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ʱҲDzͬ˼ҵʱ̣Ϊɵ˼޷Ӧ䶯ӵơ˹Thomas Hobbesһλѧҡ˹д1640-51һϵţ˵ʱŷ˼һΪ˼ָµķЩУֱܳ˼ģĪ1651ġά̹LeviathanⱾУ˹һΪ˿˷ʱӢٵս״ָ̬˹ŵ乲ͬеIJ֮һ棬һոµ˼룬ش˹ɽҵ⣺ƶάֹҴλcohesion1µҽ̳»˹˼롣ȣҽԻ˹һ˼ʷϵĿ죬˵˼ʷϵijֳλΣҽܻ˹ѧеĴ˵˼ӱ֮оɵԻ˹˼Ķڹָͣ˹оĶԡ

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˹ͼأStuartʱڷӢսthe Civil WarֱӴٳɻ˹дά̹Ȼʷ¼ȴ"Ȩ""Ȩ"˼ͻĽ2Ϊʷת۵㣬ʹ˹ԽͳĹס

սǰӢһ䶯ҵʱڡ˼뷽棬ҪڣǷӦͬʱν̻䣿ˣRichard HookΪǶȨı绤ߡΪ֤Ϊιҵķɱڽ̵˷չһոµۡһ׼Լ۵˵Ϊ"ԶУȻȨߣƷߣһзз֮"3ҪǣͽܾȨߵĹ̻̽ͬʱҲܾһȻΥԷ䷶⣬Ϊ̵֯޹أ˲ҪһձġȨĽ̻4Աʱͽͽ壨Constitutionalismྶͥʹõʱͬڽɱijͻϡ

ȨͼȾָȨ֮⣬ҲᷢͻսǰĶܵJean Bodinѧ˵Ӱ죬ʼȨĿ⣬ҲƵƵ˰ᷢΪ˰ȴδͬ⾶˰᷽ΪǹƻӢδͳΪʱձе뷨ǹἰ䷨ͥĺгá֧˼γ˹ܷۡԵʱĴ󷨹ٿ¿ˣSir Edward CokeΪ¿˵صͨcommon lawԵ֣ҲȨԴͳIJǷǹ־仰˵׷ɣ෴أ볼׷5

֮ӢսǰϦìѾ൱ءʵϽڽйͽͽйᡢھм׼ijͻ˼ϸǴ¾˼ת㣨͵Ļ̴ͳµĹ̴ͳԼܷ¾ȨijͻһеķԹڹȨǷӦŵ⡣ı£˹ΪʱѰҳ·1651սʱѧ--ά̹

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սʱڵӢ˼Ͽ˵ڱɽĸ߳˹ĿĺȻҪΪרƱ绤Ȼȴ˼ʷϵĹסʵϣά̹ȻܵȨŵɱҲʮַеĿ6Ȿ֮Աܺ磬Ϊ˹˼ϵСټչֵͼҲʹΪһԽʱΰס˹ԣhuman natureϸ﷽ʽõ"Ȩ߱Ϊר"ĽۡͷԣĽ۱ȻձЧģڹͣ˹Ϊоһſѧ˼ϣ˹ԼۡȻԼȨۣ˼¾硣

˹Ⱥˡ۹񡷣De Cive, 1642塷De Corpore, 1655ˡDe Homine, 1658ܹƺҲʾŻ˹ΪͳķĻڹ֯淶ҲܴӴһƵҴĴۻ˹δƵۡ

ؽ˹John W. N. WatkinsΪ˹ڵѧdzͻ㲻ѻ˹뵱ʱӢ˼һΪѧĻһʱʢеĿѧ"ɷ"תܸĵ䷶﷨ѧϣֹ۵ӢĹܷͳͻġһΨʹӴͳĿʽתеʽۣӶ׵ظı塢빫ڹҵʶ7

ŷõļѧ˹˽⵽һֵʹֱ෴ֻҪǾõģȻԴȻΪǰ֤8ȻһҲܷѧѧϵijͻӿ¿˵˵Ĺ۵Ӣϵͨһ"Ϊ"artificial reasonһʷԶƸΪϣһ棬һּǻ۵ĽᾧԲκһĴܱ9ˣȨͨͳ֣ҲǰţȻԻ˹˵˵Ȼ˵ӷͨȡ֤ɷʽڹɷΪĹɷҪʷѾ¼ĶɣҶʷʶԤʷ¼Ľ˹ĴڿԡΪ˲ȱжɵʹУҲ׼ȷáˣ˹Ϊ¿˵˵Ǵġ⣬ͨµķԷǷɵĴߣǷɵķߣΪİݳһԭ򡣵ǶԻ˹ԣⲻȻȷġ

