ΩԸƽˮʹ罭ϣ
et revelabitur quasi aqua iudicium et iustitia quasi torrens fortis

 

 

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ҮգJesus of NazarethࣨPilateǰʱԼ˵Ϊ˶Ϊ磬Ϊ֤ȻʼνʱҮȴδشΪ֤ΪһʥʹıڡҲҪΪ֤ģ彫ϵ֮лʵ֣ҲΪʮּϡôڱⱳڻѪУͲһΪҪ⣬һ⣺ν壿

ûбʲôⱻ˼ҵ۹ûбʲôΪ֮ôѪʹˮûбʲôӰͼPlatoǰ428/427Dǰ348/347£Immanuel Kant1724D1804ô׿Խ˼Ҷ֮࿼ʱգȻ񵱳ûеõش𡣿ǸԸΪǻۣȴҲһȷĴ𰸣ֻͼⱾΪƵЩ֮һ

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ǹ֮໥ϵ֮social orderһֿܶDZȻƷʣ˵һֵԣvirtueΪ˵ΪбΪǹjustĹ淶˵Ϊǹġij˵ʵڣ޷ָ˹淶Ϊﵽ˶ij̶ȣҲ˵ÿ˽ڴҵҸĿҸΪĸ壬޷ԴﵽҸѰ֮弴ҸҸϡڰͼϣ͵ͬҸֻй˲ŻҸDzҸġ弴ҸֱȻյĴ𰸣תΪһ⣬ڿʼǾҪʣνҸ ȻܴڿҸġÿ˶ԭʼġĸҸ϶ҸĻҸĺͻ˶졣ôͲɱطijҸǡ֮ҸֱӳͻΡ磬ҸͬʱҲҲDzҵҪԴλʿͬһλŮʿǶţ۶Դ񣬼粻ܶռλŮʿΪ̫̫ͲҸȻݷԼŮʿĸܣֻܼ޸֮ˣλʿ֮䣬һҸͲɱijΪһIJҡûءؽ⣬ͬʱ֤λʿҸʹġǻ۵King SolomonоҲ޷ǶǵоѺӿ飬ֱĸ׵Ůˣʵʵ뷨ȴϣѺиǸΪ⺢ӵŵĸףΪΪӵġŮ˶ӣͺпܡпܳǶҪӣǶŵΣôԽ޷ʹûзӱиһôоԲΪһǵҸȴڶκ޷֮㡣 һӣӽһ˾λѡ˾ְλֻһˡȻҪһλʺϴְλʿͬʺأô޷Ľˡһλѡڳøߡ˧Ҹӡ̶ΪһλǿһλܾȫͬȴðСƽòǰ߻ְλô߾ͻеʣΪʲôҳòߡ˧ΪʲôȻ͸Ҹ˵أңǴжȻǵȷϴȻǹģе˽е˲еǻۣе޴ûܹȫֲȻķ塣 ҸôζŸҸʱͲй򡣵ʹͼʵָҸʵ˵ҸʱԲܡӢѧҡѧҽסߣJeremy Benthan17481832Ҹµ塣Ҹָһۼֵоÿ˶йҸIJͬĻߵĹʽҲDzõġܱϵIJۡϵҸǿ͹ۡϵҸҲ˵DZҸΪЩȨΪֵ֮㡣ʳס֮㡣ʣΪϿɵҪ֮IJͬԭʼʹõҸ䱾ʶԣֹи߶ԡĿ˵Ļֲͷ֮У˶Ҹ޷Ŀ֮ԡ ҸҪΪһ᷶롪ҸͱԽг׸ıԡӸҸĵΪ֮ĶϿɵҪĺ̬ѧmetamorphosisת䣬ɴһֹתΪΪһԭ򣻶ɹʱͱͬ壬Լ䱣֤ɵĻͱΪڴɣκȨԼɲκ֯ɹбȥijɷ֣ʽĺ壺ɶġбҪĻԱͳε˲ôanarchyɾͱΪҾƣdemocracyͨͬķʽͬԭҲһֱ˵ĸҸ֮ԭΪһֱȷĶΪֵñ֮ض

