ΩԸƽˮʹ罭ϣ
et revelabitur quasi aqua iudicium et iustitia quasi torrens fortis

 

³գȨϣԡ롰״̬ıȽ

һȽϵ

¹ķѧʷأCarl Schmittڵһս֮˳ڵ¹dzӰѧȨ˵Political TheologyԼεĸThe Concept of PoliticalǰҪ֤Ȩߵġϡdecisionһ˾Σ淶Ȩ󣩵ǰռҪ֤ͳһ֮ġУѡϵǡεġͳһijҲҪ˵ս״̬£ȨߵľԱҪ˵鶼ڷԶԪۣԼĸʽ淶Ȩߵѹ鶼ͼȨռԡҲѡ״̬߽״̬ս״̬ͳһ//ȨߴڵռԴʷصر֮Ҳڣͻ˶ԡİšȨȨĻһ֮ڸʽ淶֮ϽռԵԻֻεɲܶ˵ɱȨľϣҲֻεɲܾɱȨԡʷԡ桹ĻϽһ׽εģthe politicalۣеУѻֵIJɱս״̬״̬IJɱӶȨϵIJɱͳһ壨ʵ壩IJɱ⡣޷һͳһ繲͹ƽ״̬Ϊ˵֮ʣУȺĻ֣޷ʧξˡ

ʷزܴﵽȫҹԱ񣩣ʷҲԤĶԪԼȨѹųʷضĶԪ淶ϵǷ˼еķʵ֤֮淶ۣΪ淶ȡξϵĽᵼ¸ѡΪƽķУΡʧĽʹ˵ڴֻǡͶ֡СLeo Straussʷصġεĸһʱ1׼ȷ˵ڻ˹桹salus populiСάںƽԼȷʵķʽḻ塹ЩΪĻcivilization룬ࡱhumanityΪƻĶ󡹣˵ϵΪѵ塹Strauss,1996; p.91˹Ȩ۾ǴֱȨΪ㣬Ȩhuman rightӦ˶ȨҪڹңΪҵĿģ˹˳ΪȻȨ츳Ȩ崫ͳĵˣStrauss, p.91ֻǺ˻˹ġս״̬εĻ˹֮ȫչȷʵķʽḻ塹ԼࡱΪƻĶ󡹡Leo StraussҲһʷأ˹IJͬ

սߡĩڣ¹ڡΡϣij̶ֳҲLeo Strauss˵ģ巢չһ֡ȷʵķʽḻ塹ԼࡱΪƻĶ󡹵μ1975-1976ķγ̡뱣ᡷSociety Must Be Defended: Lectures at the Collge de France 1975-1976У¼ƽеǷʷصĽǶ˼εġִżδͳĿ죬ԡΡbio-politicsƺܸҲһʷһսΪ㣬ij̶ֳҲڻشͬ⣬ͬĵˣʲ׼淶սȻȴȫԲͬķʽչ⡣ͬս״̬Ԥ裬ͬĩ16-17ͿʼͬǶԻ˹ĽͬԤõͳ뱻ͳΡõսʷ෴βȨ/ҵĵսԹ֮ڵġսԸ¶ԣ֮Ȩߵľϰţ֪ʶȨĵڹ淶17͵ȨȨķɣ19͵ڸ¿Leo Straussνġȷʵķʽḻ塹ԼࡱΪƻĶ󡹣ȷڻ˹Ȩ֮ѧһµμ棺һǹѵ֮ġνѧanatomo-politicsһǵ˿ġѧbio-politics

⣬ν˼µμʱʷԼLeo Strauss֮ͬڣؿ17ֻdzȨɱȨȨۣһ˵ġʷ֪ʶȨ֮Уμpolitical techniquesFoucault,1980:p.142Ҳ˵˵ˡִżΪִˡΪԵĶѾ˹µ岻ͬΪִ˲ֻԼβԡλԡڽɡFoucault,1980:p.143ڸ¿붯ԵţΪεĶȫֻͬɱȨãһɱ벻ɱȨһֶ˵ĶԻʶڵȨ߼

ڸµƷУڡΡ۵ٴӡѵͷDiscipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prisonʼеıڡ뱣ᡷԼʷ1The History of Sexuality: An Introductionܽ˵ڼ䣬µ˼ʷص˼ֳһעĶԱԲ죺 Ȩϵķ˶ͬӡս״̬ǿսռ벻ɱԣ൱̶϶ȨȨġս⡹ڻش˹⣩һǶϿʵҲ˵˶ͬ淶ͼѹ淶˵ͬ׼19μΪˡ

