ΩԸƽˮʹ罭ϣ
et revelabitur quasi aqua iudicium et iustitia quasi torrens fortis

 

 

Kelsenѧеľ*

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ѧDZ㳢Խϵһ𡣾ͽѧνġѧethics֮ϵ֮ʵԣֳԻ˳ɹȻ˱ѧ֣ʶۣepistemologyʶֵۣۡtheory of value֮һӦġڵĹϵδԵΣıԸüһ顣ѧϵľ壨absolutism壨relativism֮ڲҴֶƺ෽ר֮֮ǡǡֱϵľ塣[]

һ

ѧΪһζѧmetaphysicalΪij־ʵabsolute realityʶ֮֮ǿ͹۵ġԽʱյģʶȴʱա෴ѧƣʵʶ֮УΪʶʵʶԵġԽྭ飬޷ʶDz֪ġ

Դ֮absolute truthԼֵabsolute value֮һ£ѧԳַ̬ȣrelative truthԼֵrelative valueֻеʵжԴڣDzŻͼ׷Ʋʶԣʱʱ˽ΪоʵڣطϾԼֵԱȻζžƾԴΪԼֵ֮ԴȨһ¡ѧ֮ɱĺǶԾ֮˸񻯣personificationȫ¹洴ߣ־ΪȻ֮ѧζѧʾһֵһ̣monotheistic religionIJɿܵڱΪֵΪƵIJʵĹ۵ӦأҲ뽫ʵͬ壨ϾԼֵڹ벻жϾͿٵжһ͹ۡôھʵΪȨȷļֵ֮ʱͿƾݴļֵжϲϵж壬ʱʱЧ෴ֵΪζѧľۣempiricismǿ򳬳鷶ΧеIJԡʵֵ룬ʵļֵжϣͨԵķΪ߲ǻڶʵʶdzʶӰ죬ǵԸ־塣ѧ߽ԼֵѧdzԵģ̹ʵĻ壨skepticism

ѧڶʶ֮ľļ轫ʶĹܼΪһӳreflectʵȴڣԿ£Immanuel Kant1724D1804Ϊһʶۣʶ̽ΪԿĴ죨creation̡ù۵㰵ʾʶϣʶĴߣʶ첢ʶ֮СôʶɱʶۻԵҪȻⲢζʶ̾ʶͨʶ̶Ĵ첻ͬϵ۶Ĵ졣ʶ֮ԡʶвǾɡһЩͳһ̣֪ĻתΪг档ͨЩ򣬶ʵʶ෴˿͹۵ʶͷ֮УʶԱΪɵߣautonomous lawgiverɱɡ ѧ֮෴һԹ֮뽫ʶΪܵڿ͹ʵɣheteautonomousľܵͳΣﱻΪij˺ͳȨʱˡ

ʶ۰ΣաһǻΨۣsolipsismΪʶego []ΨһĴʶͬʱڵңұλĶtu []ķϡ

ּ轫һìܵʶۡΪegoΨһĴߣȻΪһ־ʵЭΨ۲һ͵ľѧһΣĶԪۣpluralismʶ֮Уôݴֹ۵㣬ұġȻڶego֮ڣƺɱرжʶжٸ硣ѧ˼ǵرΨԪۡΪ壬ǵͬʶ໥ϵͨΪʶĸƽȣequalһֲ֤Կ͹۴ΨһͬһIJ㡣˼ζͷеĸʶзӦ෴ƽȵģôһΪʶ֮ʶһµļΪܣһõ˸ⲿΪȷϡ Ӧȷھƽ֮ⲻɷϵijͻѾָģʶ岢ǾɣԵɡʶlaws of rational cognition֮µɡɲʶƽȲݡͨʶһƽһɵƶѧΪġ

ѧĹ۵㣬ƽȣ෴ʶԵߴ֮IJƽȲġ

ϣ塱ר壩[]һָһʽҵȫȨijˣͳУ־Ƿɡ˽Էͳߣ÷Ȩ˸Ȩ޺;ԵġξζűͳȫиɡƽȹˮݣΪֻмͳ뱻ͳ֮ŸIJ֤ͬξרƣdespotismרdictatorshipãautocracyͬ塣ʷϣ͵ŷʮߡʮ͵ľԾƣ·ʮģLouis1638D17151643D1715λͳµķǰLEtat cest moi []Լر˴ֹڵξͨ˹壨fascism壨national socialismԼʲά壨bolshevismڼȨtotolitarationһʵ֡漴ƽԭƣdemocracyЩԭų˼ȨͳΣҲǾԹȨʵֵĿܣγLEtat cest nous []һʽΪ۵㡣