Щֵȥ㣬ǺΪЩ֮ǡ˳أ໥ͻԼǵһҪпܲͻʱˡﲻͻͲҪ塣ijһֻһΪ۲ܱʱʹͻ˵ͬģֵּ֮ڳͻͬʱʵʱֻ汻񶨲ʵʱдʵ֮ȡʱֵּΪҪʱ֮Ϊ߼ֵʱ󣺾ΪߵļֵʱͻͻֵȾǼֵͻ⣬޷ͨʶЩĻشǼֵжϣjudgment of valueֵжؾ˾ԡֻжЧֻԵġӽ۵㡣

ijÿ˵߼ֵɱ˱Խֹսлִ̡磬ЩܾߵνϰԼЩۺ¶ԭϷߵĹ۵㡣ȻȴһΪߵļֵǹϡֹ۵㣬ÿ˶ڵϸսȥҵ֮֮񣬼ҪΪĻôͨʵʩ̶᷸˵ȻҲǺġ޷ͨԿѧķֵּжϵijͻںһУǵĸоfeelingǵ־willǵԣreasonãʶеضؾͻ

ij˳Ϊɴ⼯Ӫеūͽָӣ¾ͲɱǷ⡣DZһһ۹⣬Դոףǰ468ǰ399ԾĽȡڶĻشɣ˭ļֵߣиߵļֵɱɾиߵļֵɵһǮֵĻɱڵǺġֻһԵĻش𣬶ҲֻжЧ޷˽ЧġĿ͹۳

Ǽ֤˵ľ״ܹһνļƻøƣÿƽȵľñҪģֻȡеɲſܽ־֯ڼƻǷɾĻشڸᱣֵּ֮ȡᡣŵ˻ѡɣƶĥѡᱣϡˣǸǷᱣϵļֵֻ෴⣬ֻĻش𣬶ܵõˮءˮľͷ͹жϡǿͨʵʵжϣjudgment about reality޷ļֵжϡ

һλ򾭹ļ飬ֲ˻пڶľ֢ʱ˵𣿻˵ѣ˵ѣ߲˿ΣգȡǶڿ־ɣfreedom from fearֵּ˵࣬ܵ»߶Ŀ־壻˵ʹڿ־塣ڿ־֮ϣӦ˵ࣻ෴Ӧ˵ѡڿ־ɺ߾иߵļֵһ޷Կѧ˼Ļϻشġ

ͼΪһˡмطˡֻй˲ҸģˡΥˡҸͼ˵˭Ҹ[]ȻͼҲϣе¹˲ңȴҸλѧȴԣΪطߵĸ˱ŹҸ˵Ǹʹ˵ʵΪ͸طˡˣڰͼȨ֮ͨɢ弴Ҹ弴ѧ˵´ѧ˵Ǹԡͼ˵ʹǻԣҲǸdzõĻԣΪ˶ԷɵķӡĸְҵԸãܱԸԸԸأߣҾͻŬʹʫǺеĹһǻ˵Ҹô˵Ծͻ˳ֵĺԡͼ塪˴ָΪ壬Ϸ֮ϣȴûгɲ֮ϣҲûɷڻ֮IJԣʹ䱻ΪһĿķ 漰ɡƽȡȫϷ֮ĸֵּĴ˶졣ͽľ꣨slavationˡڳ棻ΨʲôΪƣΪ˵ᱣƽȴֵ֮ԶֻشԣֻԵļֵжϡ

ֵж۵ģҿִܴྶͥļֵжһʵζÿ˶ļֵϵʵϣڼֵжһµġʵڼֵϵpositive system of valueǹ˵ⴴ죬ڼ塢䡢塢ԡְҵ֮ضԼضξûе໥ʩӰ֮ÿһֵϵϵĵΪ֮󣬲֮ʶ졣ضдضġΪܵļֵһʵֵжϵìܡڼֵжһʵ֤жȷп͹ϵЧvalid in an objective sense Ż̫ƵתⲢΪ֤ݡı׼ı׼һȡڴ˼ֵжϻʵжϱظٴΡʷϣ౻ΪܵļֵжΪྶͥġͬΪܵļֵжȡڹŴڼεѪ׸dzձرΪģִȴΪֻиǹġȻǵ㣣ʹϵУԱϣڽУԭoriginal sinҲüΡȻʢСδȡʤĻٴΪijּDZҲδزܡ

