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Сգѵ֮䡪ά˹

һƪΪ֮ݽͷݽΪһΪ̫ı桪ά˹һЩľ¡ľ䣬dzԡɳ͡Chabat, 88a-88b

Ƕվɽ¡

ǡ19ε17䣩

ǵ?Ͷ??Ͷ?ɳAbdimi bar Hama bar Hassa˵¸ǣʥʹɽɫϷ𺳣ʾǽܡdzãォǵķĹ

?Ͷ?ŸAkha bar Jacob˵イһڡؾ档ͣRaba˵DZϾǹ³ʱ½ˡΪݡ˹ǡ9,27أ̫˳Ϻͽˡdz˹ȥܵĶ

л˹ΣCheskia˵ʫƪ76,9أоη壬ĬĬԡη壬ΪʲôĬĬأĬĬԣΪʲôηأԻʼη壬Ȼ

Ϊʲôηأպʲ?ʲRech Laquich˵СΪʲ?ʲ̵ʫ䡰ҹȥ峿٣ǵ족͡1,31ζʲôһеǣǿش˵ϵ봴ʱԼɫнܡǿԴڣҪع硣

Simai̵̫ͽʥ֮ǰ;ִʱ60ʹ·ÿһ̫ͽڣһִУһ⡣һɫз120ʹ·ժڣΪڡǡ33,6мأɫ뿪ɽ󣬲װƷ

?Ͷ?ɣHama bar Hanina˵ɫںɽװƷںɽװΡղ˵ģӺɽʼɫںɽװڴ˷ǵʫ䣺뿪ɽʱŷװƷ

ҮϣYohanan˵ֻĦʸеװƷΪǡ33,7дĦĻڡ

Eliezer˵̫ͽ֮ǰ;ִʱһ˭ҵʾʹʹõһܣΪʫƪ103,20أǿʹּʹ߰ǶҪִУȻ⡣

?Ͷ?ɣHama bar Hanina˵ͬƻУһŸ衷2,3ΪʲôɫһƻȽϣԻΪ֪ƻйʵҶɫִУ⡣1

1. İԵ

ԡľ¡һֶ֪ڴתҲDZдڷµIJˡĹȻDzֹĹΪdz˼֮ԵĹڴ˼֮УӦά˹˼ҪԼά˹ЩϾĵҪ˼ĶΪһжΪһ֪ġ֮ǰ档ġľ¡˵жȻ⡣һðжķ桪ѧ֪ԡά˹Դ˾ĵ˵

֪֮֮汻ӴԺֻ֮Ȩ޳ֻ򷴶֮󣬲ſԳСв޳ģǿģԵ״̬ǽȫ֮УýǵĻ˵һʷĹ۵ҰԴҲDz˽ΪߡΪơΪһ͵һߵԭ򡣡2

ˣ۴ӣѧ֪֮Ĺ۵㣬Ǵʷ֪ʶȫðճԵ˼жȻ޴ģ㡱ģעʧܵġ۴ӽ͵һǴӱ͵ıһڿ͹Ҫһðأ

һжıҪDzƴ۵ġжıҪÿһַͳҪζšϣ+̡˼봫ͳǰЩֶĴͳȾġʷ̼䲻εϾ֮СԵġεͬʻУȾĹĻ伣ˣоһִͳϴĸ棬磬еѾļͷжµΡ

Щͳ类ͬʻ˶ı˾ηϣĻڳǧͬʻ˶в˻ִ̺ԣ̫Ļȴ漣һֱԶݡǧ̫飬˼Ļ֮ضΪķ飬йոһʷ¼ĻԴѧϰʲôʲôԱδʷĸдòıݣȻĻ˽Ѿӣ̸ףһ棬תġľ¡ľʾҲԽDz˽Խʾж֮˵ļԡ

ǾʱĴԡһ棬˼Ļһ㴦ԣҲƿ˼֮˼жıҪԡ

ߣʹѧˣҲһصʱĻԼȻһ棬Ϊ˼ģѧĻԼģdzԽʱĻġ໥루separatedΪˣĻĻ໥ΪͬĻĻľԣҲǵԡǴӴԶÿһ˶overflowģÿһĻҲġ֮Դʼڸ˺ĻľԲһͨºߵıȽ϶֪ѷ벻㣬һκ޴ߵľԲ涨˴֮Ϊߵӯɴ˶κ˼룬òߵ˼ͱߵ˼룬ô˼Ӹ˵һߵжһʶijԽжеΣresponsibilityΪߵӦ𣩺ͷյжȻſһжٵĿռγһְݵġȫġϵͳġǢ༴Ŀԡϻعͷ֪Դ֮֮󣬿ԷΪжɺͱӻԴ˷ʽΪԭж֮˼Ĺϵ