ѧϵIJû˹ӢδͳôԵʱѧ۵ĽӦãǴ۵Ļء˹ΨΪһеϵͳб仯Դ仯仯"˶"Щ仯ȻijЩȻ淶10й֪ʶṩʶѧ루ңģʽ̸""ʱ򣬻˹֪ʶӦõѧķУ֤Ϊ䶯endeavourӰ졣ֻӰ쵽άģvital˶˶ż˵ijЩ󣬶ЩԷvoluntary˶ָġӦĻ֫˶ȣֱӶ11˹ѧԭӦõѧУһЩĹݳΪĻģʽ

ǣ˹δĻеѧݳйعҵĿѧؽ˹ΪѧĽһ˽۵㣨privacy thesisѧһ˵˼ά˶ͬ˶ͻͬ˼ά£һҪ˽һ˵˼άΨһ취Ǹܵͬ˶仰˵ûнͬľ飩ҲֱӸܵĸ12дĸˣǻ˹´Ȼ״̬state of natureеĸˣҲΪֹ¼ŵ״̬ʹȻ״̬ĴڳΪܡδȻ״̬ұǸ"ά̹"Ḷ́ǻ˹֪ģڴ˲׸

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йػ˹֣̽һǻ˹оеĽ㣬ֿԷֳɶࣺһ԰¿أMichael OakeshottΪΪ˹ѧ˼һµġ仰˵ﲻеıҪ裬Ҳѧ治ɻȱһ֡һʩ˹Leo StraussΪףΪ߲ͳһġȻ˹﷽ʽۣ˼Ļ۵䷢չеǰѾɣֻǺ˹֤˼ķ۶Ի˹˼뱧ֺ̬ȣﶼǹͬעĽ㡣 һԻ˹۵˹ɣQuentin SkinnerҪڿ۲ʱ뵱ʱ˼Ĺϵȡصģ˵ǶԻ˹˼ںĿ죬˵о˹Լ˼룩ķ;ǿԻ˹оܾƷݣtextҪͬʱ䱳context򳣻ԽŵIJڹ͡

¿̸ۡά̹ʱָѧһϵͳҪıµļ⣬һҲ޷ӣΪеڶ֮һҿмΪҪ13ѧнĹػǻô˼Ϊ""human predicamentһʾָ"Ưֹ֪"14֮ԻᷢҪ""ijʣһ棬Ϊһϵ۵Ĵ͸Ĵһֻע¸һ棬ֲͬԣ˿ʶһձ顢Ŀܡͷ˶ʵѧҪյ¼Ҫܸδɸ󡢸ѧѧƻһ֡

ϼпԿ¿Ϊ˵Ծѧ⺭仰˵""IJͬ;ͻͬ˼룬о˼Ѿθһһµ˵ԣ¿Ϊ˹ȷˡȣΪ˹Ψ̬ȣnominalismʹظparticularձ飨universal򡣰ŵѧУ϶""ѧĵλΣ˹еۣΪȻͳ㡣¿Ϊǿ˹۵Ҫ㣺õ۱ǷϲάȻȻǸ˵ĴڡҲΪôұ棨self-preservationǻ˹еĵһµԭ򡣶"ά̹"ҪҲɴ˿"ά̹"Ϊһ"֮"artificial manҪȴʧȻ״̬е"Ȼ"ʹȻЧ˼Ϊ¿ڹ͵Ļ˹ʵ"""Ȩ"ġ

"Ȼ"һ⣬¿Ϊ˹յѧһ档ڡά̹Ȿĺ벿˹൱ƪ̽ϵ̡Ϊô˹ҪIJأӰ¿صĽǶ֤˻˹ѧϵԶ"ѧ"ľޡһ"Ȼ"һ"ά̹"ĹҼȻĹϽ֮⣬һܵһȨ--ϵ--֧15

˵УǿԷֻ˹µĸѾڵʱԼӰ"ζ"Ĺŵ衣԰¿˵Ѿ˹ĻеΨȡҲ˵˹ѧʵ˻ĸ㿴ЩҪܵ˼ˣ˹ѧѧƻһ

ڰ¿У˹ѧȻѧȫݵģһѧƻеһ֣ʩ˹Ŀȴб13ͬ¿أʩ˹ҲΪ˹ѾԶ"ζ"ĹŵĿ롣Ȼ¿زͬǣʩ˹ΪΪ˹ܵеԼΨӰ17෴أΪ˹ԾҪĹŵߣľԶΨۻе֮ǰѾֳˣʹйŵѧʵͳһԱ