ܶھ˻ǹҡʻǾɻǰȫ߼ֵûԻش𣬶ֻ۵ġԵжϣжȴܱΪԿ͹ۡԼֵ۵ġһЧĹ淶ĶԾڶΪjustificationΪȵҪģconscienceԻrationalityҪ޵֮һС㣬жˣһ㡱ܱʹʱϣܶԼ֤ģͨ˵ĹϵΪΪȷʹİ

˻ԵģͼһԵķʽҲ˵ֲ֤ܿʹΪġȻ޵ij̶ǿܵġĿ־ΪʵijĿֶ֮ʱſܣΪĿֶεĹϵԭcauseeffectĹϵֹϵͨȷǡһֿѧԷʽע⣬ˣҲDzܵģʵĿֶ᷽֮ĻΪѧʵ״ǣǶ֮ϵcausality֮˽Ⲣ룬Ϊȱ㹻ľ鱣֤ŪβѵʵضĿꡣ磬̻߱ǽԤijַ﷢ʱԱΪ̻Ƿ񡰹̷Ϊ˾⣬߾ͱ˽ⲻ̷ͬԾϣԤַ˵ЧȻҵǣǶЧȷе˽⣬Ҳ޷ȷе˽⡣Ϊֻͨʵ֪ʶУʵĿԳ̶ʮޡˣ⼴ʹ޶ΪʵֶʵԤĿʱҲԵĻش𣬶ҼʹشҲԹΪԣҪԡͨʵֶΣʵʮֲĿ꣬ԭӵĿꡪȷˡֶ֤ȷֶȴ֤ĿꣻĿԨDDǸΪʵһĿֶ֮εռĿ꣬ʹǵΪյԡ

ij˵Ϊģʽ֤ΪʵijĿֶΣôͲɱزĿǷ⡣һձؽ¶ռĿļ裬һ£morality in general壨justice in particular⡣ijЩΪ֤ΪʵԤĿʵֶΣôΪ֤ԤĿһ±֤һԵġϵġ֤ų෴ĿԡΪռĿ겢ôʵָĿֶȻҲͲ֮һֹ壬ΪܹϸɣζֻеɱԤΪռĿʱǹ塣粢ǸɶᱣϱԤΪռĿʱҼܹ֤֮²ʵᱣϣôͲƶˣΪͬĿҪֶͬΡƿԱ֤ΪһԡǾԡĹ塣

ǵIJԵġҲԵġ֤ҪġԵġ֤Ҳ˵ֻǵΪǽΪʵǸԿɵĿ֮ʵֶʱ֤ΪĿ꣬ռĿԼֵ֤ʱDzŻеȻһ֤޷ͨԵķʽʵ֣Ϊֻ֤Ƕʵֶε֤ռĿԱʵһĿֶ֮ΡҪΪо֤ζžԼֵ֮Ч˵Խ޷ҪһԵľľԼֵ˵ԡԶԣֻܶԵġԵĽǿܵġ

ھ֤ҪƺǿκԵ˼Ǿͼͨڽ̺ζѧζžʵ磨this world˳磨transcendental world ͳΪһֳ˴ڣϵ۵ĸƷʣʵΪϵ۵ĸܣƷ빦ܾ䱾ʶ޷ͨʶ⣬˱ϵ֮ڣζž֮ڣȴִڡ˲ֶܽζѧϣͨһԿѧķ־ԼֵһּƭзijЩԼֵĻԭ򣬵ЩֵʵͷеؾġԴַʽЩԼֵľǶĶ壬ֻǿ֤һΪĿնʽ ˣӹ౻ϸʾѧ˵Ա򵥵ĹΪֻͣζѧڽ̵ۺĻ򡪡ȷе˵Ӧǡα壨pseudorationalisticۡ