һֺ㽲ʵϾǶԽ߸ΡԲʼţʼҵɺϣʼڿɸԼʱһʱԵĵʲô볢Ҵջɺϡһֶʵҳϣɸʴһðգһƶ䣬ðգݡľ¡أһɳĮϿ̫ͽ3

һֺ㽲ʵϾǶԽ߸ΡҲͬһƪ¾Ƕ߸Ρά˹¼͵ġľ¡ģΪά˹̫ĻǵʡһΣһ֮ϤĸɣҪĸҲΪĸȥһȫȻİ/档ˣӦҪΪߵά˹˼͡ľ¡ģĵ˼ԡȻԶԶߵΧ֮⡪ע˵߶ά˹̫ͳһ˽⣬˵ԶǵİȻӶİά˹̫Ļں˼봫ͳİҲһΪһ湹Ǵ˾Եɡ

2. Ƕվɽ¡

Ƕվɽ¡Ŀʼɽ֮¡ľµĿڴ߶ԡǡ涨ά˹һĵĻȡ

Ƕվɽ¡˵̫ʷϣȥʱУؼһʱ̡վɽ£ȴĦɽϵ۵ɷ

Ƕվɽ¡˵ҲδڳʱУɷڴе壬ǷɵĻʱ-ι涨4ֻдӴʱ-εĻ涨Ҳ˵ֻдӵѧDzά˹Щľ¡ıҪ˵ѧѧǿܸǵԼǵľޡ ά˹Щľ¡ľ˵ɫжĽܣʥʹɽɫϷ𺳣ʾǽܡdzãォǵķĹ

ݷ˵ǴӾԵԶǿӡԴˣһȻκϻڿԵ֤˵ˣά˹ͬľ¡ǿ˵ִУȻ⡣ɫִУ⡣ԴȾжѧѧdzϳԽǴ֪Եij ֱ˼෴ά˹ķ̻Ҳ˵״5رʽ״ԴرĻʽֱӾĻʽʵ֡ʽǡѧ6رָϣѧ̡͡ά˹ѧ̡͡ǡջ֮ջġصġʽ

ǣѧΪһѧѧӽǿ֮ġνڡƶ˰ʽȻһ׷Ľ׼ȷ˵εǡձġͯ͡ġǰߣά˹ָ桰ѧߣά˹ָ̡ǡһڽıȡһýѵҡ7Ҳ˵һǣġȴ鷳ġٻӦresponse˲Ϊ֮responsibilityĽ֮ҡҡ֮ҡұǡġʹġԤʧIJ8

DZʲô֡ʹԤʧIJصִΣҲ˵ǡѧͻIJϴִΣ֡ѧͻ̽ʷ̬ĴΣҲΪȫΣģģִΣ ˣȫ࣬ɽµ̫ˣһʷΣڣǶվɽ¡ɽ𣿡ʵ˵ƪͬɽ档9ִ˶վڡɽ棬ȫࡱ˸ͨͳӶɥʧ֮ġࡱΪԼĻôォǵķĹִķĹ

ȻִΪȻġΪԼοܣʹڳɺεϣͳУǰҲǽİˣstrangerˣĴơ10һ嶼ɡ׷׷ǧܵϰ߷֮ʱһȫһ廯İ˵ʱȻζ´ͬʷǰľΣ

ȫִΣ֮СȻڡƪȫľ¡Ľά˹δһά˹ϣͨԡľ¡ıĽһЩб֮˵Ҫ

ǽҪ۵ƪ漰⣬Ƿ־磬þջ֮˼̾ľΪϡʵӦó֮Ŀ⣬ͯĻ򸴹ͯģҲԶƵıֿ԰֮һƪ[ָɳ͡]һַʽȷ֪ĹϵҲṩһֱܿȵϳɳغͱȻDz֮֮ͯĶһķʽǿƪһܴ֮аڼֵĸʵʩ11

