ΩԸƽˮʹ罭ϣ
et revelabitur quasi aqua iudicium et iustitia quasi torrens fortis

Kelsen:ɽ*

/

һɽ֮

ɻlegal organ÷ɣȷù淶֮壬ȡ͡ù淶ˣɽһ淨ɴӸ߽׵ͽù̵intellectual activityڸУ̸۷ɽʱ뵽ƶstatuteĽͣڴӰõƶеһ淶general mormƳ˾оеĸ淶individual normͬʱDZش˸淶һ⡣ͬʱڶܷĽͣ罫ڽϵ͵λܷԼemergency regulationsʵʩֱܷȨΪԼĹ淶ϰһʷ淶ijʼڷԺڸҲҪ͡⣬жԸ淶˾оΪlegal transactionsȵȵĽ͡һԱ֮һзɹ淶͡

ǵˣЩͨʹΪƲöﵽطĸˣҲⷨȷ塣󣬷ɿѧscience of lawʵڷpositive lawʱҲеĹ淶

ˣǾͱȷ෨ɽͣûأlaw-applying organ Ľͺ͸ԼǣɿѧĽ͡ȣǽ۷ûصĽ͡

һΪ֮Բȷ(Relative Indefiniteness)

(legal order)λλ֮ĹϵƩܷƶƶ˾о֮ϵһ־determiningbindingϵλ淶ƴλ淶֮Ϊλ淶λ淶ƻΪ֮ʵʩ򣬶ҡпܡ淶Ϊ֮ݡ

־Dzȫģλ淶ܴӷΪоٵشŲdiscretion֮ռ䣬λ淶صλ淶пΪ֮ȻϸµҲִлٵIJռ䡣ABشCˣBҲ֮ʱεؼִдֲıҪԴδԤһҲԤĸӻ

Ϊ֮ⲻȷIntentional Indefiniteness

˷ΪɷɾδֲȷȿΪʵconditioning factsҲΪ֮conditioned consequencesȷϵΪ֮ɴ豻ù淶֮ʶɣһһ淶һּĻ֮ϴ裺ҪͨƸ淶еһ淶֮ý־ȼhiararchy֮ľ̡ӣһɹ涨ȾʱȡɳͷʵʩijִʩԷֹȨݲͬĴȾͬʩ̷ijһض֮ΥΪdelict涨˷̻̣ڸоú̷̶֮ɣɽ涨̷޻ޡ

Ϊ֮ⲻȷUnitentional Indefiniteness

Ϊ֮ȷҲ÷ɹ淶֮ΪķԱù淶жֺʱͳᷢԹ淶ԱģɣܲͬĽ͡øù淶֮Ź淶֮Ա־ʱҲִΡηָ־ġΪܴӹ淶֮Դзִ־ν־ɻеĵ־ԱĿѱͳѧ֡־IJĻ򲿷ֵġ־˼ٷ϶Թ淶Եijһ͵Ҳںߡ󣬷ΪIJȷܲ淶ͬʱЧҲijһƶȴ˴ìܵ

ģΪܣFrameõķ

Щλ׵IJȷУþжֿԡ÷ɹ淶ķΪܷ֮һ1Ϸɹ淶ֽ֮һ2ϿԼijַʽȷ־3ѡijֱ4໥ìܵ淶֮һ5Ԯìܹ淶ҿԼ˶ìܹ淶໥ϳԾ֮дУõķɽһÿܵĿܣÿһڿ֮еΪϷ

͡Ϊһֶڿ֪֮ȷcognitive ascertainmentɽֻ֮ȷͷ֮ܣԼ֪ڵĶֿԡˣƶĽͲóһĽΪΨһ⣨only correct oneǿܲͬȼֵĽֻۣһͨûأǷԺΪΪʵڷ˾оƶһʵʵϽζ˾оӦƶĿ֮ڣ˵оij淶˵оһ淶ڿܴƵЩ淶֮һ

ȻͳѧȴָͨͲҪȷܣͬʱҪһ񣬲ʵϰѺߵɽ֮ҪܣͨγһַʹȷȷĿܳΪܡͳͼʹţڸöƶǿṩΨһ⣬ʵڷϵġȷԡpositive-legal correctnessƶ۰ѷɽ͹Ϊһֵƺûؽԣreason־willƺִͨͿڹ淶Ķֿ֮ʵڷΨһȷѡ

壩νɽͷ

һʵڷĹ۵㿴ûſпеijֿĿܡȻûʲôɹΪʵڷɽԽڶ֮һ䡰Ψһȷ͡ȻжֽͿѡĻܴͳѧ˺ܴŬԲڿ͹Чobjectively validģʽͨijһ־֮ͻγɵнͷֻǿܡDZȻһҲ˵Ψһ⡣ʵڷĹ۵ÿַͬõġͶּ־۶ˣֵûɵģ־ˡͬһƶ淶˴˳ͻôʵڷᵽÿһɵĻҲǶͬȵġôΪ˽ô˹淶ų˹淶֤justifyΪϷŬͶͽ͡Խͣargumentum a contrarioԼȣanalogyΪͷǺ޼ֵġһԴӵó۶δȷʱôˡʱñ˵ı׼һʵ֮ƣΪInteressen?bwagungԭҲǶıǽ䲢ṩ͹۵ķ׼໥ͻ棬Ҳڴ˻ϽͻνġԵӱ͵Ĺ淶淶ƶеóַ׼Ϊԡ͡ڱõĹ淶淶ϵһʵζŹ淶иֵ֮ĽۣǰдʵʩĹ淶Ϊͨ˾о

