʵĹۡҡ֯ĿֲѲڣתΪҡͨˮƽʹΪʺͰȫơ֮ӲԿƵʧԿƿʼˡ˹һִҡĸΪִҡԵķչǡҸԤǿҶԾûijʹҺ;һֹжȫְܡϽһָֹһֵά֣һȷͼ졣

۹۷˸ѧʱڵۣǿԷ֣ܹ۷չѸ٣۵ҲͬڹҿƵʺͷʽҲвͬǶΪҶȫȷɵġˣҲãҺִҲãǶĿֻзʽIJͬܺЧȫһµġ仰˵ҶȫκιжǴڵġ

˸ѧΪִʱУȨýĿƷǵûмһǿˡ˺Ĭ밢ŵն˵㲥ϵͳһ˽˵ҵѾȨ˹ũǹҵ̲ݹأߵ㲥ǹҵĻͲ[8]ʣ㲥ӰȴýȫܹȨƵġĹܼڹҿ·ӵĹܣǹҵ⡰Ϣý顱ۣܽΪϢֹߵĴýͬΪݺ͹Ĵý𡱣סýէһִϢṩֵĹߣʵϲ˼οƵȹܵĴýִDzڵġ[9]ý鼴ʹΪϢȺڵḶ́ҲǹȨȺڽйͲݵĹ̡˵ףýǹҵġͲȨĹߣܹҿݵġ

ڼķ˸ѧɵʿУý鲻ҵġͲȨĹߣDZҼõάʶ̬ͳν׼־Ĺߣʶֱ̬ʶְ̬ܣάŹͳεĺϷԡ

ʶ̬Ϊ۵ҪԴڷѧҡѧDestuttde Tracy俴ǡձԭͷɵѧ˵[10]ھ˼Уʶָ̬ռͳελάֵһƭ˵˼룬ѧսʤʶ̬[3]˹ڸ÷ֵһодʶ̬ν˼ʶأٵʶɵĹ̡[11]˸ѧҪϼ̳вһ˼˹ĹΪʶ̬һʶ̬ձԣ簢ŵΪʶ̬ʵʶǻԡ[12]ķΪЩ˵ʶ̬ڸλԣЩʶ̬ǻԡ[13]

˸ѧָΪʶʶ̬άȨͳΡˣʶ̬ѳΪάֹͳεĺϷԵĻҪýţͱʶ̬г׵СDZʾ۾Ҫʶ̬еʽ[14]ʶ̬ڷ˸ѧɵռҪĵλоΪ˵˸ѧɵһĻʶ̬ҲΪ[15]ҲΪˣ˸ѧɵý˼ҪΪһʶ̬СڶԹҶýĿƵĹעҪؽĿ۽ýʶ̬ϡеʶ̬壺һΪʶ̬ߣάʶ̬Ϊʶ̬άͳΡ

ΤMarx Webber˵ʱ֯ʽǡͶ֮ԡ༴ԡʱһл޲ֹԡΤʱ͸Ḷ֮́Ϊ̡[16]˸ѧɽһָһУˮϵͶ߳ˡһˡһ֡ˮϵһԭӡ̺֡ͽִѧϵһڽ͹ͨļΪֶͨεĴýIJͷչСζŴýġ߻߻ı׼͸ý֮Сôֹ߻Ŀָδںδأ˵Τ˵ĺУҪʵֵIJǺԱԺԵʵûеõϵͳεļȶʽ[17]ʹͳεõϣҲʹͳΡϷάּȶͳεijڡ

Զ׼ýĹ߻޷dz䵱άͳκϷĹߡνϷ˹ΪָһǵĴϿɺͳϡͳεĺϷԱΪһʶ̬ĺϷýĹþڳ䵱άʶ̬Ĺߡ[18]ý鹤߻ľ֣û˺Ĭһ仰Ҳ׼ȷˣͨýԼӰ췽ʽγǵ˼͸飬ͨԱ˼ԼԿ˼뷽ʽ϶ܹṩḻϢĽͲЧƣС˼άIJ𡣡һ仰ýĹҪڴٽάᡰ˼ͬһԡϡ[4]