ζѧ۵ľǰͼ[]ͼѧĺ⼴壬Ϊ⣬ideasѧ˵Ǵеijʵ壬Ӧʵʵ֡ȴδȫʵֹľԼֵҪƣabsolute goodлЧڰͼѧаݵĽɫͬϵ۹κڽѧаݵĽɫһư壬ʶ弸жԻ¼Ŀꡣν൱ںνƵ⣬ͼΪһԵķʽ˺ܴŬЩŬնδеĶƺ˽ͼ̾ͻ⻹ܵɶ壬Ҫһоͼᵽһij˼άνı֤dialecticΪ֤ʹַ˵԰գǶϤڶԻȴʹַδǼʶֱ֤֪Ľ˵ѳʶܵķΧġߡEpistle VIIУͼѧƣƵıֻͨһġصֲܿһֻʥȴͨصı֮壬ơ˺νĸûд𰸵ġΪϵ͸¶ѡߵһܣĻ߸޷ܸ֪ˡ

ȤǣͼѧƣѵҲΪģھܾ˾ԼԻش𣬼DZӦۻۡԭ֮󣬻Ϊµİԭ򣺲ҪԶƶ񣬲Ҫ˺ˣˣijС[]峬κʵнΪ屾ʵİȻdz֮Ϊ౾ԡΪ˵ıԣΪҮպؾܾ˰ϵŮ֮븸ĸŮ֮ϵ֮˱ļͥӡֵܡáĸŮ[]Ү˵ҵ˲Լĸĸ޶ֵܽãԼͲҵĵӡ[]Үνİְ֮DZϵĸǺߵƶ񣬺ߵ¶ͽ[]ϵְ֮Ϊĩж˲пijͷݣϵ۵̿־ݣҮûУҲ޷ЩìܣΪ޵ìܣϵ۵ľìܣġ˱ޣSt.Pual̵һλѧҽ̻ǻ۶ϵ۶Բ׾[]ѧ߼ʶ޷֪ϵǻеʥ塣[]ͨϵۣ[]ͨʵС[]޼Ү̻ϵ֮Үֽ̻İԶԶǵ[]ְһܣйڶ֮һ[]

ۣͼ˵ԶжӶش⣬ճǻһЩѧϵ֮Сϣͣseven sages֮һgive to each his ownΪıöΪ׿ԽѧǷѧܡ֤ҲһֿնĺʽΪؼڣʲôⲢδõش˸ùʽֻϰ߻򡪡ϻϵġʵڷʵڵ£positive morality²áùʽܹ֤κʱ廹ǹģĻרƵġ˹ʽܹܵձܣڽ嶨ΪһбʵڷʵڵϵԼֵľԼֵȴΪ Ƶ屾ʵԭҲˣƶԴlike for likeƱơԶ񱨶ıӦԭprinciple of retributionǻشԤΪ⣬νƶ񣬷ԭͺ塣ȴģΪͬ벻ͬʱ֮ƶͬӦԭֻʵڷһ⼼Ʋ֮ΪΥ֮ķӦκʵڷԷϴԭȻȴǹƲ֮ʩΥ֮ʵڷǷΪĶǷDZйӦķΪԼΪӦƲñǷʵ⡣Դ⣬ɵ⣬Ӧԭĸ޷شġ