Ϊ֪/־Ϊ֮ɽ

ͳ۽һֹ֮ϣù淶޷óĽȴִͨ淨ɵ֪ãһìܵĴΪԤĽͿԲڷɿúֿԲǡȷѲʵַ֪⡪ԵIJǷۣlegal theoryǷߣlegal politics⡣ƶΨһȷ˾оΪķվܷͬڽΨһȷһ㡣DzܷͨĽ͵óΨһȷͬͨƶĽͶóΨһȷ˾оע⣬𣬵Ķʵ𣻴ܷȨƶɵ֮ƶ÷ɵķ֮ôǿڴƷɷҪȷɵĶܴ࣬취ɣְɵġΪǸ淶ڷùоһ淶Ŀ֮ڣΪ־֮ܡڷùпܲûص֪ֻһȷ˿ܵıҪԣ㲻Ƕʵڷ֪ǶЩڴ˽̵淶֪֮繹ֵͨԡĸҵ桱֮ʻĵ淶ʵڷĹ۵㿴Чȫֵһᡣʵڷӽǹ֮д淶ֻܱΪЧģڷʵڷĹ淶ǵ֡Ϊijõķɹ淶Ŀ֮һɵģڱȨΪĻ֮ΧɵĨDDʵڷԮ֮ijɹ淶meta-legal norms´ֹ淶ҲתΪʵڷ淶ˡ

ԺضƶĽ뷨ûضһ㷨ɵĽ͵۵ĻͿԵóۣڷɻԷɵУ÷ɵ֪Խ뷨û֪Խչʾĸֿ֮ѡ־Ϊ϶Ϊһģ־ΪҪôһͽ׹淶ҪôǶԷɹ淶й涨ijһ涨ΪִС

־Ϊͬڷûκɽͣ䲻ͬڷѧϵĽ͡

ûصĽЧģauthentic䴴취ɡע⣬ֻеֽͲȡƶԼʽһԲڱ֮ƵʱܳΪЧ֮͡ΪΪߡЧȻдһ淶֮ص㡣ȻûصĽͼʹֻԱõķɣȻЧ취ԣ˻ؽ˸淶ʵʩһƲãڴӦָЧͣûضԹ淶ĽͣӦʶ֪ԽͶù淶չʾ֮һǴù淶һ淶

ͨЧͣڷɽ;һԣͳϵġЧ͡İд취ɣҿڷûش淶˹淶Чɱо֮ǿĻİд취ɡ֪·Ч͡ԺЧʹġ

ַûĽͲͬκ͡ͽԲ취ɡ

ijعΪķɹ淶ͨʵʩΪ෴趨ƲõΪ䷨ĻʾڲͬĽͿ֮ѡΪ淶ȷ涨ĻȴЧѡ䲢ô˹淶ĻأҲͱеûΪѡ֮գ˵ΪͿܱжΪΥ

ɿѧ֮

ɿѧѧԷɵĽΪһЧģnonauthenticͱϸڷɻĽ͡ѧһֶԷɹ淶֪ԵȷͬڷɻĽͣѧͲ취ɡΪпܽͨЧvalidɵ֪Խ;ܴ·Ĺ۵νѧConceptual Jaris PrudeuceģBegriffsjurisprudenzۻѧǡΪⷨܳ⡣ѧĴ֪ԽͲе©gapsΪ֮Ķν©ֻɷûؽУ[]ѧͨͷɶʹƷɵְܡѧͲָijһɹ淶пܵѡѧΪԷɵ֪ڷɱѴڵĸֻֿ֮ܰѴ˾Ȩ÷ɵĻίʦ򷨹ԱõķܽеΨһһ֣ѧµа֮һΪΨһⲢʹɿѧְ֮ܣڷӷ֮ЧͼӰȻ޿ɺǡȴԷɿѧѧ֮֮ʵȴˡѧͱνɹ淶ֻΨһ鹹fictionͳѧԴ鹹άɰԣsecurity롣Զɹ淶ģ֮ʵֻ֮˵ǽӽʵ֡ݷϣڷɹ淶ֻΨһļijι۵㿴ȷʵ档ȴûܽڶʵڷĿѧн鹹֤Կѧģ͹۵ģ۵֮Դijһι۵Ψһ߼֮ƽȵλĽ͸Ĺ۵DzɽܵģΪУμֵжϱѧ⣬ƶԼϸѧǽڶһпܽͰԼЩΪ߻ִţ԰ʹõĴеĽ͵з֮ϣܻԶͨص鹹Ψһ⡱ЧֿѧͿʶĿǰijɾ뾡ܵضԷɹ淶ȷijĿ껹жԶӶֲܽɱģԼСˣܵİҲ͵ʵˡ

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* ϵⷨۡڶ棩һĵڰ£ǵһûСڶӵһ£ӳ߶Էɽһ㿴Կⷨ۶˵ķɽѧͷѧ۵һϵĻӦPure theory of law,Translate by Max Knight,University of California Press,1967

[] μPure theory of law,35g,subsectionThe so-called gaps in the law