ΩԸƽˮʹ罭ϣ
et revelabitur quasi aqua iudicium et iustitia quasi torrens fortis

Kelsen:ԵӦأ*

/

һ

ɵЧݺڣԴִǡۣȲ֮壺ɡlawӦΪʵڷڷʷЧvalidityӦΪɵǿƾӦΪΪƵءڣΪЩӦطɡ

ʵڷЧ񡪡ΪʵڷԤ裻Чʵڷĸʵڷ淶涨֮Ϊ嵱ȻǸù涨ӦءȻΪ౻Ϊ͹壿֪ÿһϾй淶Ϊ֮Ϊڿ͹Ͼͱ淶Ʃ磬ٷҪ㽻ǮͲᱻΪԻЧĹ淶ôͿԱΪΪνʵڷΪΪϡҿ͹ϾоԹ淶壿

ͨܵĴǣ֮ӦʵڷΪ߷ϵԭЩ漰˵취law-making÷law-applyingΪ͹壨justice룻ֹ۵㣬ɵЧݾ塣Щԭȷ⣬͵Ļشǣ˵ȻnatureǿͨȻ̽Щԭ͹ȻnaturallawȻʵڷpositive law˶man-made-law

ǰ۵㹹Ȼѧ˵ѧ˵ȻΪȨݴˣʵڷȻлЧ֮ӦʵڷΪȻˣȻֻʵڷ֮ʱŻ

ʹǽܹȻ˵Ϊ֮淶ֹ۵㣬ҲȻΪӦӴ˹淶ʡڽһ׷ʣȻѧ˵δ𰸡ѧ˵Ԥ裨presupposesҲǽ䵱selfevidentġӦȻǸѧ˵Ļ裨hypothesis淶basic normԷɸЧ

Ȼ˻ȴ޷ΪʵڷܣΪܴȻ˵ΪĹ淶淶־willıȻȴû־Ȼһɣprinciple of causalityϵʵϵȻΪһ淶Ȩд淶֮־ij˴ڣһַۣanimiticʽţ˵ǰȻϵ־ѧ͵Ľ

һԭʵڷȻЧȻ˵֮һԲΪʵڷܡ

һΪÿһʵڷԾЧÿһʵڷȻѧ˵ͱ뱻ΪȻjustһÿһ˶manmadelawԿͨȨ֤justificationȻѧġȻÿһʵڷԹɵ壻ô˵乫Ч͵˵ɵЧݾǷɣ֮ӦؾΪӦء ɵͬ壬ʵڷͬȻȻĸͱú塣ֻȻһʵڷһ֮ڶʱõšһȷԭȻݣֶͲɱشڡʵϣȻѧ˵ͻƣЩȻĿԭ򲻽ʵڷֱӷʵڷ򡣲κβԭͻʵڷҲûһʵڷܹʵڷΪԭϡЩԭ˲ͬѧ߶ΪЩȻߵĸ߶Եļֵжϣvalue judgementֻеʵڷȻʱžЧЧĻôijһԭÿһʵڷʱ߶ԱΪЧ磬ijЩѧƵ˲ƲΪһȻȨôҵķɾЧҽ֯ķ˰ѧԣ˲ƲǷȻģôʱйӦӵķ͸ܱΪЧķɡˣJohn Locke16321704ǣΨһȻ빫ʽôԾרȷνɵķӾ޷֤շƶĬSir Robert FilmerȻѧ˵Ϊ壬Ϊϵ۵־ͻϵ۲ʽͳ磬ôķɾ͸ûЧݣֻרƾȨʣʵڷѧscience of positive lawDzܽȻѧ˵ĵڶģȽΪһķѧjurisprudenceˡ

ˣνʵڷ֮ԾЧ乫˵ûлشǵ⡣ʵڷȻлЧôʵڷ͸ЧǾֻӦȻ淶Ȼѧ˵شIJʵڷΪξЧ⣬һȻͬ⣺ȻΪξЧĻشҲһ衣ӦȻһԤԹ淶Ȼѧ˵Ļ淶

һѧ˵ѧҲΪǵṩ˴𰸡ʥޣSt.Pual˵

Ȩģ˵ΪûȨdzϵۣȨĶϵġԿȨģǿϵ۵ܱȡ̷ٵԭǽƵľ£ǽľ¡ԸⲻȨֻҪƣͿɵijޡΪϵ۵Ӷˣġ[]

ǶκȨʵڷ֤ӦκʵڷΪַϵ֮ϵ۵Ĵˡ߱ϵ۸Ȩ÷ɾͲ˶Dzϵ־֮ķ֪˵ķϵ۶ʵڷ

ȻνӦϵ۵ʵڷһʵڷΪξЧմ𰸡һ淶Чֻܴһ߹淶޶һĴ𰸵ǣ֮ӦʵڷΪӦϵ۵ǺǷʵڷΪijһȨĹ淶涨ijӦһ˵˹淶Ͱʾһ˾зȨ˹淶ȨҲķһӴ˹淶ǣ淶ȨͱȻΪ˫ϵ۲ܷһȨĹ淶Ϊϵ۱ȨԣӦϵĹ淶ܳijȨֻѧԤĹ淶һζѧģmentaphysical裬ѧĻ淶ݴѧۣù淶ǷɵЧݡ