ѧξ֮ĶӦϵԶ׼ġԵʶΪʶ֮Ĺϵdzھ뱻ͳ֮ĹϵȨڱͳ߲ʩӰ죬߲ܲμӷɵƶȴ֮֮ƣԳǵľ飬ѧۣʶʶ壬ʶȫɷѧǡسΪʶϵļȨ塣ݴֹ۵㣬Ĺ쵱Ȼȫԡ ξѧ岻ڵĶӦԣʵǰɾнΪʶ̬ideologicalߵΪȨԼ˵ӽͳֱ߱ӻӵرΪΨһȷľ߳˴ڵĺᡢ˻٣ͨصķʽú֮ȨáȨʶ̬ɴ򲼶ʲάֹ֮ʷڽ֮ʱε¶ֵͨԻӶΪߣdogmatic characterİš

ξ岻ζѧʶ̬ʵʵĿģʵֵϵĺӵнΪڱͳ߶֮ʵۡݴۣҾǽǸ˵Ⱥ壻ԶԶڱͳߵ塣ζһ˵ģsuperCindividual壨collective bodyԱΪʵһص֯壬һߵijȨͳ߱俴üĴۺ߳ΪԪףFhrerǴԪ˧GeneralissimoȨΪʥ񣬶ҵʥҲζͳܵһijݡ漰ĹϵʱȨsovereigntyĽ·ϹʷһԹҿȨӶȷΪϴڵķΧ֮һ򡪡Ϊһ֮ϵķ򡣾ȨϵȨijһҵʡͨԸϹʷȨҽЩɹɣӶڷ֮Чγ˸йңҲйڷĹʷЩֱȨĹƹʷ䱾ڷһ֣뵱ȻΪʵķɽͱͬڷĽ͡ѧ۹壨juristic imperialismϰڳֽͨͣΪߵĹұΪԷȨΪе[]

ֱӶΪǸ֮һͨlegal orderȷϵͨ򹹳ɵ˵ᣨcommunityڷܾͨȨĽѧ˵ΪһڹʷͨԹʷķӣйһƽȲΪʷĹ֮Աݴֹ۵㣬ҵȻǷȨȴȨڱϾڹʷȨ֮¡ʷȫͨʽƵģͨĹ֮ΪĹҹͬڹʷ֮µĹ֮У˴ڹڷ֮µĹ֮һ㡣˹Ҳ˹ڷڹ֮µڶ෨֮м׶Σintermediate stageҵǴ۵ĸĿ֮һɳ֮ΪһֹҵۡΪרƱѧӦξ壻ôѧӦ塣

پбԵԭڣƽȵĻԭǶߵĹͬвӵ֮ƶɣ֪ģʶۣʶɵģƽʶƽȣʶΪΨۺͶԪҪ衣ϵĸΪҪ۾ʵѧ϶֧ѧ׷ߣЩΰζѧߣ֧ξ[]

Ŵߣsophistsߡ׿Խѧ̩Protagorasǰ500Dǰ411ij߶ȣдԵʫŷӵ˹Euripidesǰ485Dǰ406ơʷΰζѧ߰ͼPlatoǰ428/427Dǰ348/347ȴ̩ij߶ȲΪɱɵԾܾ[]ʿ£Aristotleǰ384Dǰ322ġζѧMetaphysicsУԱΪĵһƶthe first mover who is itself unmovedͳߵĽɫ[]Ӧأʿ䡶ѧPoliticsУѧθϮΪζѧĽȻĿ۽ֱԭߣatomistsĻе۹۵ھܳͬʱΪռĿ֮ԭΪѧĵˡӿأDemocritusǰ460Dǰ370Leucippus겻꣩ζѧԭ۾żȻǰƵģµƶʤھµķ٣޷ūɶѡ ̵ͣζѧνΪʥĹ˹?ǣThomas Aquinas1226D1274ġѧȫSumma Theologica뵫Dante Alighieri1265D1321ġ۾ơDe Monarchiaһѧξĵ֤Nicolaus Cusanus1401D1464ѧ ԡDz֪ģ۱ΪƽԤڽ˹ŵɯSpinnoza1632D1677ζѧķۣpantheismڵ̹漰赺ϣζѧģLeibniz1646D1716ȴάơӢζѧĵͬΪξķߡˣJohn Locke1632D1704ǿԾԺгܳΪһ塣Ӧעǣǿ¶ӣDavid Hume1711D1776ųƵζѧĴݻߣ䲻ߵԶԭʼԼOf the Original Contractдǵͬ⣨consentΪʥĻġ͹֮Idea of a Perfect CommonwealthУHumeΪ͹ⶨܷ½ӣѧбκζѧ˼棬ѧУٴ˱ϵͳųѧ֮ľԡͬҲδܱһ̬ȡͬ鷨¬JeanCJacques Rousseau1712D1778³ʿҵľԾ֮£ҲͲòעˡδұʵ۵㡣෴žԿ͹۾ѧҺڸGeorg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel1770D1831ͬʱҲǾԾƵĻ֧ߡ

