ΩԸƽˮʹ罭ϣ
et revelabitur quasi aqua iudicium et iustitia quasi torrens fortis

 

Kelsenⷨѧ*

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1. ۣtheory of lawѧphilosophy of justice

ۣⷨpure theory of lawһʵڷpositive lawۣ[]һַһۣǶijһⷨa special legal orderĽܻ߽ͨ͡ڡһĿ֮µһķȽϣĴͼַʣȷṹʽרעʱ˶ķݣcontentˣһκηƶȶͨĻԭΪһۣΨһĿʶsubjectⷨشǡʵΡwhat the law isǡӦΡwhat it ought to beһΣpolitics⣬ⷨһſѧscience

֮ⷨԱΪ ⡱ͼ޹صųڶʵڷʶ֮⡣һʶƱȷһضķĿѧthe specific science of lawͨνķѧjurisprudenceѧthe philosophy of justiceһͬѧsociologyбڶʵsocial realityʶ

ĸideaнųףڶ˼һı壬ͬʱҲڴֻӭͼʹʵڷԵùjustȻڴ֮£ͼΪֲͬоŬͱΪͼ ʵڷӦǹġһҪ󡣵ʵϣⷨ޷޷ش⣬ijһɹ񣬻߸ģ徿ʲôݡΪһſѧⷨ޷شЩ⣬ΪпѧĴ𰸡 ijһsocial orderζŸһ˶ķʽΪйƣregulate˽ԿԴӸлҸhappinessĿҸҸܶԻãѰ֮ǡһҸsocial happiness

ȻԭʼĸҸȥҸ֮ôÿο֮νġ򶼽ڡԭڣҸʱҸìܣinconsistentһ˵ʹͼ˵ҸÿʱνԲܳʵϣԱ֤ҸֻڼϲܳijΪȨsocial authorityֵʳס֮ǣֵ㣬Լξǡ˳򣿶ԴĻشϵֵжϣa judgment of valueȡڸأԵģжЧÿļֵжԵġ磩ϵĻͽΪԶڳ棬ΨߣmaterialistܸνԸΪ֮Ϊȫƽȸ֮֮ġҲͬྶͥ

ǾʲƸ߾ֻƽ˸ߵļֵ޷ԣrationallyشġȻԴ˼Իش۵ġԵļֵжȴòƿ͹ۺ;ԣabsoluteͨеϣܹ˼άΪ֮PԸwishesdesires֤justify⿴ȥƺУϣЩԸͬijĿģendֶϵʱˣΪֶĿ֮Ĺϵԭcauseeffect֮ĹϵԻھ飨experienceȷԵȷȻȷе˵ѧsocial science֮״Ҳ޷ʵֵģΪں֮ܶ£ȱ㹻ľжΪʵĿ꣨social aims֮;ˣʵֶεͨۼֵжģǶĿֶΡԭ֮ϵԿ͹ۿĽۡҲΪˣν⣬ʹֻ޶ʵֶ֮ζﵽһϿ֮Ŀһ⣬ҲܸԵĻشĿǰˡƩ磬δпѧ۵壨liberalism壨socialism̶ܴ֮ϲ֮ռĿ꣨ultimate aimںΪǶڴϴɹʶġʵָĿȷ;ȻҪռһⱾһصļֵжϣdzģôͼոռʹֻʹɣreasonҲ޴ЦռĿȷΪ֮淶ڴԵġԵļֵжϡ⵹˵ڶȻͬݵۼֵжϡҲΪ˽صļֵϵʵϣ˵ļֵжϾһԡΪʵڵļֵϵǹ˵ⴴ죬һضȺsocial groupУڸ໥Ӱ֮ȺΪͥ䡢׼գcasteְҵÿһֵϵǵϵΪĵһsocial phenomenon֮ͬԶ˴졣ijضкܴܿΪһ㹫ֵ֮Ȼһʵ಻Ӱֵԣ̫ΧƵתĹձΪܣⲢ֤ùΪı׼ı׼һ㣬ȡֵʵ֮жϵƵ̶ȡ