ͬεռڡ˵ͬڻش16ִͣͣȨҵεĹϵһȨĻԣһ淶Ļԡ

ˣγ˲ͬġθһǿԹȨΪжĵУѹϵһǿȺΪжѹ뷴ϵϣһǿⲿĵ󡹣һǿڲĵ󡹡 Ͱ֪ʶȨʵ֤Թ淶ԣвͬʵ˼һȨϵռԣһԽ̬ȣĴԣһͬ塹干ͬ壩ȨϣһԼġ

ϵĶԱԵԳɵ˲һϵʣǷĶڰʷصȨ۽жԻ2Ȩķɣ۵Ļųֻǡѵͷ뱣ᡷʷ1ҪȨԤ裬˵һֱǸа֮Ͼ˼ԿǿԿµĹ淶еԼʷصȨ֮ƺнһܵĶԻԣҲŽȻͬ˼磬߶ͬ19ĸʽ淶е̬ȣҲеĸȨܹʲôʥռĻ˱ڿܵķΧ£ҲͼⳡܵĶԻ硣 Giorgio Agambenڸʱ͸ˣΪAgambenϼʷص˼һ½ϵĹGiorgio Agambenǵŷ½ѧжԡΡ෴˼ѧߣҿԾڶεķʡУbare-lifeѧ˼롣Homo SacerһУΪµ˼УڿųˡȨߵľϡԲЧյ֮ԾСִԡżԣAgambenʷصġ״̬state of exceptionȨ߾ϣε˼ΪСִżΡҲΨ˲ܽ͡Ӫcampij֡AgambenΪΪںȨ϶רעڹ淶˲ܿȨнܹϵġӪµļҽԺѧУӪȵȣεִԭ͵䷶λڴָļӪֻɴ¹ļӪӦù㷺ذӪǸּйȨʵĻ̨ľ®ĵȵȣ

Ρĸչʷ

бҪȶڡΡ롸ԡgovernmentalityĸһЩϸµĹչ졣ֻΪղûжκյĻش𡹣һΪڸµƷУһһˡ˸¹εĸһֱڱ仯˼УбҪҪ渵¶ε˼̡

Ρbio-politicsڸ1975-1976ķ뱣ᡷһСôҲԺ󸵿³ġʷ1֪־һСΪһijڴ˽Ϊ һȨ17չҪʽһĹѵdisciplinesһνѧanatomo-politicsڶ˿ڵĵڿƣһ˿ڵѧa bio-politics of the population.ȨչFoucault,1980:p.139

ȨȨΪȨڱĹͶв֧СȡˡڹŵʱĸֹѵСѧѧӪȣõѸٵķչʵ뾭õ棬Ҳйʡƽס⡣಻ͬѱ˿ڵļҲһӶӿֳɴˣһȨbio-powerʱʼˡFoucault,1980:p.139-140

ȻĹѵ֮νѧ䲻ͬ򣬶֮ڣ֪ʶȨ֮Уμpolitical techniques򡹣Foucault,1980:p.141-142Լõĸ¶δһĽ綨ʹá󣬸ǿεѧ⺭ʣʷ״ηӳ֮Сһ뷨岻йءFoucault,1980:p.142-143

ǼʹΡһʼͼȷֻǡ˿ڵѧͬѵڵĹġȨbio-power

µ˼뷢չʷ3Ρֻ1975-19761979ĸƷݽУǰʷΡһҲֻڡʷһĽβ֮ѡ֪ʷ1ijڶij֮೤7꣬ڼ˵˸˼һת䡱ڼ丵¶εĿ뷢չʲôı仯ζڸ˼ı仯ռʲôλΪһмֵδɵĸ˼о⡣ڸµķȫݽδϣ˸˼Ŀǰ޷ֻۡѳ⡣ĿǰΪֹ͸˵Ķ¶ԡΡ˼µı仯תۣ

γڡ뱣ᡷγ̵һݽУִġѧ塹֣ᡸսĽҲԿIJҲ˵̡սһԺֵġһμ̹ġⲿˡ֮󣬳ֵı뱣ԶԿڲĵˡЩˡ롸Σյˡ1718ͳֵԡεĽѧѵͷ⣩19ͳֵǡΡʷ1⣩Ȼһ棬ᵽҲע⵽16ͳֵľȨʱѾ˹ȨˣΪȨ㣨˹ȡս״̬ԣνβϾɵȨеġɱȨ˹ʽķɱ19Ͳſʼ¡ɱȨ֮μ˿ͳơʡƽлȣԡȨȨֻ϶µϾɶιϵͳĹѵһȴһ¶ϵӴġ淶᡹֮ǣЧءػԵĶεڲ֮ս¶ϵ淶϶µĹһս֮죿Ȼ֮