ȻӦԭζƶԴôҲƽԭprinciple of equityڶ֮һƽҲΪ֮ʡԴ˾䱾ʶƽȵһԤ裨presuppositionɴҲͲӦƽȶԴÿһ衣ȻԤǴģʵǷdzͬģûƽȣôΨһܵĺڶǸȨʩʱӦ˵Щ𡪡ֻDzֲбԶԴ˵ķʽԴͯԶԴ˵ķʽԴ񼲻ǻƵġЩ迼ǣЩӦأǹؼ⣬ƽԭȴδش⡣еķھʱǧ𣬵ȷǶijֲ𡣵ЩδԵIJ𣬼ڶ˸ȨʩʱпǵIJȴݵķijȨŮûУһɣŮȨȴֻԸз֮񣻶ڵԱЩз֮Чôĸǹģij˲ڽ̣ôΪڽ޹ؽҪIJȻкڽôȻΪͬҽһΨһЩڽ̻֮IJҪƽԭΪֻСƽȡ˲ӦƽȶԴȷƽԭĺ壬ôؼǣνƽȣƽԭ޷ش𲻴⣬ʵڷͿ԰֮κβΪԴĻƽԭͻƽԭҲûкʵЧĿնʽ Ϊļƽԭ˼ϵƽȣequity in the lawһԭӦ뷨ǰƽȣequity before the lawԭǶڸеķġ京߷ûоʱδ涨IJԴҲ˵Ӧݷɱĺ÷ɡһϷԭprinciple of legalityǹڷڲĺϷġʱΪһַ֮µ壨justice under the lawʵϴԭȴ޹ء

ƽԭͶƷĹϵʱͲĸԣͶIJƷݿ˼Karl Marx18181883ۣһԭʱĻʯҲǡƽȷ侭ϵеı֡ԭʵȴǶƽȵΥDzķΪʵϲƽȵܵƽȵĶԴǿб˴ӵͶȡ˵ƷʵʵƷͱ˲ͶƽȣҲ壨DZϵģֻʵСܣ䡱[]Ĺ徭ƶʵ֡Ѵԭڼ̵ļƻ֮Уͻ⣺ÿ˵ʲôʺͶ֧ͶȻЩⲻܸÿ˵жϻش𣬶ְֻܲŸȨõһȷôֲһ⣺ЩӦҪȻЩܹάƲݵתܵõ㡣ʹ˼ǿģ߶ȷƸ˷ḻδУЩں̶ֳϵõҲܹȫɸ˵ԸҲȨһ淶ˣԭ򡪡񡰸ĹʽһҲԤЩõĹؼӦɼȶش𡣿ǵһʵԭ򡪡ԭ򡪡Ҳ͵򣺡֮ܣùϿ֮衱Ϊ˵Ը裬뼯潫ȫһ£򹹳ɵнвƵĸɵ뷨Ҳһаʽģutopian롣ǡƽʱеĵаһ˼ԤԵСʱ巨÷ΧãѲͻҲһȫ˷壨ȷ÷Χá ƽԭ뱨ӦԭƵǽɣthe golden ruleζңҾζˡ֮ʩ֮ˣʩˡ˽ɾ͵һ淶Աʩ֣ʩʹࡱȻʱñܿȴijЩ˵Ŀ֣ǶԽɵΥĻͲˣӦܾܵرΥǹ⡣û˶ʩʹ࣬Ȼġԣ䱻ΥΣͱȻ»ƵĽΪûԸܳͷˣݽû˿ԳͷеҲǷ˵ѣΪΪ۶ԴԼ㹻Է࣬ӶܻԵ˺ôݽͱ˵ѡɣ˼ԣͻᵼ¶ԷµķϳĿȻǷϳάĿĽнͣɲʾαװһִ۵Ϊ׼ȷΪϣʩ֮Ϊı׼˱׼ɱ뽨һֿ͹۱׼ʵǣζ㣬ζˡǵӦΪ⣬ɲδֻԤĴ𰸡ɼеκ乫

۵ȷΪ׼ڽɵĴʾСΪһֿ͹۱׼棻ɵĺҪÿ˶˶ԴԼķʽԴˣô͵ͬԭ򣺡Է֮һ淶ķʽΪַͨʽ͵ĽȻ˵¹ѧŦ£˵ľcategorical imperative[]ĵѧĸҲĽݼֻЩϣΪһ㷨ĸ¡ζ˵ΪֻЩϣ˵ԭЩϣ˵ԭأȻǹĹؼ⡣⣬Ҳԭ͡ɡûҵ𰸡

