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ĵߡӺȵԢ˵

ͱ

йһԢԣȡһֻɽũȣһȾһһһؼһһѰȡӼһֻӣҲ編ƣһһһһæһ磬ڻɽˣһȴһҲûСӰ˼⣬ũĿһȽϣԭӵĿûеߣһֻյ׿ӣũĿȴе׵ġ

СӵԢԣȴǷ˼汲ΪæʮĵʧȡһΪǵһߣʹæڰæ һ Դʷչ

һԴΪο

ԴӢӢɹı־ǽϮĹųڹȨ֮⣬ϮøԤΣִƹȨ˱ͨѡڵΡһ仰˵ԴרΪרĿһߣרϮϵųڹȨ֮⣬ΪȨȷһijʼƶȣѡƶȡ

ܳ˾뵥һķҰڹȨԴϣԾѡΪʵеƶȡͬǣԷΪĵһҴ˹׷רϮƶȣרϮƶȱɹļ£Ȩ޹ءҲ˵ۺڹȨ棬Ƕרķ񶨣ԾѡĿ϶

ı죺14Ƶߣ񶨾ѡȷר

19ĩ¹ȺȽ׼ŵۣ˼˵޲׼ȽĽ׼޲׼Ӧͳ磬ұȻȨǣһҵˣ˼¹ȴڶ˹õ֤ǰ棬¹ϣռֱ׷Ƚ׼۵ĿƳŵۣŵȵ壬Ӧͳ磬ұȻȨϣշЧ˹֣հȫģʽ¢ϾáΡȨѵ¹СһͿʼϴԣȶԱԱԱɴ⵳

Ϊ֤ͱ޲׼Ƚԣ˹쵼Ĺ˸ķߺ쵼ߣ˵ս˵һ¡Ϊ֤ͱȽԣϣ쵼ĵ¹ҲսͬǣǹսϣյҰĸս

˼ϣյġۡǶԾѡƶȵĻԴΪȽ׼ŵѾȷѡȫûбҪһѡѡԤͬ쵼Ȼʹø㷺ȨԼľӪרϮƶȾͻһ뵱귨ñ׷ϳרλϮһһζԾѡƶȵij׷񶨣רϮij׸٣ҲǽеġͬǣʱѾģרϮҲҪ£Ե׵˹ֵĻ˵DzܹˣΪ˹ǵĻ෴ǻҪܷ涨ǵרϮƶȡ ֮󣬳14ܷ涨רϳѡ졣ĸǣѡ14ҵר档һ仰˵ʼǶרķ񶨣Ƕʼ뵱רоѡķ񶨣רϮٿ϶

ߵķչƣܷBill of RightsΪ

Ϊ14ı졢רĸٶͣ෴ڶרƸٵķ˼л˳ķչܷΪܷĵ䷶УܷBill of RightsΪᡢӡԺȷʮΪƶȣΪ߷չƵĵ䷶Ϊṩ˿üŵı׼

ܷBill of Rights10е1ƹģ23ƾӵģ47ƷԺ˾Ѳģ8˰շѵģ9Ʒɽ͵ģ10ʣȨġÿһжΪĹ涨

ʮΪƶȣȷԭ뿪šɡչĻ

ĵߣѡƶ

һѡĹ

1 ѡȷƽȣѡ˹ĹȨʹṫƽ᲻Զֲ޷ѾڵIJҲᱻϷʱ˵ĹȨʱ

ƽȣڶԴһӴϣӵƽȵķȨȨȨ˼ӵе룬Ϊʵ룬̽˶ƶȣ䵽˾ѡϡܾѡĽֻDzȨѡľԴʹкѡ˽߾ȫ⣬һµĺѡ˵ѡ˹Ȩ˽ȨƽȡѡƵȷ˹Ȩ컯Ӷʹ˵ֵɡšƽܵءûƵľѡ컯һ컯ɡšƽֵ˺߲ء

ɡṫȨϣǾѡɡѡɵĹϵʵǸ˽ɵĹϵԴˣӺ˼˵úܺá˵ΪΪ˼˵ȫɵǰᡣй˵˼빲Ϊ˹Զ룬־ҪйһʱᣬйñʱĽɡͶƸǵơǣûоѡԱѹƾѡԱάҹȨضš䣬͵ū⽨ƻسøֲҸȼΪֻרͳµԭʼᡢū⽨Ż