ˣͬĹʵڹڷ࣬ʹ򵥵á塱һҲΪܡǶͼԼΨһȷġΪ֤rational justification˾޴ģðƭķաңڻۼֵжϵ֤Ϊһϣ˶Ӧɻ˶ӦܵƽȶԴֻƭߡҲͬȻɫһʶ̬͵Ĵʶִ̬ijռĿ꣬ԼijִӡʡnatureΪȷ򡣸 ʡ˵ıԣԣhuman reasonϵ۵־will of GodνȻnatural lawѧ˵ıʣessenceֲһ֮Сѧ˵ŴһҸʵڷϵЧҾԹԴȻԻϵ۵־ȻڶȻûκһɹԽӽѧ綨Ȼɣlaws of natureѧ綨κضʵڷľȷ͹綨ֹݡЩΪֹΪȻ֮Ҫôڡsuum cuique֮ĿնʽҪôκʵڷԵùͬ巴һ淶normsƶȷݣٶΪضʵڷеձ׼򣬶ûȻ巨just law̫ܲƵȷᷢ֡Ȼ롰׼ضʵڷìܵΡÿһʵУЧں޿͹ԿԵļֵжϣеоֵּжϲضŻ׼ıְ֮֡ʣȻѧ˵뵱ǰصġĻӦġҪôͨȻġԵĻһʵڷһ¶֤ҪôͨijּľͻʵڷЧȻĸѧ˵䱣ѧ˵һ㣬ʵڷ뷨ʵʶ޹أĺöйء

ϣΪȻѧ˵ΪͻʵڷȻĶԪۣdualismʵrealityͼplatonic ideaζѧmetaphysicalԪֶۡԪھ飨empiricalʵ볬飨transcendentalĿһֻͻֱֹ壨optimisticĺͱ壨pessimisticζѧĿ겻ͬڿѧԵĽʵemotionallyĽܻܾʵ˿ȫɵʵĹϵΪij壨transcendentalism͹۵ʶDzܵġ ȫϤ磬ô侭罫Ϊȫƣentirely goodҲ͸ʵľˡԾ߱Ȼ硢Ի־ĹĴڣߵĻͬ¾ĴСǿشȻѧҽѧشй⣬Ϳij⼲淶֮ĹϵҲͲʵڷй涨ȨԵǿƴʩauthoritative measure of coercion ˡ

һַԣirrational롣˾ռߵΪȷʵڡȴ޷ĶԱìܵġܶ־ΪԣDzɻȱģȴʶĶʶҰУ棨interests໥ijͻͻĽʽֻһһ棬ѰʵЭ֮еκһġҲʶȷʶֻԿ͹ϿȷΪֵ֧ʵ򡣶ʵڷֻʵڷǿѧĿ壻ҲֻʵڷΪѧζѧĴⷨ۵Ŀ塣ֿѧͼʶʵĺͿܵķɣ壬ϴⷨ۴Ӹ˵һʵĺ;ѧʡѧʾܾʵڷб绤

ȻھĻϣⷨȴܹһ̬ȣֻЩһ棬ʹ˴˶ʵЭӶܲijͻĦСķԶԿֵܺڴġֻдַԳ־õ֮άĺƽ˴ԭҲƽͬȻȴһֽߵͬҲʹƽ

ݱӲɿۼֵж˳ڼļʵ֮ϵϢϢءϣ塱ζšϷlegalһһӦõаʱǡġڴ˰֮Ƶı˰ʱǡġڲǸһļֵ֮ʱǡġϣΪһƷʵڷ޹ضйء塱ζͨʵάһʵ򡣴ǡµ塱justice under lawҲֻдϵܹΪɿѧܡ

2. 淶ѧnormative juriprudenceᷨѧsociological juriprudence

ΪⷨۿʵڷϵһⷽʽΪ򡣴ֹͨЩ涨ӦΪʵֹ֡涨Ϊ淶ҪôϰߣͨеĹ淶ˣֻijΪĿĵĻͨʶΪƶأlegislatureʹȨlaw-making capacityΪ

ɹ淶ɷΪһ㣨general淶individual淶ɹ淶ԳԤȹĿȷİƩ涨κε߶ܵͥijͷ𰸼ϵƩij˾ABƥ¡ѧΪһһ淶淶ɵϵʵֻ乹ɷɹ淶ʱΪѧǡ磺ѧ֮оɹ淶ƶijΪܷ֮淶涨оΥdelictڷɹ淶ΪƲãsanctionоƲãڷɹ淶ΪΥĺѧоֻЩ涨ӦΪĹ淶Ǹ˵ʵΪ