˵֮õǸʱĴͳ뷨ԣЩԲѧ˵αװǴӸԭƵġնĹʽʲôҲƲǽDZ֤ϴԭ򣬶κѽеκԶϳ˸Ӧһ淶Ϊ֮ʲôû˵ԭ˾Ҳ񡰸һ֤κҲ˵˺Щʽ򡪡ǡǡΪնȻҲǣܹΪΪǽܡ

ԽԻϵĿѧ׼ѧģquasiscientificŬһʿ£Aristotleǰ384Dǰ322ѧ[]ĿǽһΪҪ¡ĵϵʿϣţѾһµѧεġǿѧķ¾ζŵϵơʿΪ¼ҿ񼸺ѧҵ߶εеҵ¡¾ּ֮м״̬˾Ƕ񣨹벻[]ôٸӣ¸ҵ¾̫ŵų̫ŵ³çм״̬ӹmesotesѧ˵ѧֻ֪߶˵²ֳܽȵΣΪ߶εеԤȾġֶ֪ʱDDҲ֪ģΪǶеĶDDʿ²ͨѧѰҵ¡ƭfalsehoodֶУôʵһ¡ʿ뵱ȻΪȷʵڣǸʱͳΪdzĶԤΪĶСǡǡӹѧ˵αװҪ⡪νУ˾νƻ£Ϊ߾ǰ֮Сʿ°ĽһȨʵڵʵڷȨͨӹnesotesԤִʿµġѧʵڵʵڷ֤ʵڷʵڵʵϾʲôǡ롰ʲôǶļˣ˾ʲôΪȷӹڶԼ֤֮š߶ȱصġն˵֮ܣӹʽзʾһ㡣 ӹʽ˵Ե䱻ڽʱֵΪԡʿ˵Ϊʵʩܲһм״̬Ϊǰ߹߲[]¾ֶм״̬ʽ˵̵߱ΪʵʩֶܲΪ෴״̬ͬһֶ񡣹ؼ⡰ν壿δͨùʽõش෴ѱԤ裬ʿ½ִ뷨еġԤΪӹѧ˵ʵܲαװǾ֮dzϼЧʮҪijɾͰ˵ֿסЩڿѧ֤õз[]

ѧζѧԼһʢʮߡʮͣʮͶܵѹ֣ڵٴβӰѧ˵֮С˼Ȼѧ˵[]ѧ˵Ŵһֹ֮ϵȫĹ򣬴ֹȻȻָһȻ磬ԣhuman natureԵ֮ԡȻΪһλߣͨȻоǿҵ涨˵ĹΪ֮淶ȻΪϵ۵ôȻĹ淶ȻҲϵ־֮ôȻѧ˵;һζѧȻȻǴӱԵ˵ıԭΪ˵ԣԭУ֣Ȼѧ˵װһԵԿѧֹ֮۵㶼վסš

Ȼɣlaw of causalityϵʵϵ־ܹ涨˵ΪʵʵΣƳӦΣӦôȻѧ˵ȴͼȻƳ˵Ϊ淶ôͽ߼Ļϡ Էͬˣ涨ΪĹ淶ֻ˵־ԣӦΪֳֻ˵־ȷһ涨ΪĹ淶Ϊ˵ԿdescribeΪȴܹ涨prescribe֮˵Ƴ˵Ϊ淶ͬȻƳһҲһ

ˣͺ֣Ȼѧ˵ȻƳҵĽìܵԭڸѧ˵Ĵ޲ءƶĬSir Robert Filmer1653ԾרΨһȻġ塣Ȼѧ˵һѧԼˣJohn Locke16321704ͬķֻ֤ƲܱΪǹ壬ΪֻƷȻ֮Ŀġִ֧ѧ˵ĶѧΪΪʱƶȻ˽˲ƲȨǷȻʥȨΪȻֱӸģ˹һַԷȻķʮʮͳʢеνֻзϳ˽вƲΨһȴҲͬһȻѧ˵֮ϡ