2 ޶ȵصĻԣǿײĹͨΪֹʵƽΧΡ ѡƶȵľںѡ˵ľԡͨ־Կ޶ȵصĻԣǿײĹͨΪֹʵƽΧΡûоԵѡǼѡ٣ΪʲôΪֻһѡˣбȽϵѡʺԼĺѡ˵ȨҲ˵ѡȨְţҪôӣҪô˳޿߸ı䡣ˣ˵ѡƶûоƣDzƽȵģѡƶһ׶ζԴڣѡٵĹҲһƽȡ ѡͲһʹúѡ˸ܵѹѡԶѡ񱣳޶ȵһ£ȻǺѡˣĵһڣѡ˵ﻰƽɴ˵õʵ֡Ժ󣬺ѡ˵ĵڶ¾ԼʩѡѡͶԼƱԱܹƽɴ˵õʵ֡ѡ˱ѡԺ󣬵¾ԼıһΣҪȫڶԼ֧ߵIJ룬Ȼʽֻһʤߣʵϣ뵱ѡһƽѾһ־ѹµõʵ֡ ϳѡɣھѡα벻ԣҲʱ޲׼˵ģֻʲ׼û޲߽ײ㡣֤۵۾ǣѡٵĽʲ׼ѡͨ޲߲ܱѡϡ޲׼ҪȨͱϳѡơ

ڿ˵Ǵģѡûн׼ԡѡѹʵijԹᴩȨ֯ʼգǵ˵ȫǶԾѡ⡣ϳѡȫһֵˡʵϣϳѡԺͨ˲޷ѡɥʧѡȨԭƶȵIJײûиƣµIJףȥǿͨѡ֮ľԼ־ھѡƶȱϳԺֻһѡˡһѡѡİţôȫƽأİţʹ޲׼Ȩʹ޲׼Ȩʲ׼Ȩ󣬸ɻ10ָˡ