Ȼ1977-1978Ľԣȫ˿ڣУεһԡgovernmentality⡣Σ˿⣩͹ԵIJֻǴӡʽҡterritorial stateתɡ˿ʽҡpopulation stateѡԼµµĶԼµļFoucault, 1997:p.67һȥˡgovernment of manָconduct˵Ϊ⣬αһarts of government⣬ֻڹϵġ̫Ȩһ֣Ҳ17Ϳʼֵġԡreason of state⣬19Ϊһpolice state⡣ԡںǡconcerning the right way to govern children, a family, a domain, a principality Լthe behavior of a set of individuals become involvedin the exercise of sovereign powerFoucault,1997:p.68 صΪӣΪȨȨΪstates forcetechnology of state forceйأЩtechnologyַչѧӪѧסլߡмƻҽơȵйأڡthe general framework of a biopoliticsԣbiopolitics뱻Żصչ17͵ĹĹϣFoucault,1997:p.71ǼʹȨȨ֮Ķ뻮ԲǺԾ1976УȨȨȻʷֿ˼۵ŬҲ˵ȨȨ޷زѣΪͬǶԡ˿󡹵ĹڶԣDzʷΪõġԡ֮һ֣ǿ϶ģôλDzֻǡ19ͲſʼμDzǿΪ16ĩڣ17ͿʼֵġȨϵͳ֮һأԣڣԣһУ»ǼؽȨȨֿµ󸵿»һǹϵsovereigntydisciplinegovernment

3. 1978-1979Ľһζ죬ıǣεĵThe birth of biopoliticsΰ¶18Ϳʼ󣬲һ֡ԡ綨롸ԡͬThe theme was addressed was biopolitics. By that I meant the endeavor, begun in the eighteenth century, to rationalize the problems presented to governmental practice by the phenomena characteristic of a group of living human beings constituted as a population: health, sanitation, birthrate, longevity, raceFoucault, 1997:p.74 صΪӣθ¶εĿصͬǣһ18͵ԣ롸ԡͬҪԴԡ᡹societyͬʱεǰᣬҲĿġڷԡ̫ࡱļҪﵽιĸٸЧʣԹ˼ΪҲִξѧĿʼ֮ǰũѧɲ֮ͬ18͵Ӣŷ״εһ֡political lifeFoucault, 1997:p.77Ȼǡpolitical life᣿ԡΪġԡʲôͬҪǣѧ벡ѧġ˿ڡ롰ΪĹ֮λ֣ûԽԽǡΪĹǡ˿󡱡

1979-1980ĽOn the government of the livingѾȫͶ뵽ϣŵʱĵĶΪҵϣҲǿʼת뵽ҵļIJȥˡһֱȥΪֹ¾ͲٻΡһˡǣڶҼУԳһԡܹ½СˣҵļDzҲǡΡһ򣿶εķΧΣ໥ϵԾɲǺ

ĿĿIJҪȥָµìܻǶڸµ˼һϸȫ衣ΪDzֻڡʷ1֮ν˼ʱڶϴı궨ϲϸı䣬붯ԴҲϸı䡣ϵۣӸķչʷǿԿ¶ε˼뾭˼ͬҪܹʱڣ淶ᣭȨս⣭ԣҵļһڸµܹ֮˿µ⣺

Ρ롸ԡ֣໥ϵΪΣǾ˵ιϵԣǽѧϻѧϵ˿֮أҲ˸ʽ˵Ϊǡ淶᡹רأһ֡ȨҵĹԡDzҲһ롸ѧйص򣿣һʼζλΪִԡżȴڡʱϡ޷ȷż19͡18ͣ17ͣŸȡΣεķΧҪùΪֻ˿ڵĵڣ˸ΪݵŴϣ漰ѧ

ˣΡ롸ȨȨǷЧػֳһǡҡԻǡᡱȨ

ǿԿʱϵ޷ȷǿԳƲ˵Ҫԭڡᡱ֮䡢Ȩ淶֮䡢ԵΪ֮䣬Լս״̬ǹսս֮ѻ塣Ҳ˵ΪһȨϵķ²޷ЧؽȨɣѿǸڷΪǿĻԤ裬ȨϵѧķǰᡣȻڡʷ1֮󣬸ԳȨDzǿƲ˵Ҳǡʷ1֮Ϊʲôһ˼תΣ֮һιһȨͬҲǣ浽ʷļдΪԡεĺĽ㣬ǹ˿ڵڵĽģ²ȫ淶ȫֳᣨᣩĶԪԲûȡȻΪǰݽδϣһҲֻڲ²⡣