˼ʷ֤ʲôĻǾһͼͨ˼Ϊľȷ׼Ψһȷųͬȷ෴׼֮ܣ֮ŬʧܡܹӹȥѧʲôĻǾֻʵԼֵһʵζŹijιжϲЧų෴ж֮ܡֻһַԵ˵һּ衪һ衣ʶ֮ڵֻ˵漰ͻֻͨһһڳͻ֮Э޷ֻֽ֤ǹġij´˷¹DZ˷ƽsocial peaceΪռĿĻ-һҲֻ¡ĽʽЭƽҲһԶǾԵѡ

ʮ

ôѧĵºڣûе£ĪʱΪ岢ǵ£Dz£ǡǡ෴ԭֻԼֵֹ۵㲢ζɵ£DZΨһĵϵϵ˱ѡ͸ʩһ񣬵ȻһصĵΣ󵽵ΪصĵΡ̫ܳеΣǰƸϵȨϵۡôǾͲѡˡӼලߵܱڵԼ˸ףԸεĿ־ǾܾǿĶ屻ܾԼǡؽͣ[]ΪԵҪ̫٣ǡǡΪҪ̫ࡣ

ѧɫĵԭǿݣtoleranceһֶ˵ڽ̻ͬ⡪ȻܣҲֹɱȻֵѧ޳ɾԵĿݣŵзֹͨԤͳʹñȴֹƽرһֺƽеĿݡݾζ˼ɡߵĵѾ֮רᣨintoleranceǿڽ̲Ϊ̶Ļ̨ϣյˣheretics壬˻ʥԣбˣ˲Ų㡱ʮ͵ڽ̶УȺĽ̻ʵʩȺĽ̻ҪԷԸϲŴڹʶʱ˼ʷеΰ߱˰Pierre Bayle16471706̸ЩΪڽ̻ķȺʱ˵ǿݣרŵ˻ҡһֹ壬Ϊζɣζſݣʧȥ˿ݣҲͲΪˣںʱǷҪԷݣѹƶԷĺƽֿбרơֻмDzȨܾרƣȨΪƶƾͨѹκαƷͼκȨһԭ򼰾Ŀԭ޹ءʱܺڵ׼ʵʩ֮仮ĽޣƵȷҵ޵ĿܡҲֽޱͰijַգַնе𣬻ôֵȥأ

ƾ䱾ʶζɣζſݣôû֮ʺϿѧķչΪѧֻɲܷٲʢɲָѧӦӰ죬ָѧڲɣѧ˵۵֮ɾκѧ˵ӦԿѧ֮ѹƣΪѧǿݡ

ʼںν⡣ڣڱн֮ʣʶҲδҵ𰸡ΨһĽֻǣʦΪ飬ҪöҾȻô׿Խ˼ҶʧĵطɹǾ͹ڿˡҵȷãҲ޷˵ʲôľ塣ұ˳һ壬Ҳֻ˵ҶԺν塣ȻԿѧΪҵ˿ѧҲصIJ֣ôҶԣֻܹ϶̽ٵôҵġ壬ɵ壬ƽ壬塪ݵ塣

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* 1952527ڼݴѧۿУĸ˵Ļдɣ롶ν壿ѧ֮е塢ΡWhats Justice? :Justice,law,and politics in the Mirror of science, University of California Press 1957pp.124ϵͳ߶Ŀʵ֤Կԡν壿ΪⱾļĿ١

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[] ˣѧ˵ڱ뷨ʵ֤߲ϾĴڣᵼ¼Ȩңtotalitarian stateij֡½ѧEnil Brunner򡷣Justice and the Social order, London and Redhill: Lutterworth Press,1945ΪȨǡȱζѧڽ̵ʵ֤塱ġɱ֮16ҳֱֿʵ㣣ΪȨİͼ׼Լֵյ¶԰Ƽַѧ˵֮μͼʽ塷82ҳ£μգἰˡThe open Society and Its Enemies ,London: G.Routledge,1945189ҳ¡ ֵѧȷϵĻôȨҵרƣξ壨political absolutismԾԼֵϵƼҪĿԭԤһμѧеľ塷 Absolutism and Relativism in Philosophy and Politics ,Whats Justice?198ҳ¡

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