һ򲽣ѡƶȼIJ㣬ǵѡڷӳͨ˵Ըͨв޲߹ͬѡƽȣгᣬԶߴȷ湦Ҳֻƣܷϳ 3 ޶ȵؽάҹȨѻ״̬ƶȳɱΪֹι̵Ȩ֯ƶȡ

йΪȨ֯ƶȾơϮơճӼ̳ơһϮơѡȨ֯ƶȡȨ֯ƶȵĿĶΪ˱֤ҹȨôѻ״̬ѻ״̬ĻҪжһҪȫԣҪӦ䡣

ȫ˵ƵķΧ־ϮơճӼ̳ѪԵϵһϮţȫԡӦ˵һȫԵĶӦ䣬ơϮơճӼ̳ƶƣ仯ѡһϮȻڹԪ׵ְλϷϳƣȡѡƣڲǾԵѡ٣ְλȻƣ仯ͬѡ

һַȫԵġרƶȣάֹҹȨѻ״̬Ȼɱ߰ȫӦרƶȣʵΪᶯ֮Դרƶ£һԱάز٣һԱݻȫһҲdzʵѻõıر;ijͷأɱ֮Ϊ֮Ŀ

ڵάרijɱԶԶάѡijɱ14ڼʮֻ֮ʣ4йԽϡʡŰ͡Ĺ֮УѾûһټԭеľˡľ뽩ƵìܣʹĹרϮƶȲһ顣˵ϳѡʵר۳ʲôĿǣ;14ʧܡ

ѡƶȻѡκ־εȫ̾ȫԡѡĵѡִֻһڣѡβóڣƳб仯ԡѡҪͨʵֹҹȨ˳ӣѡҲҪרɱ£еĶҸԴȹ̵Ȩ֯ʽ 4 ݵ˽ײ뼲࣬ΪֹЧߵơ

ỷı仯Ҫı仯ԭȺõ߿ܱòʱˡûоѡѹȨԴ޳ʹǺԲֽײļ࣬ڸĸ߼ش󡣺±ɻ£Сɴݳɶҡ10Ȩ̨˵רҪʵѡʵоѡƵĹңڼȨ֮Դ˭Ӯѡ˭ӮȨƳͨ裬Чߡ

5 ЧؼԼȨΪֹЧߵҷչơ

ѡʹѳΪȥʽھѡңûǸ߸Υ⣬ûĸ߸Ҹ߸ϣڡ쵼ڣΪڰֹѧϰ顣רңЩ˾ռߵġھѡʹǰŽᣬȨǰȶһģҷչЧȻӡҲǹȥʮ꣬ѡ14רҵսƽУӮʤĸԭ֮һ

ѡĵ

1 Ŀꡢ·

Ŀꡢ·κһƻ̵ıرҪءĿǵ·ָ꣬㡣ijԶĿʵѻ״̬ܷ·άԣԾȷԴȫ̵ÿһʱ㣬ѻ״̬ܷĵ߾ǾѡƶȣʾľԵѡͻƵĵߣûоѡûоԣûоԾûѻûѻκ붼᳹ʧܡ

2ѡĵ

νߣȷҪ߲ģûпܸı顣ѡÿұҪ£ûоѡ֮ҲȥĸȨͬСרר롰רūר⽨ר𣬵ֲҪУרĽǶ߾רǶԾѡƶҲʼ뵱ķ񶨣ûƶϵIJ

ѡƶ

Ϊάѡ˳УࡰΪƶȣΪѡƶȡЩƶȹ᳹ˡƽȡ룬ȷѡٵľԣͨѡٵľȷԴôѻ״̬ѡƶҪص㣺

1 ȷƽͬȿ

2 ͬȿΪȨӼԷԣ

3 Ȩ뷴ͬҪ

4 κԵķɰžͨϵȨӣΪǷţΥܣʼղ߷Ч

¼֣

1 ˼ӣڽ̡ۡѧ˵ۡȨ

2 Ⱥӣ׼ӡְҵӡӡӡӵȣ

ϸ΢IJĪ˼룬˵˼бļб֡ƽжֱ֣ƽȵԴͷҲ˼ǯơԣܷBill of Rights1һ仰ǣ᲻ȷָ̣˼룩Ųǣ᲻ֹڽ̣˼룩ɣɡɡƽᣨ磩ɺҪԩȨCongress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.

ܷȨԴΥƶ

ǾΥƶȵҲԼĹΥƶȡΪΥܾǶܷĵΥʵûвģֻаΥΪҪָΥܷĵΪΥĵпɲ塣ΪΥҪָΥȨʮܷܷΪΥов

һӽǣܷάܷȨȷԲΥƶȣеԵãܷȨԴЩΪȣܷҲǷûΪܷȷΪܷпֻһʽֻܷһʽ޷ΪʲôΥṩԲı׼ΣΥɶЧ᳹壬Ļǣֺܵľ淶һԹ淶Ҫܷʹܷ⣬Υײ磺ܷ涨ƽԭܷƽȵȨʵϣܶҶڱڽɡͬʱȷij˼ȵλԭڣܷû᲻ȷָ̣˼룩ĵûеΥܱײע⣬ΥҲͺѲ

ġ ררûеߵ

һרʷרĹͬ

20ͳ14ҴרƶȣרƶȱΪ͵ררѧ߰ȷרѡȽϣó£ 1йܷԱȽϳһǧŰٶ֣弫ΪҪ

3ƺơ

4쵼µĶ൳Эơ

5һơ

6гüҵĺ۵ء

Ϊʵ϶רƶȵƶȣȻԾѡΪߵҲƵƶȣרҲҲʷϣ͵רǣרūר͡⽨רЩרϵУִܿµӰӡ潫רĹͬ£ 1 רԤȷijѧ˵ijѪԵij֯ռȨ

2ר׵ƶȣ˼ơۿơѡٿơοơ롰ÿơ

˼ưAȷȫָ˼룬񻯵ֱϵףһĴӢʵۣBϢһãͬ˼빲棻C졢޸ʷʷ˼Dÿһʱھһ˼ͳһ˶ӭ߽߷һпƾϢ˼ƿʼҲȨΪʲôƳ˼롢ϢƷܷҪλõҪԭ ۿưAΪרߡר塢רȨ蹦̵¡ʹѡͶƱңԾƱͶУBӹ̡̡ƶȡΪʹ蹦̵֮֮Ȩѳ߲ԼҪӹ̡̡ȨǰԤȽԼļ̳˵пܳĵҵڲ˰ա߷ֲƽΣжϧCƶȡۡƶȣɸר߲ϢѹDZڵľߣƽġӹ̡̡ʵġ蹦̵¡ܻᱻ˽ҴƶȡѹƱز١