ΣĿ滻ΪԵĿ죬ӡ˿ڵĵڡתΪΪǷζŹε֮Ե𽥽ͣDzΨһأ磬˵ԻԵ˵лһԵأ

󣬹˿ͳơʡƽлвѧ񡭡ȵȸܹЧػᡢ淶Ϊսǹսսȵ֮ȻһЩģҲ˵뱣ᡷԼʷ1Ŀ칤УεԾɲδȫԾɳ롰ҡԿ

һǸµȷΪˡܸ´ȨսǸºֵһֱû۵ʵսġ״̬¶ڡ淶᡹۶ںӡ״̬ϡձ׵ĹѵͷȨձ׵΢ϸܻ͸ձ׵˿ڵ֪ʶսʽȨȨϾ롰ʷضԴ˻˹ĻԻش𣺡ձ˵ʲô˵һС

淶 ʷڡεѧȨ˵һǿȨһ߽Եĸa borderline conceptionȨĸһʽġԵȨ/ȨգҲܴⵥԽ״̬աȨĶһڡ߽Ե⡱ȨĽ綨ԣˡ߽3⺭1.Ψڡ״̬½оԼ¢Ͼϣ͹ԳȨڡ߽ԡһ㳣̬/µķȨЧ淶Ҳ˵һġΡ롸淶֮⡣2.ֱ߽״̬һֻһ޷졹෴ֱ߽ϵ״̬֮ϴķδԼ淶ϵһΧڵķϵ֧塣3.Ȩ״̬Уʱ/ֹķɹ淶ϵˣҲϵ֮ڡʷΪ淶޷״̬淶޷Соϡһˣһвش¼ҰȫȫܵвʱĹ淶ϵ޷Щ⣬ʱܡءconcretelyСϵˣȨȨı֡淶޷ʹ⡹Schmitt,1988:p.6

ʷص˼븵¶ȨĿγɼIJԱȡ´ڡ뱣ᡷԼʷ1вϵǿȨĹϾ״̬ҲϵرµĹѵȨ͸á˵ʣԶܲܽһһ໥ԼִУȨĹȨԵijͷ֮䣬γԵļ϶ȨתУʼͨתġFoucault,2003:p.37-38½˵ȷ˵ΪͷĹ淶ԽԽȨķϵԿԽԽرֳԣԽԽҪһн黰һѧʥ֪ʶȨҽѧǿͷ뷨ԭ˵໥໥ԼҲ˵໥ϡFoucault,2003:p.39ٴӡѵͷʼӷȨȨĴװʽԼϢ֮ͬʼµȨһֱִȨ־룬µĹ淶ȨλشʷصȨϣ

ڡ뱣ᡷУڸ¿սսһ͹ԡսữˣ²ڹսսУûи衸״̬Ҫԡ෴¶Ȩֻǿ״̬ȶ壬ҪھսҲǸµġ״̬ںƽ֮£ƽķ֮£ڹ֮£ڹһ֮£ڷ֮¡ǷӦ·ԭʼġսأǷӦðϵΪõսأFoucault,2003:p.46-47սǡѹзôγһȫ淶ӴȨأ

ʷضȨIJͬԱڶԻ˹IJͬϡԸ¶ԣȨķɩһ״ƽȶĹһɣȨԻ˹ʼҪĨɷսʵսڻ˹ԭʼսУûѪûսûʬ塣еֻչʾҫ־ŵı֣ԼıƭDzս֮УֻǴڻ˹˵ġս״̬֮СFoucault,2003:p.90ֲͨսҫϷս״̬ԸĸʽȨˡԸ־ϵȨͨϵγɣҲ˵ɸǿˡսʤ߻ҳγɡȨͨ²γɣͨſ־˵Ըγɡԣ˹ʹսսʵս¶ȨĽûκιȨĽ֪սFoucault,2003:p.95-96Ϊ˹Ȩۡά̹֮ǽıս涼еԼȡĹսսĻԴȹۡFoucault,2003:p.97

Ƕʷضԣ˹һķѧ˼룬һֹעڡ״̬ķѧ˼롣ǹע״̬ʹ˹ܿս״̬ռԡʹ˹֪ȨƶɡSchmitt,2003:p.18ΪִҪһִеԡ˵ľϡʷȨߵľʱ˵dz״̬˵ķιѧ˵Լ18͵Ტۡʱ18ͣԳõԽ17Ȼѧ˵жڷdz״̬ʶȴѾȻ޴档Կ¶ԣͲǷɡSchmitt,2003:p.12-13

ʷضԣСΨо˵ľϣٵоɲвá֡淶Ҳһ淶ֻеĹ淶淶޷ʧҵ״̬ij״̬ʹַܹЧôdz״̬㴦ھԵ̬֮СһԹ淶Ҫһճܣʹ淶ܹʵճܣʹճӸֹ򡣡״̬ȫеЧԡڻ״̬Ĺ淶ҪʹһַܹЧͱһ״̬ǸȷǷ״̬˾ȨߡSchmitt,2003:p.7ңֹעͨճķѧʵϲȨdz״̬Ҫǡ״̬£ȻڣȻˡҵĴȷɵ֤˹Ҹڷɹ淶Чԡϲκι淶ϵľԵĶSchmitt,2003:p.11

󣬾ѹ淶ʵԣʷ븵ҲвͬĿʷضԣ״̬еȨϲʾIJʣҲΨн״̬˵ڻеظĹ淶ȷе˵һֹעʵѧӱܷdz״̬Լ˴ij̶Ϲעǡѧԣdz״̬ȹ淶Ҫ淶֤ʲôdz״̬ȴ֤һУȷϹ淶ĴڣȷϹ淶ͳΣǹ淶ȴֻԷdz״̬ڷdz״̬£ʵΪεظľĻеӲǡSchmitt,2003:p.13