һ淶ڡexistsʱ京ָһ淶Чvalidity淶ЩʵʩƵΪ˾Ч淶һ˾ЧζŸӦչ淶ҪʵʩΪʵʵʩһΪʹ֮淶һ¡߱Ϊ淶ʵЧefficaiousЧʵЧֽȻͬƷʣȻȻһϵѧΪһɹ淶ЧΪһϾʵЧķζΪܵĹƣҲȷʵշʵʩΪijijԭɥʧʵЧѧҲΪ淶پЧˣЧʵЧȻҪģΪһϾʵЧΪЧķУijһķɹ淶ijһ峡ֻЧʵЧԭӦءʵȴδظù淶ѧΪһЧĹ淶ɵϵѧ뿪ЧбʵЧĸ޷Ӧ⺬壬ɹ淶ΪƵĸ˵ǡ֡ӦϵġǡӦЧʵЧ ѧɱΪЧĹ淶ϵڿ壨objectáӦ⣬ǡӦǡڡȻѧȴǹ淶ⲢȨԸ񼰸ȨĹ淶ֻܳȨΪɵϵIJߵķѧҽ淶Ϊ⣬ѧҵij˷ɹ淶еġӦȷֹɷѧоķɹ淶һķѧǼҪġ ԡɹϵķѧôͬȻһ㣬һֶضضļжϣhypothetical judgmentȻ뷨ɹҲǴԶѡЧԺַʽϵŲͬȻijһԭ¼the causeһ¼the effectҲӦϵķɹȴΪijһijַʽʵʩΪôһӦչ涨ķʽΪȻѧ뷨ѧ𲢲֮߼ṹڿ屾Լ塣ȻѧԴ塪Ȼ磻ѧӦ塪ɡԣѧɳ֮ΪɵĹ淶ۡҲרҵѧҵġjuristicڷɵĿ

ַѧһνᷨѧȷ֡[]߲ԳӦΪ󣬶ͼѧijȻ˵ʵΪôᷨѧĿͲ֡Ӧought-statementsϵķɹ淶˵ĺϷǷΪᷨѧͨʵʷʵĹ۲콨һзĹϵɾݴ˶˵ΪҽЩΪȻͬΪݹԤȻʵһЩԤⷨᣨlegal communityδʵԼΪ

ⷨ۾ᷨѧЧԣԸ˾ΪΨһķɿѧᷨѧӦ淶ѧЯ֣޷໥ȡԭڶ߸ԽǽȻͬ⡣ⷨۼȷǡģΪ˱ⷽĻڶĸԴκ£⽫Է ӦʶԷϡڡʶⳣ󵼡

淶ѧɵЧ⣬ᷨѧɵʵЧ⣻ЧʵЧǷɵĽȻͬ桢ȷֿͬʱ˴֮ضĹϵһ淶ѧᷨѧовͬȴҲ൱ϵѧ޷о󡪡ɡȷ֣Ҳ޷Ŀһѧgeneral sociologyĿ塪ᣬ淶ѧϸ巨ɵĸΪΪѧĿ塪ɣǵʵΪԾзɵ֮õµĻشѧϵġɡǹ淶ѧϵķɹ淶涨ʵΪΪǰߵѧҲѧΪ淶ݣΪһȻʵдڵ󣬼һżȻϵa causal nexusѧоΪԭΪӦķɹ淶ѧҶԲѧо壻ǰ߶ԣ淶Ǿѡķ򡣶ڷѧsociology of lawԷɹ淶ĹָصĿ壬ʹ͹ʵ֮СϣᷨѧԹ淶ѧΪǰᣬǹ淶ѧIJ䡣

ѧͼԤ⣨predict취law-making÷lawapplyingءǷԺΪҪĵ񣬶óĽ淶ѧȴҲͬС졣Ӧȷ˽ģᷨѧĺȫͬڹ淶ѧ⡣ȷԺӦоԱЧķɹ淶һ£ǰԤⷨԺоڹ淶ѧֻijһɹ淶һʵЧġʵõķDzΪЧôûصʵΪ뷨ϵΪҲûжˡֻҪϾʵЧôڹ淶ѧԺм԰ɹ淶ҪʵʩΪȻɴƻأأֻܻںܵ͵ij̶Чķɹ淶޷κγ̶϶ΪԤ⡣ôΪᷨѧԷɻԤij̶淶ѧ̶ȳɱġ

δ¼Ԥ⾿ǷȻѧҪƣanalogyΪѧҪⶼֵûɵġѧиǰ;оҪԤ⡪ܵĻ崴ơáطɵʵΪͣexplainԭΪɴ񣬾ͱоӰǵĴơ÷Ϊʶ̬ʶ̬УھԵĺĵλڸùʶ̬зideological-critical analysisǷѧҪǰ;֮һ