ڸʮ͵¹˶ĶˡȨǶAuthority, not majorityĿںšȷŴžԣžԼֵԵƣðͼͨƱΪϵƣζȷ֮ݣݶΪĿ͹۴ڣԻΪ桪ƽ֮ԭĺֻڲڶʲôľԻش𣬲ھԵණʱſġ֪Ⱥå֮ʥԴʾռھ֪ʶĶ򡪡ⲢķŴ֪ʶڣûǸӵн־ǿ˵ȨѧĻԭ֮һֵжϽЧζŶļֵж߼ڵϽԷDzܡƵĻԭ֮һƽɣӦ˵ι۵㡣ݣtolerance˵Ȩminority rightsɣfreedom of speech˼ɣfreedom of thoughtƵڻڶԾֵϵн֮ɱص¨DDʵ˨DDǸΪվ֮ܵĶȻӵн۵־ߡֹ۵㣬޷ζﲢӦܳͷȻʶ֪ʶ־ܴﵽԵļֵϺܶĸ˼˵־Ƿɶǿ򡣻˶Ƕ˵ȷġΪڳĺαǽǵĿܣ˲űӵɱԼΪɵijֻᣬҲֻѧֻеԾԵķʽԴʱſһͨ۴Э

dz֮ΪƵϵͳ壬ҲΪƾ壬DzŽΪξĶ

ԼGospel of Saint Johnĵʮ˶ҮգJesusС[]򵥵ĹԴѧΪׯϳߵһĻΪ֮ͻı

ҮԽڣPassoverָðϵۼ̫˵ܶࣨPilateǰżеĿķӣ̫˵ôҮս⿴ú࣬ǿҵʥʹлش˵ǡΪ˶Ϊ˶磬Ϊ֤վһߵ˱ҵĻDZʣʲôأΪΪһỳɵߣ֪ʲôǰľఴһڱȥ̫ǰ˵ûзʲôǵĹأҪԽͷŸһˡҪͷ̫˵ôDZֺ˵ҪˣҪͣBarabbas鲹Ǹǿ

ӣthe son of God̫֮Ϊ֤֮֮ԣĹΪƵ۾ݡұοѧұܸ۾ݣȴһǰ᣺DZһǽҪʵʩڱҪ²ϧһΪ֮Ѫۡ

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* ԭAbsolutism and Relativism in Philosophy and PoliticisءοѧۡAmerican Political Science Review194810ºţ롶ν壿Whats Justice?, University of California Press 1957pp.

[] μ׾ʽۡStaatsform und Weltanschauung , Tubingen : I. C. B. Mohr [Paul Siebeck] ,1933

[] ҡע

[] 㡱ע

[] AbsolutismѧһΪר塱Ϊ˱һ¼ѧӦΪ塱ע

[] ޼ҡע [] 񼴹ҡע

[] μ׾͹ҵһۡGeneral Theory of Law and State,Cambridge:Harvard University Press,1945 419ҳ¡

[] ءأBertrand RussellѧΡPhilosophy and Politics , London : Cambridge University Press,1947ȫ顣

[] μ׾ġͼʽ塷Platonic Justiceءν壿Whats Justice?, Berkeley & Los Anglles: University of California Press, 1957 109ҳ

[] μ׾ġʿµѧ˵Aristotles Doctrine of Justiceءν壿112ҳ¡

[] ʥԼԼ8.3340ע