Ը¶Ȼڡ뱣ᡷĽУдڷΪܷԳͷƵķģԼѧ֪ʶϵȨΨһġƼ̵ľԮֶΣֻΧȨĸʽȨع鵽ԭϵĸʽԮˣʲôԳͷԼϵȨ֪ʶʱܾʲô..ǷֻܻIJʽʽȨҲȨȨΪǴƿشDzԶַʽȥDzȨԮܷͷȨáFoucault,2003:p.39νȨͬʱ˹ϵľȨԼִȨȨ/Ȩȣ

ڹغ״̬ϣʵֻս״̬еķdz״̬ѣµеҲ/dzĽ״̬繫ȫлвѧȵȹغ˿ڵļ󡣲ЩԵƵĿԴӶ뱣᡹ʩǵڶѣǰSARSȾ̨壬֮ıͻֽ֯˵ƶռĽϡʩҽѧ֪ʶԼ淶淶֮ȻȫжΪʵʷȻǰѷġϡ˵شӹ淶˹ ġ޲ĵشzone of indistinction

Homo SacerһУAgembenΪ¶ΡĿް֮Ϊ°ȨϵĿֳ·һڵμpolitical techniquesִҶ˸廯individualizationĹԼȻnature life֪ʶȨ֮ƣһǺʷڶ֮гֵģڲҼtechnologies of the selfΪߵĿ졣λ㼯νתAgemben¶Դ˲ûȫεĿ칤

Agembenʵʾ븵¶ԭ͵֪ͬAgembenԣȨϵġ/򻯡ԭͣԡġ򻯡ԸĸֳӡѧУҽԺȵȣܰյεȨԭ͵䷶ΪAgemben֪֮Ҫϳֳĵ䷶ԭͣΪΨDzܿ״̬еȨ淶һġԭáԭõԭ͵䷶ִ֮ԵıڡӪcampСѧУҽԺӡȵȲȡӪεĸֱӸġԭ߼ΪµεĿ̫Ȩľų⣬˸ȱ˰ѼӪΪԭĵĿ졣ӪǸʷص֮չȨߵľ淶ƵĽ֮Ȩʵһ޲ĵشԣAgembenΪξҪȥ˼ɼӪ޲ԭ͵Գ㡸νHomo Sacer

Agembenڸµое޸Ŀ£

ڸ¶ȨķԤ˹ҵġȨΩ˾sovereignty- political-juridicoԭ򣬶ֱӴԡ֪ʶգart of liveȶ෽ۡAgembenָģֱӡȨȨԭô֮Խеġ/ɡraison dtreںΣΪûֱȨȨԸºִԵȨȨǽڶԳų/루exclusion/inclusionġ״̬ľϡ֮УΪȨСϡ壬ΪȨεĻ

ڸûнȨȨԭԸºһ淶Ҳ޷ȨIJöν˾˥˲ȫ淶˾DzеġȨǽ״̬ľУһ״̬state of emergencyΪĹ淶nomosȨ ڽ״̬Уڽ״̬Уڡǿнexceptionй淶ԴǿˣսļӪƽʱڵļҽԺȵȣܷӳȨǿ淶

󣬹εۣ¶ΧѧȨ֪ʶ֮ᡢȨ֮ỹ֮ᣩ²ûȷֳһΪζijbare lifeΪʽway of life֮죨ҲǶ˿ڵΪ֮޷Чѵۣ

ԴˣAgembenҲϣʱڵ˼˹µпԿϣʱڿʼbioszoԴbiosһض˵ġƷϵʽway of life󣬶zoIJһϵbiosԴ϶ѧbiologyƺѾϣйĶһֿbiosŤӶbiologyzoologyûش𣩡˹˵ԵĶʱõzon˹¶ڹͬεĵʱνΣpolisָǻڶԹͬڶijbiosway of life׷󣬲۷䡢ϵȵĶԵzo֮Ⱥ״̬4

AgembenΪҪָġΡĵνμΪȨӦһzoϵġbare life/naked lifebiosϵִzo֮polisʵǶԹŵʱڣϣʱڣһ־޴ѧתִ֮εһش¼ңֻεҰ£ִεĸֶҡ˽Щ婤ȵȣŵԻþAgemben, 1998:p.4ҲAgembenڸνġִż¼Թ涨ں½綨εķҰ

µĹҪDZ˾֮ȨģʽĽϡDzֿܱԴġΪ϶룬ȨȨĺԴûбĻ˵ȨȨԭжһ壨a biopolitical bodyIJϣȨһϡִҰѳĺλãֻһһ˳ȨѡAgemben, 1998:p.6

ڱĵķΧڣҪעAgembenζʷͼָȨ븵µεҰΧAgembenڴҪ۴˵Ȩϵ ԡparadoxзʽʷضȨĽ綨Ȩ첢֧һ淶Ĵ壬Ȩȴͬʱڡ롰ڡ塣ȨĵطҲ˱ңȨߣڷ˵ûжڷɡAgemben, 1998:15Agemben˰ʷصȨۣΪһ֡Ľṹthe structure of exception /AusnahmeAgembenֽṹΪһѧĿռ䡹Agemben, 1998:15