3. 淶norm֮

ڴⷨ۽ڶʵڷоѧ뷨ѧųʶΧ֮⣬νķѧ൱ӽӢҵľԼ˹John Austin1790D1859СⷨѧͼȫӶʵڷķеóۡⷨȴڰ˹ѧ塷Lectures on General Jurisprudence֮չģ[]Ҫ۵˹ѧ˵һ¡֮ͬڴⷨ۱Ȱ˹׷߸Ӱѷѧķ᳹ʼա

漰ѧĺĸ淶ˡ˹δ淶ĸҲδע⡰ڡis롰Ӧought֮𣬶ǡǹ淶ԽĻɶΪ򡱣ruleֽΪcommandΪÿһɻ򡭡һ˵ͨƵķ򣬽Ϊ֮ʽspecies[]

ij˶Ϊ֮־willʾҵ־Ҫȥ˰ijַʽΪҽ˹֮־ijַʽʾұһôһعɣΪϣwishԼϣһ﷽ʽֻе־﷽ʽ߱ʱܹһij˶ҷһôڳͷ֮ǰгֵΪ־ѲڣôҲͲڣ־ıԽ˵νġԼԡbindingʹΪһ־־ʧԽȻȷıǣIJҵobligationһ棬䱾ʶԲ־ʾ

ˣ˹ΪĹɷɵķɹʵϲڱζЧvalidity壬´־Ѳڡ˶һЩ漰ȷijʵ־Ϊķڵɻӽ˵

˽ܷƶķɳΪ֮Ƶƣߵġ־֮࣬ôֱʵ롰ĸţ༰ɾЧ伴ʹصijԱȫ֮Ծоôˣ÷ɵѲκ˵ġ־ٲκξ־competent to will֮˵־ôоķɱ㲻ѧϵ־Ҳĵʱ־ز١ͬʱܷ涨̵оҲʹ취ɵΪҲκηҪΪ־һسԱеĶύǵIJݰͶ޳ƱʱͨɵݲЩͶƱسԱġ־ǵ־Ȼ֮෴ġȻǶ־ı޳־ıڸ÷ɵĴһDzɻȱġΪһƶģҲɣȻ÷ɵȫԱѧϵ־ʹΪֻжͶ޳ƱԷ˶ɵ־ҲȻԵ鹹ΪԲݰͶ޳Ʊ˿ζʵϡҪ󡱣willingɵݡѧϣֻܡҪܡҪ䲻ʣڶ£ԲݰͶ޳ƱسԱҪôݣҪô֪֮١һͶƱʱֱۻߺ޳ɡAyeԲݰΪԼ־ijˡijַʽʵʩҪ󡱵Ϊྶͥ

ôȻijһķɱΪ硰ߡ־Ϊķɳҵġ־ҲֻܱΪһֱԵıڰΪֲСɹ 涨enactedprovidedprescribed˵Ϊʱֹ涨ͷdzȴһش𡣳һڱһض˵Ϊ󡪡־ɹж˵Ϊġ涨ȴκ־޹ءɻԱΪѧϵġdepsychologizedڶˡӦΪıӦҪԱڴˣҲ˹淶ıҪԡ淶DZʾijӦΪijΪĹ򣬵ⲢζŸΪʲô˵־

淶еӦжԱȣͻֻᷢкܵͳ̶ϵԡֻе衰оԵǿʱܽƶķɳΪʵϣоԵǿǹ淶ڹ淶ʱֻܽ鹹˹Ʒɹǡȴһֶ߻ҡ־ĹΣյ鹹

4. ǿƣcoercion

ѧ۶һ£ⷨ۽ǿΪɵĸ˹׷߽ΪǿʵʩġenforcibleΪضȨǿʵʩĹ[]Ҫ˼ǣʵʩijΪʩǿȡforcesǷַδӵ½ǿȸ˷ӵʩڷоͽƲãsanctionڴֹ۵㿴ǿơǷɵľԷɵķͨǶƲõĿ־ʵ֡

ϸʽȴȷ漰citizens÷ɻأorgans applying the lawΪǵĺϷΪǷڶԳͷĿ־ȴֵû ֻҪǶΪĶmotives˽⣬ͻ֪¡ڽ̷ĶȶڷƲõĿ־ΪҪΪЧǿҲǷɶеءڽ̹淶ͬѧϵǿԡںϷΪڶԷ֮ݽʶĿ֮⡣