ζѧļֻгڽܽܣϵǷʵڷһʵֻܴӱ޽̵뵱Ȼسϣʹ˼ҲֵûɣΪڻ̽˼ԼʵȻΪһĿѧķɿѧܡѧҲζѧļ衪ijʵʵԽྭ֮ܵļ衪֮Ͻ⡣

ѧһĴ𰸣Ȼѧ˵ĴһڸʵڷʥȻΪǰѰЧݡѧ˵ʵڷЧѧ˵עĻȻ֮ЧЧ򲢷ȻȨϵѧ˵ΪԤ֮淶

˵ķȣ費ΪʵڷĿѧܡΣ˷ɵЧЧɣӦһߵΪѰЧݣʵڷ뱻ߵģsupremeȨԵ(sovereign)

еȼṹ(hierarchy structure)֮dzĵģwritten򲻳ģunwrittenܷشƵƶstatutesȻǷԺΪƶƵĸ淶individual norms֮ӦطٵоصΪӦܷ׷ΪҪܷеĹ淶Ǿͻᱻ֪һѱܷԺܵķʽȡľܷĹ涨վͻصʷϵԭܷfirst constitutionΪӦԭܷ֮涨⣬ʵڷѧֻش𣺼ԭܷǿʵбΪƵãҪѴǿΪЩ˵Чķԭܷͱ뱻ΪһԤ趨ҪЩ֮ĹϵΪlegal dutiesȨlegal rightsΣlegal responsibilitiesǵȨϵpower relationsĻҪпڷϺΪȷΪֶԱforceĺϷǷʹõĻͱˡϵʵڷĻ淶յЧݣʵڷѧóĽ۱ˡ֮ʵڷЧݣʵڷѧΪȲܼȻϵǷʷԭܷҲܼܷ֮Ȼϵ۵ȨƶܷҪӦԭܷĻ淶ǷȨĴ죬䱾ܷƶʵڷ淶˹淶ʵڷѧǡǰЧΪǸǿһterritoryΧھinhabitantsĹ淶ΪԤ趨ġԤ貢IJΪ漰͹ϿȷʵܷȷΪ巨ɻlegitimatizesΪ͹۵ԡʵЧeffectivenessһԭΪһ淶ԭڷҪá ˣʵ֤壨legal positivismͨһɽܻ򲻿ɽܵļش˷ΪξЧ⡪֮Էӷɵ֤ġˣdz𰸲ܹ⣬˾Ȼѧ˵ѧĽȻϣʵ֤Ȼѧ˵ѧûʲôġ۶ѷɵЧݽһĻ淶֮ϡ編ʵ֤Ļ淶Ȩϵѧ˼άjuristic thinking֮ԤһȻѧ˵ѧĻ淶ҲȻϵ۷ϵѧ˵ΪһԤ衣ˣЩѧ˵ڷӷɵ֤Ҳڷʵ֤彫淶ЧݽʵڷЧУȻѧ˵ѧ淶ЧݽȻ֮ϡ

ϹڷЧ۱޶ڹڷnational lawڣֻеʷڷȨܷϣͨȨңsovereign stateʱΪЧǶڹʷĴҲͬģһԤĻ淶ôڷЧݰΪڷһֵĹʷinternational lawЧݡȻǰѹʷΪڹڷһ㲻ͬˡΪڷ淶õʵЧԭʵڹʷеĹ淶ʷЧضĶ´ԺܷʽͨrevolutionġΪϷͳµἴΪʷϵġҡʵʩЧƵǿΪ˹ЧķɣôеĹ淶ΪΪΪlegal actsʥ޸ǣÿһϵ۽֮ƣʵ֤ǣÿһɹʷʵЧԭһֻܷҪЧǿϾʵЧܷЧΪڹڷĹʷͬļڹڷԤĻ淶ΪȨ򡪡ͨıȨҵķɡǹڷЧݣǡǡڹڷЧһʷ淶߲ſԱΪǰߡ˹ʷ淶ǹڷЧռݡһͻز⣺Ϊδ˹ʷ淶ЧͱɣΪιʷΪһЧҿشڹڷЧشһ⣬ΪڲǹڷǹʷΪһȨڷҡԱȨߣ֡ȨҲֻζŹһ˵ɹҵĹڷ򣬲κֻӹʷ򡪡ˡҡǶġΪιʷЧĹ淶Ǿ͵ôӻشΪAʵʩBйصΪǺϷǷ⿪ʼ𰸿ǣΪϻΥAB֮ǩijԼҸijʷ淶ӦǩԼ˼Լأpacta sunt servanda 淶ù淶ϵϰ߷customary international law淶ֹͬڷЧݵĹҷ淶Ҳϰ߷Ĺ淶ʷϰ߷淶Լconventional law淶ɡԼϰ߷Ƶķɡ˹ʷЧݣ淶ǽϰΪ취ʵlawcreating factĹ淶ҪϵϰΪĹ淶

Ȼ˹淶ϰߴ衣˵ϰߴ淶ͻͬ˵ȻȻȨϵ۸ϵȨһ߼ϵĴȨϰߴķɵĹ淶ֻЩԤĹ淶ǰѹʹϵΪȨϵΪȨεķɹϵlegal relationǻжϹΪĺϷ񣬼ʹϵܵЧķĵֻ֮£ſ͡ķ֪˼裬ʷĻ淶ͬ䵱˹ڷЧݡ

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* ԭءν壿ѧ֮е塢ΡWhats Justice:Justice,law,and politics in the Mirror of scienceUniversity of California Press 1957pp.257265

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