Ȩ˴һѧʽġ޲شzone of indistinction෴ڸ½淶ȨȨ淶еĶֶķԤ衣޲شĨ˹ᡢ淶֪ʶȨ̬⡢սƽȵ֮Ķֽޡڸ¶ԣִУȨĹȨԵijͷ֮䣬γԵļ϶ȨתСʣԶܲܽһһغ͡ҡͷĹ淶ԽԽȨķϵԿԽԽرֳԣԽԽҪһн黰һѧʥ֪ʶȨFoucault,2003:p.39ôAgembenԣڡӪ״̬УԵȨ޲غһˣҪһнԵĻ

1 뷨ɵ޲ϣʱ۵һǡȻ뷨ơphysis and nomosҲǹڱȨķɽ⡣ͼڡƪThe LawһתϵƪѷͬȻǷDZģƷǶԱ뷨ɵϵתͼ˰Ȩıneutralizenature˼Ҳڻ˹Ȼ״̬Ϊһս״̬ķ״̬ǻ˹ҲȻ״̬һҪ鹹Ȼ״̬ʵһȨIJдȨ˰Ȼ״̬/ƽ״̬һincorporatedΪȻ޲𡢱뷨ɵ޲޲ĵشȨȻ״̬˲ڷƣnomosһԣvirtualityķʽȨСȻ״̬һ֡DZܴСbeing-in-potentialityΪһַġDZܴС״̬˰ԤΪȻlaw of natureȻDZ

2 ⲿڲ޲𡣹ҵĶ뱣ڲĽṹв޲ˣDZ㲻˵ȨԱһ˾Ĺ淶״̬һᣩ󣬱ڷΣrule by law෴ȨϵͳгСΪȨɫǿʱֹ롰áķɡңɵЧԱȨãȨԷɵеġϡУϵ´һµЧΧˣȨ⣬뱣֤һ µ龳˽ɴ˻һµЧˣ޷ȨǡڡڡɣͬأֻҪȨΧҲ𵽵ڻڷɡ

Ȩ˲ġųʲô෴ųķʽȡһ㷨ɵ͹ϵ״̬ǻң⡱һ״̬ӡ桱ȡ5ⲿڲ

˾Σjuridico-politicalĴ򾭳۲쵽һ֡ơķʽͬʱС롱inclusionṹĶ縵ڡдġաgreat confinementһȨɸӸӡⲿһּ򵥵Ľֹķʽǽɰ˾˾˳ίȨɵǿforce of lawһԵĹϵάӦðּ˵ĹϵʽΪrelation of exceptionУijֻһųķʽ롣Agemben, 1998:p.18

ˣȨ龳˲ܱΪһʵ״̬a situation of factһȨ״̬a situation of rightӦΪһŷshresholdȨһ״̬ŷУһⲿڲҡphysis and nomosУһӵӹϵ˾ϵͳЧԾӹϵȷȨĿռһMobius stripһμͼһͼ

3 Ϸ򲻺Ϸ޲ˣȨľϲںϷ򲻺Ϸڽһ뷨һԭʷصĻ˵ǡϵṹthe normal structuring of life relationϡǵġȲǷϵ⣬Ҳʵ⡹quaestio iuris nor aquaestio factiǷʵ֮Ĺϵ֮ԼԣΪһ򣬲ڻдָ򣬲ЩָԼáԭķɹɲ˾϶ԽΪĽֹڡ⡹нԼԣȨϲǴһְԼ˾岢Լ˾ʵġԭϣ⡱Ƿɵԭʽȶ˵ΪIJǴ淶ǡСȨڷ֮У˲һƣsanctionǡСguiltвǵɼϵķһռ˾Сʹָij֮뷨Ȩexceptionһӵġ޲ĵشȨȨľʱĸ棬ⲿڲnomosphysisų޲شУԭڷбexceptedAgemben, 1998:p.27


ͼӹϵȨһ˾Ȩų롢ȨõⲿڲȻ״̬뷨Ȩ״̬޷𣬴һߵһȥˣȨһشa zone of indistinction

Agemben֤ΣȨĽṹ׽Ḷ́

first political constructionsovereignty powersovereign violence/ sovereign decision:state of exceptionzone of indistinctionzobiosmanbeastnatureculturenomophysissacrificehomicidethe relation of abandonmenta power over death and life

ˣζԣȨĹ̶ԣAgembenת˸µĸۣҽԺԡӵȵȣAgembenصҪȥҳȨϵ޲֮ĵص㡣ΪȨϡǸ˾localization/OrtungĻΪһӵġ޲ĵشʹȨ϶һӵӹϵУڴ˹ϵУ˾ЧԵԽ֮ԳΪʽĹϵΪ䡰ġ֮һ޷شһ⡹ĵطңAgembenΪ󣬾ͱȻһġƵ볡һжԭ򡣶AgembenΪҪԿĵʱ֮һ״̬ΪжԭԽԽΪνṹռرȨȨԣҪǵʱҪȥҵһܳǿɼijʱǡӪcampΪһġԿռ䣬Ӫӵزͬһ򵥵ĽҲ˵ڴ˼ӪһռУOrtungʹ򻯣Ordnungᱻ򿪡ӶˡϾɵĴ֮Ĺؼ/Σ״̬͵ӱǵ¹ɴġӪ̫˵ġ