ڴһѧǷѧ淶ѧ⡣ֻǿɹ涨Ʋ֮ǿƴʩضµضˡӴóеķɹǿƣڵijͷ˷ɵıʵĽۡ

ڷɽƲΪУ߼ҪԵġ滹ҪἰһЩơǸʵʩġΥɹ涨ΪҷΪƲáˣƲΪھ尸ʵַɵĿĶ裬ͬʱҲΪЩδǿƼӵİ裬ڰ˹ǿǷɵĸΪɲ˹ǿȨǿʵʩĹ˵ṩǿƴʩΪƲõĹ淶˹ѷɵΪҪϷΪôɵı޷õյġôɾͳΪЩΪϷillegalΥΪǿƴʩƲãЩΪ֮ԾСΥƲõ

ɹ淶漰ΪΪƲõǿƴʩ䲻Ϊ裻ԼԲΪǿƴʩĻءɹ淶ĹܾڶԽͷΪضΥΪҪĵλѧĹ۵㿴ΥΪͻͨԱΪΥĸ˽ƲΪΥӶʹΪѧֻǷݣԼΥƲõĹϵ ܰ˹ʶƲΪɸıȴδܽɹ淶һķʽ塣ⷨȴ佫ɹ淶ϵģΪһּԣhypotheticalжϵĹеóԵĽۣڴ˼жУΥΪIJΪƲΪɹ淶ǡӦij˵ԣӦܵͷij˲⳥ȨΪɵʧӦ´һɹ淶ĸǹ淶ѧĻĸǷ뷨Ȩĸ

5.

ⷨǿķlegal dutyҪȨϵ˹ƵģȨ֮Duty is the basis of Right[]ijʵʩijһΪζijһɹ淶Ϊ֮෴ΪΥΪ趨ƲáͨƲʵʩΪĸ˶衣Ȼԭʼprimitive legal orderУҲȷʵƲòΥߡЩΥضϵˡΪЩ˶ijַϵ壨legal group塢ǰ屾ΪΥߡƲýΥߣΪΣindividual responsibilityȫԱϵΣcollective responsibilityԭʼбΪѪ׸Ѫ帴blood revenge or vendettaִʷҲ֣ƲãսΪһĹҩʵҲЩʵʩΥΪĹҵĹƲΥ֮һʵʹιΪҪЩѾʵʩΥΪܵƲõ˳еЩʵʩΪDZΥ߶衣ִͨУǺ϶ΪһġΪļȻDZҪģʵϹʷĹˡ ڰ˹Уδθȷ֡˹ӶƲóΥ߸һûע⵽Υضϵ˽гͷΡδܷ֡ʵʩijһΪto be obliged to maintain a certain behavior롰ijһΪΡto be responsible for a certain behaviorΪӦdoΪΪforbear򡮸ΪΪְobligationڲ½ܵƲá[]ôΥ߶ܵͷֵνأ˸ݰ˹ۣɹ淶޷κ񡣶ڰ˹ɹ淶ıʾ趨񡣶ڰ˹ԣǡŸ塣

ǡǡĸʹ˹δΡ˹ΪɹǹںϷΪlegal behaviorƲõ沢δҪĹ淶гֻ֡񴿴ⷨɹ򣬼Ϊй涨ƲõĹ淶ܽƲýʵʩ롰෴Ϊĸ˵ͷΪ˵IJΪеε˵

6. Ȩ

Ȩrightһʾڶຬ塣ijΪҪijΪʹáijȨΪҲζûвʵʩΪ񣻼ɵġƩ磬к˼Լڹ԰ɢȨɽζŶķ񶨡ȨҲԾлpositiveĺ壬˱ʵʩӦΪ磬ӵʹҲƲijȨͱ˸вһʹΪб˹۵ȨҲͱҩ׼ȷ˵ǴҵĻةIJұij˵Ȩζ˵Ȩ˵ضΪʱˡеij֧һǮȨȻ˸֧ÿһȨDzɣұΪˡ˴һ񡣡ȨϾһԡ񡣰˹Դ˵ıȷеģȨ롮ǴӲͬ濼ǵͬ[]