ڷ˸ѧɿý鲻ʶ̬Ĺߣý鱾ʶ̬

ý鼴ʶ̬Ĺ۵㣬Դڷ˸ѧ֪һ۶ϣѧʶ̬˸ѧɵλҪۼңһ۶϶һ۵㾭һչĹ̡ʼԻ˺ĬоŵŹΪ֪ɹ˹һϵʹ֮Ϊ۶ϡǣѴýΪƼΪʶ̬еĴԶУָʶ̬ʵģҪͰŵͨýΪʶ̬ѧΪʶ̬Ĺ۵ġ仰˵ԷʱҵĴڴýУʵǵĿƼΪʶ̬Ҫ۾ݡ

˺Ĭŵڡɱ֤1993ĻҵһУɾļڽӦöγɵý֯ϵĻҵǵļеҪͨĻҵȫĺУDzˡϵĺԣͳϵĺԡ۶ϡŵĻҵʱһʾһʮֿ϶ָӰ͹㲥ҪΪʵϣǸҵתķƷҲϿΪʶ̬ڡĻҵһУŵǹ᳹ʼյı̬ȣĻҵΪһʶ̬ˡѹƺͶʵ񻯡ЩĻҵʶ̬ū۱ڵͳʵҪΪ΢ЧƭDZdz׵˸˵ķʶһݵά˼ȶĴڡĻҵʶ̬ūۣ䱾ʶԣǿƼʶ̬ūۡ[8]

ȻĻҵʶ̬ūۣȫͬڡý鼴ʶ̬۶ϡΪѧܵ˵ΪŵĻҵϹ֮ڼý鱾򲻴ȷСΪŵĵǡĻĶ֧似[12]Ҳ˵Ļҵʶ̬ūۣ˵ýūۣ˵֧ýͳߵȨūۡ

ýΪʶ̬ȫģڡȵˡ1993һУԷ﹤ҵʶ̬ȫооʵҲǶԷ﹤ҵпѧִʶְ̬ܵоԽ˰ŵڡԡȷļȨص㣬ĴͳѲάȥˣܰѼͬʹԼôһͳϵڼĸ͹á[9]ͳεļȶĿĺ棬Ǻ׷ӵĺʹӼ֮ǿӵģѰڼ豸ĽṹС[17]Ϊ˼˵ļ״ѾıˣΪļͼӦ޷ֿˡһʷĺƣǸͳߵҪǸҪƳģƱһͳεԺͿƵˣζѧһеĿѧΪʶ̬ѧý֮ԳΪʶ̬Ϊ ԵĹԺūԣͳ˺ū˵Ṧܡ[9]

ĿƼʶ̬У˲ýʶ̬۶ϡ˵ýʵϱеĿѧһ־ҪУͳģýȴǾ塢ʵڵġýǼ⻯ĴʡڡȵˡУԹҵʶѹƸԸγһֵȵ˼ΪʽϸЩСýΪһֹͲֶΣʶͬʱʹʶԶγɵȵ˼Ϊ棬ʮҪá⣬Ļ˫ȵɥʧ߼Ļ˻ΪĻԵIJܻӶγɵ˼άʽУǶԷ֣ʹת䷢ģǴý顣Щֳŵ˼ۼΪҪdzýΪʶ̬Ĺ۵㣬˵ý鼴ʶ̬۶ѰĿƼʶ̬С

֮﹤ҵĴýΪǵĿƼʶ̬еĴԶҪݣǣǵý鼰ýΪʶ̬вͬĺ壬ֲͬǶԿƼʶ̬IJͬڰŵȨȫƶΪʶ̬ýĻҵĻҵܵҵȫ֧䣬ѳΪάͳκϷԵĹߣ˶Ϊʶ̬ȴΪýΪʶ̬ΪܵȫƣΪԤȰͳߵ־ҪƳġ仰˵ûаѼΪʶ̬ԭȫڻӰ죬ƺͼҲһġˣýΪʶ̬ԭǹҵȫƣԭͳεԡ

ý֮ԻΪʶ̬˸ѧΪҪΪýвԣý˲ݺͿƹܡΪڷ﹤ҵᣬýѾ˲ݺͿ˵ʶħŵڡʶ̬1964һдʶ̬ҪܣڶȺڽ˼ʶݣһֱĻҵӰԺ糡ߵ硢ӡѧʽͳƬʵֵġ[8]ýֲ֯ͨݺͿƣάͳεĺϷԡ