ġ

¼ΪĽ

1. 淶

ʷ븵¿ƶ˼ȡʵȴָͬһˣ壻Ʋʵȴ˵ͬһ£Ǿ˾ɵӰ˥ԼԵĹ淶ǿʷġϷԡLegality and Legitimacy͹ԽԽ˾ϵġɡɴֻͨĸ֡statutesΨһĺϷԱֻǡˣ֡ϷԡʽΣԴȨͳԼµȵȣƵ˼ҲԷʵ֤УԼ淶ۡѧ˼СġܷѧVerfassungslehreһУʷ˽綨νġܷ

㺬ܷͳһĶ̬ԭһָģڸӿʹͳһ崦ڲγɡϱĹСܷǾ̵ԭҲDZijִĶijֹĶDZijֲɡϱ´Ķ

ܷûбһֵĹ涨͹淶ܷǻԾŵĶ̵̬ܶԭɵԪأǹ涨ӦʲôӦóеεܹԼij

һܷ߷ɣ뿪֡ʹͳһ崦ڲγɡϱĹ̡뿪֡ڸӿӶγɾķʱͱǡܹ淶һɹ淶ͳһ塹ɵķɡһɡռ淶ɵͳһġϵͳȴ˵ǡܷӵȨΪΨоŵĶӵȨ˵һЧĹ淶ӵʲôȨSchmitt,2004:p.8-11

ʵϣһܷ֮ЧΪһ֡ȨȨpotestasȨauctoritasƾ־ƶ뵥Ĺ淶ͬ־WilleһʽһڴڵĶӦȻԴߣһ淶֮Чƾһʵ־һ淶ԼԼƶSchmitt,2004:p.14

ԣʷؿһһ֡־һ֡ȨȨˡڸӿԼܡʹͳһ崦ڲγɡϱĹ̡Ϊķ淶Ȩϵ״̬˷ʵ֤Լ淶״̬ԣռԣȨ־ԼεľϲͳһԼ򣬡ͳһڹҵδڣڷɡ涨ijЩ淶 Ȼ彨ͳ֮ιҵĴͳξϡڵȨϣ֡־Լڸӿֵֽķĸȡˣ־仯ˡ 1789ķ㷺ֶܵܹȫƶһʶƵļƻȻʱգѾܹһġҵġռԵĹ淶Էϵͳˡһʧȥ˶Է仯ϵͳԵ淶ܷιҵǡǡԤҲ͵Ȼ޴ˡֻеʲ׼ȻζѧԤʱпִܳ淶ܷڣܷһϵиġʵ֤ܷҪ̸ʲô塱ܷĻҲDzȷģңΪʵڶȱϵͳܷ档ܷԻˣ˸ܷSchmitt,2004:p.16

ʷضԣʲ׼ֵķθʵѾΪԵġġ롰ԶĹͨ뷢Ѿٴµʵ֤Ĺ淶Ϊ淶֮淶֮ɡĸܷ֮ҲΪԻܷԷԼʲ׼ȨѾ˷Ǹ־֡ȨȨԼܡʹͳһ崦ڲγɡϱģڸӿ

Ը¶ԣȨϵġ־ȨѾ֪־will to knowledgeȡˡԸ¶ԣ˹νġȨƶɡʱѾȥˣʮپȨԣִԿǡȨƶɡǹ淶ȨľϣӴõѹ£ûС⡱

2. ΡĿܷΧΪΣ

¶ԡ˼ڡٴҽѧĵ۵߱ĵӰ죬ΪһĹܡִУڷʡCanguilhemĹ󣬸ᵽһƺȽ͵Ĺ۵㣬ΪĶڡԴƿءproper domain of errorǻᷢĿܡcapable of errorһֲʧܡͻɹĻġɴԡerrencyFoucault,1998:p.476ʵǣ˶ԣliving beingԣʵûȫȷrightĵطעҪȥto errȥΪto be wrongdz϶ĸĻشǻڻʹ̣Ǿͱϣ˼ʷĻǴ󡣶Ķijһ֮мֵȨ²ֻͬʽͬĻЩֻ˵ĿġˣΪЩ׷塢塢ȵȵѧCanguilhemԵһ֡ԸֲͬķʽԽӽĸġѧFoucault,1998:p.476-477