˹۸ûаȨȨֻij˱ͨʹһϵֵ֧ͨġʵƲϵ˵ʵЧĻʱŴڡֻ£ABʵʩΪȨBA һ¡Ҳֻ£˵BAʵʩijһΪ񲢲䷨ɵλˣⷨ۽Ȩ޶¡ֻ´Ȩ

7. ľ̬Static붯̬Dynamicۣ淶ĵȼHierarchy

˹ķѧΪ걸ġʱõĹϵȴûпǵɵĴƹ̡һַľ̬ۡⷨʶԷɵľ̬оԶ̬оΪ䡣Ҫڣɲͬ淶ϵǹĴơʵڷķһɹ淶Ƶijܵɹ淶Ĺ涨ʵϣͨ淶涨ɴƵij򣬶Ҷ涨ƹ淶ݡܷ涨򣬶Һ뷨йصġȡʽĹ涨Ʃ磬涨ۡ桢ڽɲԷƣضʽơƣ³ķɹ涨˾оеĸ淶individual normsIJʽ̷񷨵Ҳͨеһ淶general normsЩ淶ݡͬͨcommon lawϰ߷customary lawϵУ˾оǰڵһ淶ܾij̶ȳƶܷij̶ȡƹ̵ķɹ淶ݵķɹ淶ӢбΪ򡱣adjective롰ʵ塱substantive

һ淶ĴƻݵĹ淶뱻䴴ƵĹ淶ĹϵɱΪһֿռͼʽspatial figureǰǡλsuperior淶ǡλinferior淶Ӷ̬ӽǹ۲죬ַᷢ򲢷Ӿ̬ӽǹ۲ͬȼ淶йɵϵ˵ܷ߲һȼϵܷһʵĻζžһ㷨ɹ淶ĴơżҲһ̶ϾݣξΪ˾оĸ淶ĴƻݡĹ淶һֻ壨complexҲϰΪɵĴߵĹ淶һеĹ淶δdzܷҲϰߴIJܷһ֡ ߼淶ͼ淶ĹϵܷƶķɵĹϵζǰ߹ɺߵЧݣreason for validityһɹ淶֮ԾЧΪ䰴һ淶涨ķʽϵЧԭʵڷˡһ̬ԭͳһԾԴֹϵ˾оЧݣǣоки淶磬Aе֧1000ԪЧڸоڶƶϰ߷һ淶ãȨԺԾ尸оЩõһ淶ЧܷƶôܷЧݺڣܷлЧĹ淶ǷĻ淶basic norm淶άϵŷͳһԡںΪάϵһͳһԵĻ淶⣬뽫ڷʷϵоܻش𡣶һش⻹뽨ڶԷ֮ϵ͸Ļ֮ϡ

8.

˹ѧ˵һصڲδϵĹҵĸᡱindependent political societyг䵱˹ҵĽɫⲢһɸҰ˹ҲδᡱΪҡʹһʾһȨߣsovereign͹subjectɵᡣ[]Ȩ߿ij˻һȺˣǹˡ˹ż˵Ȩߺ͹ҵĴߣcreature[]˴ġҡȻָᣬڲίеȨʹߡϣ˹ʹáҡʣҲӳһ񡣵˵еķɶɹҴƵʱ˼ǣÿһʵڷʹȨĸˣperson壨body of personsƶģ[]Ҳ˵ȨDzƶġ еķԴȨߣôȨ򲢷ǷɵĶ󡣰˹۵һҪԭȨȨsovereign powerDzܷƵġis incapable of legal limitation[]˹ΪȨıʱȨ߻Ȩ塰ϰߵأhabituallyضĸߡ[]Ȩ߸ѧѧģǷѧƷֻΪȨߵǰ˹ѧıʹϵķѧгΪ߽ӶʵڷķлøʵڷĹ淶иڡȨߡֶҲ޷ҵܷơĸ˻塣˹ѧ˲ǹҵһصȨһȴδ漰ұ⡣

˹ķѧ봿ⷨһϴش𡣺߲ϹһĴͳ۵㣻ȴָĸֻijĻϲһᵥλһȺ߼ġᡱcommunity֮ιͬҪ֮һҲЩ˱Ǹ˵ϣunionһϱǹ໥Ϊ֮ܡṲֻܴ֮ͬСùͬһιͬ壬ΪõʵĿֶǹ涨ǿƴʩ֪һǿ򡣴ⷨȡõڲͬijɾʶֹdz֮ΪҵιͬǿһַͨƵĹҵķ򣬻ҽķʵǹұ

ͨΪȻͬʵ壨entitiesʶҾ䱾ʶ޷Ϊ򣬶ĸǿƣҲͬʱΪɵıҪأôͳĹ뷨ɵĶԪҲ޷ȥˡͨҵĸǿ֮ڣֻǷ򣩣ͨڷɸĹҸⷨ۷˰˹ѧ˵аһ򡣰˹ǡطַѧв޹ҵθλáͼһΪ⡣ȴһϵĸȨߡ˷ɣδȷڷϵĸ