3. ۵ɡѧɺ֮

Ϊƶ֮⣬ӡܵǶԸս12

ά˹ƪľ¡עصɵԡ13νɵҲ˵ȱõεУǴӴ۶õ˼ά˹ϣ۵ѧϱȻʧܵģΪ¸ǵ֤

ǽܡdzãォǵķĹľ³ά˹ϣѧʽһϣʽѧ⣬ͬʱѾǶϣѧпʼ𣿡Ľǣº룬ΪʹѡΪܶӦñܵDzܱѡġ־Եı14ͲѡԹɵĵɫʹɳΪܵʹɳΪijֲԵΪ/Եѵɣصɣ-ɵɡΪһָεжǻƻо֮ġѡͬһ֡ɺͲɵͬͬǡĬ15ǸݾߵĬɫִУȻ⡣

ڣ֡ɺͲɵͬȻǾϣʽ֮ͬǷ˶ضǴڵĺͱʾԡԵ֮ͬIJӦڣɺͲɵľͬȻӦdzԵ桰ɡҲͬӦdzԱǿƵġɡ16ǰ߳Ȼܵ´۵壻ǺǷֻᵼһֲظijࡢԹ޺޶ȵڡŰȻ̵Щδȫ̫ĸĸϵ ңһִΣԴԶܱ򵥵عν۵˼17Ӧùֱ̳ݵĴ˼档۲ԴؾǷѧģִֻűȻΪˡѧĴ˵ԭ򣬻˵Ľ纣¸ڴסѧ-ѧ˼ѧԴĹ18ֻڴʷֽ׶Ρִʱĵ̵Ĵ˥ϵ󡪡һעҪѡ

ѧ֮ĽŶĹϵǷʾǣDzһָԴɣȲǻڴ۵ġɵɡҲһֻھѧѵɻ򡰲ɵɡңɹŴɺѧ֮ĽŶĹϵԴ˹ϵάϵ۴ɻѧɸԵķ

ҲһɣԴȴԽأڲ뿪ĵ·֮ϣ·Ĺ췶ɡ·ָԶɳȻ۵ijһ㿪ãȻ·ֹĹ췶Ȼѧһ伫ĸֱֲʯͷһȻֹϢ19Ҫɵ·ľõССһֱӾ̺ŵ·͵õ˵ɣdz֮Ϊ·ɻѧɡ

ɴ˳ǾͲòһ۶ϣϣ˵оİĵ·ԨԴں˼¿֮··Ļķѧ˵Ȼڡİ硱İĻʷ¼䵱硱һѾȫͬʻΪ硱ĴʡǴӵ·ķѧҲǷ֮Ϊʷѧ˵·İΪʵϹϣۻϣѧķԱΪ·DZκζֻһз¼ԭԡԺͷбκξĻڲԡİԺͲԡˣȲͬʻձԣҲϵΪͬձ֮װƷԡﲢ຦ж㣡20Ϊ֮ĵ·ǷͬʻձԣձԡձԱؽµɡ

4. ҹȥ峿٣ǵ족

л˹ΣCheskia˵ʫƪ76,9أоη壬ĬĬԡη壬ΪʲôĬĬأĬĬԣΪʲôηأԻʼη壬Ȼ

Ϊʲôηأպʲ?ʲRech Laquich˵СΪʲ?ʲ̵ʫ䡰ҹȥ峿٣ǵ족͡1,31ζʲôһеǣǿش˵ϵ봴ʱԼɫнܡǿԴڣҪع硣

ġľ¡УDzѰ·ĻȻ·˻DZȻз¼Դ֮УҾһ-ôһĻľıѰҵ·˻ĺۼͼȲ棬ҲԽѭ֮еıؾ֮;ˡ

еľ飬·ԶƽϵԶյԶԴصһԵصĵ˵͵صһĬĬԵĵ·չеͨ´йŵ׻̫ľ׶Ե·Ĵָغϵ¶ɵ״21ڣ̴̫ͳУΪʹܹΪ߶غɷ죨ָգΪֱغν˵Ȼ̴̫ͳУϵһٱǿżϾһֱӵһ̫˼ҷΪĪẉ̂ʵҲǡǡ̵̫ľ֮ڡȻϣż֮˵˵֮ɸڵӶиȷԺԣȻ̫ڽ̵ء ڽ̱ԴּڱʹԵġѧ޴ּȤ֮ص޳ǣϣڽ̶̻̫̫еķػءĻءǶǸӽ񻰵Ķûдﵽڽ̡Ȼڽ̡ӡ̡ıõ⣺ӡ޵֮ν̡22õ⡣ˣ̡̫ǿϵ۵İԺԣںﴫͳе23֮˵ϾǸ˻Ϥ񡪡һ˶Ȼϣ֮˵̵̫ѾҪԵöࡣȻŵ䵽Ү·䵽йͼֳһǿĵֲڸ͸ִŤ͸ĵͼȻ෴ ԻԡӹԻ粻ԣСӺɣԻգʱɣɣգ24