һη̸У¶ʲôԼġεġ˵the development of a domain of acts, practices, and thoughts that seems to me to pose problems for politicsI think that in madness, in derangement, in behavior problems, there are reasons for questioning politics; and politics must answer these questions, but it never answers them completely. The same is true for crime and punishmentThe same is true of sexualityFoucault,1997:p.114,صΪӣˣmadness, derangement, behavior problems, crime and punishmentǻᷢ󡹵Ŀġɴԡ֮֡˶ԣliving beingԣʵûȫȷrightĵطעҪȥto errȥΪto be wrongҲǸµҪȥʵռ⡣񡢼ԡеȵȣԸ¶ԣġ״̬6

ΪԸ¶ԣԻԵΣռĻDZȻġȷ󡹣natural rightnatural wrongġУѻ֡ʷ븵¶ͬĿ׼ʲ׼ķι淶ͬΪֹ淶ͳѰȻеij·ôھ֪ʶȷ󡢼Ľ֮£Agembenzone of indistinctionֵýһչ

οĿ

Agemben, Giorgio

1998, Homo Sacer: Sovereign Power and Bare Life. Meridian: Crossing Aesthetics. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press.

1999, Potentialities: Collected essays in philosophy. Meridian: Crossing Aesthetics. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press.

Deleuze, Gilles

2001, Pure Immanence: Essays on Life. Introduction by John Rajchman, Translation by Anne Boyman. Zone Book:Urzone, Inc.

Foucault, Michel

1977 Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison. A. M. Sheridan-Smith trans. Harmondsworth: Penguin.

1980 The History of Sexuality: An Introduction. (R. Hurley trans). Vintage Books: New York.

1997 Ethics: subjectivity and truth ,Essential Works of Foucault, 1954-1984, Vol I, P. Rabinow ed. New York: New Press.

1998 Aesthetics, method and epistemology, Essential Works of Foucault, 1954-1984, Vol II , J. Faubion, ed. New York: New Press.

1999 뱣᣺ѧԺݽϵ. 1976Ǯ룬Ϻ

2000 Power, Essential Works of Foucault, 1954-1984, Vol III, J. Faubion, ed. New York: New Press.

2003 Society Must Be Defended: Lectures at the Collge de France 1975-1976, translated by David Macey, Picador: New York.

2003, The Birth of the Clinic. Translation by A.M. Sheridan. Routledge Class: New York.

Schmitt, Carl

1988 Political Theology: Four Chapters on the Concept of Sovereignty, trans and introduction by George Schwab, The MIT Press.

1996 The Concept of the Political, trans and introduction by George Schwab, The University of Chicago Press.

2004 Legality and Legitimacy, translated by Jeffrey Seitzer, Duke University Press.

¼ڡεĸʷļһ룬Ϻ磬2003

2004 ܷѧ˵Verfassungslehre 룬̨

Strauss, Leo

1996 Notes on Carl Schmitt: The Concept of The Political', in The Concept of the Political, trans and introduction by George Schwab, The University of Chicago Press. p.83-107.

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עͣ

1 ӢThe Concept of the Political, trans and introduction by George Schwab, The University of Chicago Press. 1996.һС

2²ֻϤģҺܹע¹ѧչֻ뿵µѧһηȫ뱾ı༭ʹķ̸ƷУ¹ɴͳ¹ѧ¹polizeiwisschaftpolice stateοѧͳ̸Τ̸۾Ķ뺣¸ĿС̸ɴԨԴȥԼԼ˼һԱȣܺûһĶۣȻû̸۵ӵ¹ʱڹȵɴ֮ڷɣϰݷdzҪ˼ʷء

3ڷ½Ӣ뱾ı棬ڸµ˼ڹռһĵλ뱣ᡷı༭ǰᵽΪݽǸڷ¡оȣҲΪ⸵¹Ҫһ˼米

µķڣ뱣᣾֮1976-1977ͣһ꣬1977-1978ǣԣȫ˿ڣGovernmentality: Security, territory, and population1978-1979ǣεĵThe birth of biopolitics1979-1980Ի˵On the government of the living1980-1981Subjectivity and truth1981-1982ڹѧThe hermeneutic of the subject1982-1983۷˵滰Kant on Enlightenment and revolutionЩĿǰδı༭棬ԳһЩǵݽժҪ֮⣬Ҫؽڹ͸ڵ˼룬»Щܿµ˼

4һϣȻûзbioszo𣬵ǴӸϣʱڵҼķӦϵAgembenָĶbare lifethe way of life/form oflifĹŽ֮ͬʵϣӸ¶ʷڶԺдϣthe way of lifeѧִbare life֮ŬϣAgemben븵ʵվͬġ

5ȨϵⲿȡɲμʷڡѧȨ˵˵ӸĹ淶һеľĽһµġĶԹ淶Ե۹ûκɡSchmitt,2003:p.27

6ȻҲԱȽʷ̸ϵĿɴԡʷڡѧȨ˵˵һ֡ȨĽ롱һֻϡġɴԡֿɴʹ÷һ֡ԵءǡǡһֽԵءӸĹ淶һеľĽһµġĶԹ淶Ե۹ûκɡSchmitt,2003:p.27

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