ӵСpossessesĹұΪһˡáˡǷͳһ˸񻯣personification뷨ɵĶԪ۾Դڶһ˸񻯵ļ裬һԵıʵˣ뷨ɶȻ編ѧ˼άҲһ鹹ô漰뷨ɹϵⶼ˶ھǷҴ˷ĻشǣǻڼеĹ淶˷ɡǷɲ֣Ҳǹһء֮ǻΪ֮涨ְܣ򹹳˷ᣨlegal communityڳιһصĸ˶ԣֻضΪűΪҵΪ漰ΪΪθ˵ضΪڹңֻǸΪڷ򡣽ΪǿƹڹҵԴϵѧԵġ編ijһ淶Ĵܵ÷еһ淶Ĺƣô߱Ƿɲ֣ǹҵĻءϣ˵Ҵ˷ɣⲻ˵ɹ涨Ĵơ һ˷ҵĶԪۣΪ򿴴ôνĹҵҪءterritorypopulationҲͱΪڷЧΧterritorial and personal spheres of validity˹ƵġȨߡͱΪ÷߻أȨҲɸûصĸ˻ԣǹԡȻΪڷ֮ȨҲڸ֮ϲڸߵķ

9. ʷڷ

зڹڷΪʷʷǷڷϵķɣԼǷڹڷԵ⡣˹䶼˷񶨻شϹʷΪʵڹʵ¡positive international morality[]ˣʷͬһųڰ˹ķѧΧ֮⡣෴ⷨȴ֤ܹʷΪķɣΪѾ߱˷бҪءʷڷͬϵǿң໥֮Ϊͨ෴Ϊ涨Ʋʵֵġʷ涨ƲDZreprisalsսwarⷨͼ֤ݹʷսֻΪԹҷwrongķӦʱűⷨΪսbellum justumѧ˵ʵ֤ʷ֮ѧ˵ʷķɣͬʱҲһԭʼķɡڽԷΪƲáԳͷִнȨֵ弴ұڷضؼдˡ˹ʷǷdzɢģҲ˹ʷɵĹʹͬ岢ǹңǹҵϡij̶ֳϵ뼯ȨڹҪġͬԭʼ乹ɵȫɢĹͬҲǹңʵҲijַɵġ

ڹڷʷĹϵ棬ֶĹ۵㣬ԪһԪۡǰŹڷʷǽȻͬ໥淶ϵʵڷһⷨΪֹڷʷϵĶԪ߼DzģҲûκһԪ۵ܹһԹ֮ؼ۵㡣Ϊͬһֹ۵㿴淶ϵƵЧôͱΪ֮ijֹ淶ϵͱijֹ淶໥ϵϵĹ淶֮䲻ݵìܾͲɱ⣬߼еìɲڶȻʵʶҲڶԹ淶ʶʵڷΪȻͬ໥Ĺ淶ϵ֮ʱζŽϷķѧҲῼǵԵ⣬ϵѧҲʵڷι涨ġʵڷ֮ԿΪȻͬ໥Ĺ淶ϵΪͬһֹ۵㿴߲ƵЧȻóڷʷͬʵڷĽۣǴӷѧĹ۵㿴Ȼ뱻ΪƵЧˣDZȻͬһ淶ϵұȻijַʽ໥䡣

һԪ۵۵߼Ҫ佫ڷʷΪͬһ淶ϵͳһ塣Ȼ淶ϵΪһνconstructedϹ۵ȴһ¡Ϊʷڹڷһ֣ȵҼϵDz֡ΪʷĹֻеõĹҳϲķܾ֮ߡ˼ڷ˵the theory of the primacy of national lawԽ˹Ȩڷ򩤩ϹκξϵڡݸۣκιڷԣȷκιʷڵֻĹڷʵϸûйʷֻйڷ۵㣬ڷ֮ĹϵҲֻijһڷͨ淶ݴֹ۵㣬һȶĹڷҲԵòȨίУdelegatedĵͼˡֻе㣨the point of departureķϵ²ŴھЧ淶ϵ ⷨΪһԪȻ߼ǿܵģȴΥйңڷһƽȵĹڷζŹڷ򲻽ڹʷĹڷ򡣴ֹܵձķУйһ˴˼λƽȵĹͬ壬ֻڼйҡйڷ֮ϴһͨ涨໥ЧΧʹƽȵķ򣬴ƽȲʵַֻ֡ǹʷͨʵ֤ʷķⷨΪܹԽȨļ裬۾ܱܲãһڹڷĹ淶ϵʹλƽȣʹ֮һձķǹʷ˵the theory of the primacy of international lawǴⷨ۵һνʾ˸ѧ˵ۻ