Χ֮ţͨҹ֪֮޷塣25

ƶɡƶɡҲţ죩Ҳţ죩жɡ26

дԣĕrhfгf27

Ե̳֮DzѶľ¡ıֶԡ͡IJ໥ִȻǶ໥ִķ治а?ʩ˹䡶͡ŵҮ·䡪ΪѧҵľޣҲֻܶ桪dzҮ·Ļһձһ档߲ΪߵǿӣDZͱȻ̺ڡԼľ¡κıеձ֮һеǣǿʹǶľµĿڴߺͼҲеִ

ΪʲôηأɷȨ֮ԴΪʲôԼϵڣѭĵ·ڣպʲ?ʲRech Laquich˵СҲ˵ǵ·ƶɵ죨켴Ϣʫ䡮ҹȥ峿٣ǵ졯͡1,31⾭Եijζʲôľµļ߽ؼ⡣ ͼġŷͬ͡ϵ۲ûд조ʱ䡱ȻϣĻѧҵĽͣʱֻϵ۴ʼһ˲еģǡ͡ı֧һϣʽ룺δʱı죬˵ڡ͡ȡŷӽԣͲʱı켰ڷʽ⡣硶ŷƪһʾڰͼʱ֮ʵ֮Ϊġˣŷڴʱdzڶʱ֪Ժ棬ֺ֪Եĸʽʱ估塪߰ά˹ڡһеᷨŷʱȤdzڶʱġ֮ж֪֮֮£ڡ͡ĿˣжĿˣIn the beginningʱ֮ʾѾ֮Ϣؽ⹹˸񻯵ϵۼ䴴񻰡ֻֽ⹹ѧġɵĺģdzڵ-¶ģΪ족ǴˣԼ֮˵¡ĻĵĿˡ

ߣ20065дͬôѧͼ Ϊά˹һѧֻᡱ20069£㽭ѧ

ע͡

1 ά˹ľĽر룬ﶰУӡݣ2002꣬38-40ҳɾڡķ飬ԼơĽעϢЩľ¡áʥľ䣬ͨеı¾Լȫ顷г롣ڱ߲ϣģ޴ӱУȫά˹ڴУά˹רֹ̽ľ¡áʥ롶ʥ֮IJ⣨Ľ4852ҳڴϣά˹šľ¾׳Խʥġ52ҳ

2 Ľ45-46ҳ

3 ͬϣ65ҳ

4 μ׾ġ·㳡ʱռPoliteia׾ȼ

5 Ľ42ҳ

6 ֮ڴ˴ԼаѡѧʼţΪ˱ѧ֮ѧֻһƬ淢չġѧűɴ֪ԵIJε֮ͯѧ

7 ͬϣ44ҳ

8 ͬϣ45-46ҳ

9 ͬϣ48ҳ

10 οͼƪ͵֤磺Ϊ˹ʹǰ

11 ͬϣ47-48ҳ

12 ͬϣ51ҳ

13 ڴ˵㣬̿ɲμά˹һ̫ļѵɡLevinas: Difficult Freedom: Essays on Judaism, translated by Sen Hand, London : Athlone, 1990.

14 οThomas Carl Wall, Radical Passivity: Levinas, Blanchot, and Agamben, Albany: State University of New York Press, 1999.

15 Ľ49ҳ

16 ڸĦпһ֡ìܡһĽߡֻζţһӼ½ųǸˣҲǸһˡ˵һܸһìܡڸ룬ӡݣ1997꣬360ҳڸȻҪǴϣʽɸԼϣĻ̹۵ĦɷֻǴһƬļһƬ漫ˣΪѵȴǿ̴̫ͳľԡ

17 Դ֮ﷺָоִ鹹νϣĿѧۡʶۡȻѧȻѧѧѧȵ̬ 18 μ¸˵š͡??˼ڡ¸ѡ˱࣬ϺϺ꣬1996ꡣ

19 ϣϣ˫ֱμ׾ġ·㳡ʱռPoliteia͡·ʯͷ¸ƷıԴһ⡱ڼ׾ȼ֮С

20 ǡӹ

21 οͨƪ̫顷ƽעѧ磬2003ꡣ

22 ǡӹ

23 벹˵һ㣺գνءסǻͳνȻڽ̡ĸΡ

24 

25 סϵϡ

26 סϵ¡

27 ׯӡ֪Ρ
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