ʩ˹Ǿ۵õ۵ġȣ˹ĿеĹŵѧһ֣еΨ˼ģʽidealisticѧʽѧǰ"Уthe noble壨the justȻͬڿ֣the pleasant˻䱾ԱȻ׷ǰߣߣȻһȫԼcompact򳣹棨convention֮ȻȨڣߣȻһõֻҪݺϺ棩"18Ի˹˵ѧ֮԰ԭ򣬲ֻҪѣҪҪЩһξpolitical spiritϣʩ˹Ϊ˹Ǹ۲۵ĹŵѧߣΪѧʽ"ѧܶұҪ"ֹŵϡ

û˹ŵ˼ֵĹؼڻ˹ܵе"ζ"Ŀۼ衣˵һо˼ͨۡʩ˹س֮Ϊ˹֮ԷܵеʽΨ۵Ӱ죬Ϊ۵Գ˹֮Էŵк19Կʩ˹¿ع۵֮ôôû˹ŵеļ衢ȴֱеľأʩ˹ͬؽ˹ȻѧȻȻѧǺĻеʽΨۣԱʿsophistsѧɣر³EpicurusȻ˹ûֱۼЩˣЩ˵ķĿȷкܴӰ졣ʩ˹Ϊ˹µĸ³µĸ˼ûвͬ˹˼ӱ֮Ϊ¡Ըĸ˸һε塣Ҳ˵ɸֵijʩ˹֮Ϊ""˻˹ԷĿ۵ļĿʽѧ--һõơ

һȻеĿģtelosŵ˼모ȻʧȥΪ""ĵǿԡһô֧ԮȻԽأʩ˹Ϊڻ˹УȻڶ"ȻȨ"natural rightsάҲ˵Ȼjus naturaleĸ˹תˣjusӴй淶Եģnormativeתзϣjurisprudentialĺ20ǿԴ󵨵˵ʩ˹ԣ˹еȻϵۣ˼""mortal god--Ҳ"ά̹"Ĺ--ʹЧġ˹Ȼ˼䣬ʵ֤positive law塣

ȻⲢǶԻ˹ѧȻΨһ⣨Ȼڶмصһ֣̩գA. E. Taylor루ǣ׵£Howard WarrenderΪ˹Ȼбۣdeontologyɫ21Ϊ˷˵˹1960һϵйػ˹22˹ɵڹ֮ǰбҪرȻڹ˵

׵Ϊ˹ѧһͳһڻеʽΨ۵µϵΪеȻжԪĽṹһ۵ĿģʹȻб۵ԣȻȻ״̬Сһ棬dzڻеʽΨ۵ѧȻ״̬Ϊ"ά̹"ͳεĽ׶κȻתɾʵ֤ЧķɡҪǣʹںһ׶Σʵ֤ЧԾ䱾۵ijɷ֣DZ۲ʹȻй淶ġ

˹ɲ޳ĿֱȥֿǷһ£ͬؽ˹Ǵ˹ͬʱڵ˼շתֿ֤Ч񡣼򵥵˵˹Ϊijһ˼ʷڹͳɹ񣬲Ҫָ̽˼ұƷҪָ̽˼ʷϣſܽӽ˼ԭò˹60Ի˹һϵ˵صо֮Ӧá

1964һƪУ˹ἰβߵԭ⡣ָ׵ϸжȻһdzҪ;ҪԲܱݿԭжԱĵڹͶȻǻijֶԭĵѡĶtextual suppressions⼸ԭּıҪ;ֹڴ˵ĻڹͳмָµķЧΪڹ߻Ϊ˿˷ıڲһ¶ڵһ--༴ԭдʱʶ̬磨ideological contextǣȻڹ͵ȷԭһβһµ⣬Ȼڹͷŵ˼ʷintellectual historyܹʱԭʷܹ롣˹ɵһƪ23ͿԿڹͷľޡԻ˹Ϊ׵Ϊ׵ıʽȻԳĻô˹ͲΪʱΧı۶ʧȥ塣ƪ˹ױȵijʷϣ˵˹˼ڵʱǹԮġȻо뵱ʱķɣرǷ�""ĽʿǣĶǼûڵʱͬ־֮ͬ㡣˹ָ˹ж߼ıۣǡþŻ˹ȻڹͶ߷ԵȻеۡ˹ɣ׵µ˶Ի˹ȻڹǺϺʱ˼ʷĻôⳡ۸ͲӦ÷Ϊͬ޴ͬҲ޴ӷ𡣴ʷһ˹Ϊ׵µ˶Ի˹ȻڹDzǡġ