ѡٿơAѡ˿ƣ۵ȶѡѡ٣ѡ˵ѾԤ䶨Bѡٹ̿ƣֹѡ˷ʩ˵ǰιʧֹѡƱŵѡκι˽µĹͨ뽻ףDz֮硣

οơAƶȣר׼ɹ㷺ͬˣԳרλĽ߷棻BԲͬߴۡ桢ᡢ硢ʾʵʩCȫʵϢ뵵ɽܹϢΪϢijͻջʹϢԭα¶רĻͻ߽⡣

ÿơAȨ¢ϹҾȨҪӹ̣¢ϹҾ첻ˡӹ̡ͻʧȨB۵أȨ߽¢ϹҾDzģΪⲢܱ֤Ȩܹȫλľþȫȡʤʺ۵رز٣ȫΧڽ˵ľóɾֱӾΪУ˰¢ۣȷȫԼ֮¡

רƶȵ߼һκһרҪ֡ơף˼·ǣΪʲôʵרΪר߷dz㣨蹦̵²ɱ⣬޹޵£ҲҪ칦£첻ٵҲҪֻ̣Ҫѡʱ˾Уһզ죿ǧù֪ƶȡƶȡϢۡƶʵ֮أһ棬Ҳרֿ¡ȻˣΪÿһֿ˵˾ǹʵϢϢһʼɱˣɵĶԼ רʷרIJͬ

ר롰רūר⽨רIJͬר岻ͬר񡣵ǣʷϣרҲԼרΪ롰ǡ顱еάֹˣֲͬʵȷ֤ רۣרûеߵ

ǰܶר֮ɴ£ʵרǺרûеߵΪ֤ר⣬޵ߣǿʵʿһЩ£

֮һйܷԱȽϳһǧŰٶ֣弫ΪҪ ȷʵûĸҵܷԣɾǷɣҪԸл񹲺͹ܷ۵IJҲԡΪл񹲺͹ܷӮ˾֪ijʽܷȻ¡ǡΪ蹦̵¡ļơָ蹦̵²ǵĸ蹦̵£Ǻƶȴںάϵۻشл񹲺͹ΪʲôҪϳѡƶȣררĸ㣿ΪʲôиɵȨл񹲺͹ΪʲôֻǺɣл񹲺͹ΪʲôܲɵƽƶȣйΪʲôɾѡۡƷɲɼϢɽ硢ʾйΪʲôҪʵһƣΪʲôҪᾭýк۵أл񹲺͹ܷΪʲôҪȷȨƶȵȵȻ⡣Ϊʲôܼ򵥡ΪضˡضȺиСȺҪȨ Ȼ¾רеϵĸ蹦̵°ˣ蹦̵¶һר䶼ΪҪ

֮ר רԭʼᵽ⽨ᶼУҶˡΪơѡרǴ£֮ڷϳֿƣƽȵزμӾѡѾϣְרھѡ˵ɡ¡Էڡ

֮ƺơ

ϵοֶΣרҪҲ룬ֻɲ˵ͨԭʼУ㣺ڿƣԼܿУҿģרᣬһ쵼ġ

֮ģ쵼µĶ൳Эơ

سġʼʡġϲǵȨЭ̡ԼIJ˿ѷɫڡǹ쵼ʱܷ˵ҲʹЭ̣ǡ쵼˹ܷ֮ʽȷ

֮壺һơ

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֮гüҵĺ۵ء

͵ľÿƣרǧټƵعܿؾʵк۵أڵľóɾΪС

רڣȷΪƶȣĵߡڵߡר±רǺ޵ߵڣ

1 ˼ƣı˼Ȩȷָ˼룬ܷʽΪضˡضȺ蹦̵£Ϊ񻮷ֵȼ

ӴѧĽǶ˵꽫Ļдܷǽ˼дܷûʲôͬǰȨͼһ˼룬ǿа˼롣

2 εȼƣȷơ쵼ͺƣ𿴴ȼϷıȨȺ塣

ͬȿӣȨӣȨ߱رӡй̶ŵ壬رӣй̶Ƚ׼ײرӣй̶쵼ĵűرӣй̶ָ˼룬˵˼رӡЩ㻹㣬Ƿ˹ȨȨ춯ҵ

3 ۡѡٿƣϢ顢顢ϳѡѡ˿ơȶѡ١

4 ÿƣƿơҵơ˰տơơ۵ؿơ

רȻֵ׷й֮޲ڡΪƶȷ棬ȴûκεߣԸ蹦̵£ȷȽ׼쵼ָ˼룬ӷȽ׼˼룬ԷϳѡԹۡΪûеߣԳĻȵȶңø׷ȫգǣһӣ޵ÿһװӡ ʷ˻100꣬1905꣬ձԾСսʤһרƴ͢Ժܴ𶯡йҰնսʤʶǽնרʶ ն֮ʤרƣר֮ʤҲ[]ҵʤС֮ƣĹңҲС۸Сսʤڴʵܣսʤרƣר[]ԭרܰ裬Ҫԭ

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[] Ǭ귨ʡ˼[M]йó磬20011µһ棬104ҳ

[] Ǭ귨ʡ˼[M]йó磬20011µһ棬104ҳ