ֲָݺͿͨýݡýʹõԵĹ淶ʹģʽʵֵġ˵ΪͳκϷߵý飬Ҫ棺

һǶԴݵҺͿơȫҿƵý֯ȻҪͳҪ󴫲Ĺ涨ĶֹЩͳν׼ĶĻҵֹԺ͹Ʒ[8]ҡһýΪάȶʵܶԱѾЭ˸ֱֶΣԽڿڼϳΪܵġ[9]ЩϳȶۺжĹĿ꣬ų⡢򱻹Ϊһ΢DZȶϵŵĺ¶塣ýĴ̾һݵĿ϶ͷ񶨹̡Уýڲάʶ̬ڲϵʶ̬ͳν׼ͳΣýͨϵĿ϶ͷ񶨣ΪϷġ

ǶýԵĹ淶Լ涨ݵĴӦģýڴЩʱʹõǹ涨ԡΪЩݵʽý֯ȷԼԵľ䷨ʹʻ㡣ŵ˵ӳһƷпԷdzؿЩƷһĿȻز˹涨ԡ[8]ڰŵͻ˺ĬĻҵеĸֲԼЩýƷͨͬļֶκضԶγɵġȻ֡涨ԡȻڹȨȨǿԹ涨ȫ

ǶԴ̵ĿݡֶԴݺԽй淶ý顰Ʒͨڴ̵ˣᣬڸ˺ᡣýڴýܽеһǿԵ˼䣬ȴһԵεķʽеġַʽΪڴ̾һִߵص㣬ͬʱȾһα׽ɫʡDzظĽǶԴ̵ĹָĽִڴֱͬϵûеλְľ룬ҡҲڵ[8]ַʽûҪǷӺ˼룻෴һʽϵɣɣСϢɣһָѡķʽСȻѡڿ϶ͬһ֮еѡ񡣾͸˵Ľնԣڹ޳˸ַý飬ý޳˸ַݣ޶ǶýݵѡΧ֡ɡѡͽܣʵһּӵġεǿԵĿġǿ޷ΪʶΪѡԼģڡڡķΧСɡѡġ

ڴýͨݡԺ͹̵IJݣմﵽʶһ»˼淶մﵽ˲ݡƵĿġ˸ѧΪһ»͡淶Ǹ˺ϼȶʶ̬ȨʹԼ˼Ϊʶ̬֧䡣ӡڡͬ⡱ǣǡǡϣýʶ̬ܿ˵˼룬͸˵ṹı˵˼άʽͼֵʹ˳ʧȥĵĶɣӶԸؽֿƺͲݡ

ýԺƭԣýΪʶ̬һҪء˸ѧΪʶ̬һʶʶ̬еһͻġԡԼɴ˴ġƭԡʶ̬ƭԼý˵ūۿҪڵԴֱʽеͳҪ΢ҲΪЧýʶ̬ԺƭԣҪ漸棺

1.ձͳһָǵĴڴý鼸ѵذ浱һжµ˵ۡ[9]յĴýȻ᱾άͳν׼Ҫͳߵ浱ձ͹䡣ջۣýܹһͳߵձ֮ͳһԣӶʹ˸е͵ͬȨӵߵ棬Ȩʧ˵ʧͳַҲǶַͷdzԵطӳý֯ƭԡ̸ƭԵĺʱ˵ձ֮ͳһһЩìܵijͻΪΪܰ߰뱻״̬[12]ôýʹƭвմﵽĿأһ֡󡱣һֵĸΪƭʹõõ㣬Ӷʵ

2.ΪճУһ֡ʵ͡ٵ󡱡ν١󣬾ָЩڸ˵ѹǿӸ˵󡱣ЩͳߵҪתɵĸ˵ҪͳߵҪĸ[9]ýһֱϵЩ󣬲ŬʹǸܵȥЩ󡣵ǣDZ涨㣬ǡΪ߶־ܾþʵʽ㣬һά㣬һõ㣬һƭԵ㣬һ֡Ȩ㡱[19]ĻҵͨϵԸƭߡϸıֻװ꣬ŵûеõʵʵĶ֣ù˿ͻ伢ѡȻܵĿʮɫջ󣬵ʵԲòҵͬƷҲܶ԰ƷѲֵܶĶΪһĶƺֱӶԲֱҪˣһְοĻҵǴԸѹԸ[8]ͨƭ㣬ýʹʵܵƣȴʹͳdz