ΨȨ谭˶ԷزĵĽⷨ͡۵Ҫ֮һǷȨڷ۵ϲʵʵȨһֵжϺһּ衣ʮˡʮ͵ĸѧindividualism philosophyԴԸϲ߼ֵһӴ˳óۣΪֻͬ²ܽԼγԼsocial contractѧ˵ͽ̴档յijһձļֵѧһѧڸˡ

ڹʹϵΪȨһԹҸΪѧĹ۵㡣ȨĽǶԹѧĽһֵּѧϵļ衣޷ѧϵķֻܾܵһ衪ʷȨsovereignty of international legal communityǡֽͣͶڳʵ֤ʷЧDZزٵġ

ⷨ۶ʵ֤ʷķʷ淶DzincompleteĹ淶ҪڷĹ淶в䡣һΪܵĹʷֻҵŲŹʷԼˣеķһԼˣȡķʽǼӣindirectlyģԹڷΪý顣ƹʷԼҵضΪʷԼιһصĸʵʩΪʷȷΪɹڷȷΪʽɹʷݵĸˡ˹ʷڷͬȵЧ߾ͬһɹ淶ϵ֮УһϵȻʷ

һ㷺ܵĹʷԭһ£һȨԺַʽȷںεأֻҪԱ֤ؾ񳤾õطӹ涨ΪǿǿĹͬ弴ΪʷϹҵġǿЧķΧΪterritoryסΧڵľΪʵ֤ʷϵĸùpopulationݸԭʷ綨˹ڷ˵ЧΧκιҶһΧݸԭʷҲȷ˸ڷЧΧǶЧģΪǶ˶ʵЧҪѾָģѧһЧķΪʶɹ淶ı׼ʵʵڷԭҲһʷԭ ڹڷԹʷЧɣͬʱҲȷǰߵЧΧôʷͱκιڷʷڸڷ͹ͬһͳһձ鷨ϵone uniform universal legal system

ȻѧȻɵϵ塪ʵôѧڹ淶ϵһķɡ˹ѧûʶ񣻶ⷨ۾ϸϻ뾫ȷϾųɹĿ˿ɹ۵һ

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* ԭThe pure theory of law and analytical jurisprudence55HARV.R.L.144701941롶ν壿Whats JusticeUniversity of California Press 1957pp.266287ĸ߶ŨظˡⷨۡPure Theory of LawһҪ۵㣬ں뱾϶ߡ

[] μKelsenAllgemeine Staatslhere(23Enzyklopadie der Recht- und Staatwissenchaft 1925); Kelsen, Reine Rechtslhere(1934);Kelsen,Thorie Gnrale du Droit Interational (1932)42Recueil des Cours 121Ӣijйڴⷨ۵μCohen,Rechent Theories of Sovereignty (1937) 5759 Gauter -paht , Kelsens Pure Science of Law(1933); Mattern, Concepts of State , Sovereignty and International Law (1928) 121 -139 ; Husik , The Legal Philosophy of Hans Kelsen (1938) 3 J.SOC.PHIL. 297 ; Janzen,Kelsens Theory of Law193731 AM. POL. SCI.REA.205;Kunz,The Vienna School of International Law(1934)11 N.Y.U.L.Q. REV.370 ; Stern ,Kelsens Theory of International Law193630 AM. POL. SCI. REV. 736 ; Voegelin,Kelsens Pure Theory of Law (1927) 42POL.SCI.Q. REV.268;Wilk,Law and the State as Pure Ideas: Critical Notes on the Basic Concepts of Kelsens Legal Philosophy (1941)51ETHICS158;Wilson,The Basic of Kelsens Theory of Law(1934)1POLITICA54

[] ҽͨνʵߣAmerican Legal RealistΪᷨѧΪ͵Ĵ

[] The Province of Jurisprudence DeterminedΪ1832ꣻֲ˲ݡΪ1885ĵ5档¼Austin

[] Austin ,p.88.

[] See Austin ,pp.89 et sep.

[] Austin, p.395.

[] Austin,p. 444.

[] Austin, p.395.

[] See Austin ,p.220.

[] E.g.,Austin ,p.101.

[] Austin ,p.220.

[] Austin ,p.263.

[] Austin, p.224.

[] See Austin,pp. 172 et esp.