ܾҪָ˹Եͬ۵ĹףһȻ״̬˹µĹ""򲢲йŵеĸĿģԹҵԻneutral ground֮ǿԽѧ˵һףһǣܻ˹µ"ά̹"һܵ"ΰĽ綨"24ֽ綨Ҳ빫صУ仰˵ڹ֮⣬ֻҪΥ"ά̹"Ĺҵ˱ɣɿɣnegative freedomij25άָ̹˹֮Աڵɣָܻõ棬һжѳΪչвɻȱǰᣬ춨˽""ĻЩǻ˹Խ۵ΰס

ԭڡʮһ͡˫¿200112ºţۣĴѧ йĻоҳ142-150

ע
125 壺ͬһ˼ʷĿ졷̨ѧţ̨̨ѧᣬ1996ҳ266-67268-69
2 ֿƺѾ˼ʷѧԻ˹Ƕԡά̹ͨ˵μGeorge H. Sabine, A History of Political Theory, 4th ed., revised by Thomas Landon Thorson(Hinsdale, Ill.: Dryden Press,1973); C. B. Macpherson, The Political Theory of Possessive Individualism: Hobbes to Locke (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1962); Leo Strauss, The Political Philosophy of HobbesIts Basis And Its Genesis, trans. Elsa M. Sinclair (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1952); Michael Oakeshott, Hobbes on Civil Association (Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1975).
314 ˼ͣ"""Ȩ"--ڹ˹οѧ۴ԡڣ1994ҳ87-9789-97
4ͬע2 Sabineҳ458-59
5920 ˼ͣε--ϰߡȻȨӢţ̨أӡҳ19-2922-2333
6 ˹Ϊɱ绤ܵȻǺԱҲ飿Ϊ۵˹Ŀǵ޷ΪȨϵĸ绤෴ػȨĺϷԡʱжԻ˹Ǻ£Edward Hyde׵DzEarl of Clarendonָ"ά̹"ϿɵȨȻӵpowerġ仰˵ܴںϷܵȨߡȻ˵޷˵ȨԴ֤ߣսеķ߿[Oliver Cromwell]ǺϷӢȨߡһ"ά̹"ܹսʱһȨΪͳ绤ΪǵʱӢ̳ʵɣ˱Թܷѧ˵Ȩ˿ԽĺϷѹμPerez Zagorin, "Clarendon and Hobbes", Journal of Modern History 57, no. 4 (1985): 593-616
7812 ؽ˹룺˹̨Զ1985ҳ219101-104
10 Jean Hampton, Hobbes and the Social Contract Tradition(Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986), 11-2.
11 Thomas Hobbes, Leviathan (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1985), chap. 6.
13 ͬע2Oakeshott
15 μJ. G. A. Pocock, "Time, History and Eschatology in the Thought of Thomas Hobbes", in his Language, Politics and Time(New York: Atheneum, 1973).
13 ͬע2 Strauss
1718 Leo Strauss, "On the Spirit of Hobbes' Political Philosophy", Revue Internationale de Philosophie IV (October 1950):405-31; 406.
19 ͬע2 Straussҳ12-14
21 A. E. Taylor, "The Ethical Doctrine of Hobbes", Philosophy XIII (October 1938): 406-24; Howard Warrender, The Political Philosophy of Hobbes: His Theory of Obligation (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1957).
22 а"Hobbes's Levia-than", Historical Journal VII (1964): 321-33; "Hobbes on Sovereignty: An Unknown Discussion", Political Study XIII (1965): 213-18; "History and Ideology in the English Revo-lution", Historical Journal VIII (1965): 151-78; "Thomas Hobbes and His Disciples in France and England", Comparative Studies in Society and History VIII (1965): 153-67; "The Ideological Context of Hobbes's Political Thought", Historical Journal IX (1966): 286-317; "Thomas Hobbes and the Nature of the Early Royal Society", Historical Journal XII (1969): 217-39.
23 ͬעSkinner, "The Ideo-logical Context of Hobbes's Political Thought".
24μǮ飺ΰĽ綨ߣ˹Ȩ۵һ½͡ļѧ̨һڣҳ87-127


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