3.ûʵͬʱý黹ͨʵʵĻƭȺڡΪͳ߲Ըʹʶһij־εʵУԸʶѹƵʵԸԾͨýʵΡֶξǡ񻯶ڡʵ뻯ĻҵһʵظԻߵ󣬲ϵذʵΪ룬ؿ˷شĴϢ빫ʵ֮ìܡ[8]뻯ʵɱκƭһֻرԼԵʶʶʵѣʶ뻯ʵԺƭԣΪý磬Լʵ磬ʵͬýһáʶ˻õʵв԰Σֶŵָɷϣڿ԰ʵһġõİѣǶʵӱܶǶʵĸı䣬Զʵ˳ӶǶʵĿܡڡѺӱճͺ˽һһʼ;ˡһصԭij㡱[8] ָʱңý֯ƭǽڴԸĻ֮ϣʵͬһǿơý͹ߵ㣬һжԤȹ涨ġԶDZ涨ߺߡĻҵ˵ߣƭǶѵ㣬ҪߣӦöĶ㡣[8]ŵһϣյ¹ʱڵķ̻˵״κ˲ܶ˭ҪӪ[8]Ϸ仰ԿĻҵĴϡÿ˶ýԼ֮ƭ㣬ǿƣͻᱻȳΪһˣһˣձýӵеǿʵʣʶ̬ӵеԵǿ

˸ѧΪ䵱ʶ̬Ĵý鹹һͳ߿֮µȫյϵϵ֮Уͷе˼άᣬ״ķתΪ״Ŀ϶ľܾܾ˵ʶ벢ͬʶԶֱͯӰҲýȡ֮ˣµʶ̬ɹݵУÿ˶ΪҡţΪǡţ˺ڡȡ˱Ӧýףýūᡰʶ̬Ĵڣִ״ѹһеΪģʽ֮⣬ʶ̬ûʲô[20]

˸ѧɵýƷȻзԡԡԺ˼Եص㡣ƣ۲ӵֺδѷĸκŵʾκγɹֻǷ񶨡[9]ӴĹһʶ̬ýԷĻЧƣ֪˵СýΣֻܻһ֡Ļȡ룬̽ѰȡĿ;˽ΨҶѵ̬зһûϣľʽȡͬʱǵķضʱ˼ʵһľ룬ټһģ̬ȺͽΪҰڱ˵η֮ѧֵʵҲֻԲ״̬֡

˸ѧ֡ԻijԻҲʵ֤ѧɵۼΪ׽֤ΨԺ۵Ұо͹עýԼýᡢýȨ֮ĹϵԼĹ۲һϵޱʡĹ۵㣬ֵÿ϶ģֿýر񶨵ã׶˹ýͿƼĺΪأȻ˱ġġ۵̶֮СЩֵǷ˼ͼȡġ [ο]
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[1] Ž̨ۡĻҵ˾,1994,1

[2] Paul Lazarsfeld: Remark on Administrative and Critical Communication Research, ,1941.

[3] ()СԼۡµ룬йѧ磬1999408410

[4] ()˺ĬۡС룬죬磬1993230-232329-330

[5] Brian Fay: Social Theory and Political Practice , London : Allen & Unwin ,1975,94.

[6] Della Pollock and J . Robert Cox: "Historicizing ' Reason ' : Critical Theory, Practice, and Postmodernity, " Communication Monographs 581991,171,175.

[7] ()ɽ󣺡ѧʮִ룬ij磬2000261

[8] ()˺Ĭŵɵı֤룬죬磬199315012911911977-78130-131138133140

[9] ()ȵˡŷ, 죬磬19939785811216

[10] ѧ˹ʱ塱죬磬1996223

[11] ˼˹ȫ磬197694

[12] ()ܣ˸ѧʷ룬ݣ㶫磬1996264,249249

[13] ()ķڻı˰ɳ磬1986139

[14] ()˹Ľṹת͡룬Ϻѧֳ磬199954-55184

[15] ŷͬΰ˸ѧо죬磬1990262

[16] ()Τ½ʱ徫񡷣룬꣬19961732

[17] ()˹Ϊʶ̬ļѧ룬Ϻѧֳ磬19993940

[18] ()˹죬磬1993184

[19] ()ŵѧۡƽ룬ɶĴ磬199833

[20] ˼ۡйѧ磬1991218


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