ΩԸƽˮʹ罭ϣ
et revelabitur quasi aqua iudicium et iustitia quasi torrens fortis

 

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֪ʶӷκζһᡣءΪߵ֪ʶӺΪߵ֪ʶӽ˶ԱȣΪߵ֪ʶϣձֵϷͨΪһЧΪߵ֪ʶӽı¼Լ˹Ʒǵר֪ʶΪڶ˵ͣ19871992ƣһִ֪ʶִ֪ʶӵת䣬ִ֪ʶΪձֵߣʹµִϷִ֪ʶΪIJߡɴ˽֪ʶӽɫķλۻ

෴ͼڡְ֪ʶӡ롰-Ĺ֪ʶӡ֮𣬡ְ֪ʶӡִֵ۵Ϸ-Ĺ֪ʶӡ򷴶ִ򣬲Ϊתְ֪ʶڴͳۼңȴҪ漯ŵСְԱ߽Ϊij־ĿĶЧ;ļԱ-ְ֪ʶڸרҵҽѧѧʷѧȵȣǵļӼ֪ʶĽĿꡢΪ֮ļֵۻΪԻ򲻹ܲʣְۼҽִϵʵкϷ 죬һչȫϢУ֪ʶĸ涼ǰΪҪ֪ʶӸڴͳֻͶߣǴдıչת֪ʶͶͶƷعҵũҵҪͶ˫ֽ֪ʶͶߵһ̬ǾԵģҲű仯ʷת䡣ҵǣ֪ʶӵĸž޴ת䣬֮¼µȫ򾭼úĻ˼ ְ֪ʶִķߣרоͼ֪ʶ-֪ʶΪһõȴִֵֺܵȨɹ淶ȵȣ巢еʱҲԾ˵ִиDZԵļֵ塢ŮԺͺ˵Ļƽȡ̬ȵȣ塣е֪ʶ˵дļɶԲȨýǴ𣬲Ϊձֵ-صĻ˵ǣ֪ʶӵְκβֵĵط֮Ǵ𡱣1974285[1]˵е֪ʶӵʹڹнд˵ǴѹȲΪɺͽŶڴģʽУһе֪ʶӵǼ֤¶й

/֪ʶӵ̨ǡְκβֵܳĵط֮Ǵִе֪ʶӵĻǹ˹1989˵ĴۣζԻԼֽ־СӺ鼮д֮еĹ򡣵Ȼе֪ʶӶеģߴκǽġ֪ʶӿԷΪԲѹȵС֪ʶӣԼʶ̬ʹִϷΪ֮ļ֪ʶְ֪ʶӡһ֣ҽ۶-֪ʶӵľԺִ۵ijЩսԼ¼ڳֵĹΪۺṩĵµĿԣҪе֪ʶӽ½綨ҽ۹һЩ仯Լڵ¼͹Ϊ֪ʶӵ½ṩµĿԡ ֪ʶ

漰Ȩ빫ڲһַ롣˶18ʱڣЩܹձĵۺĵط˹1989ҲǶԹҺִܹͨĵط18ĻͿռֽ־ǹӵкͿƵij磬Ķֽͽб۵ĿȹݣеԲѧɳԼй˵ͱ۵Ĺȵȡ

Ȼɽ׼·ߺȫͬĽ׼ɱɵʲ׼ֻ˲ͬ֯ռʶ̬ÿһͬĽ׼ŴдרңǾ֪ʶӡѹȺγԼķѵ֪ʶӣӹ˽׼֯Ĵֶ˹ͨأMary Wollstonecraft17591797ӢŮȨߣСŮȨ绤ȣעһΪŮȨŮԣٵɫԱѹȵȺ쵼ߣȵȡЩѵ֪ʶӹѹȣƶѰѹȸԴж˼жۺʵϵˣ19ͣ˽׼ڹᡢС顢ۻ᳡ɳԼ˽׼ĻзչԼĶĹŷ˽׼˶ԵijĻ֯ԼչʾҲΪһֶĹ֡

ͬʱִе֪ʶҲֻΪ෴ְܵĶȺ塣ͳ֪ʶӡ˹Thomas Paine17371809սʱڵʲ׼ߣС˵Ȩʱȣעֶ˹ͨԼĺ˼׸˹Ų˹غΪԲѹȽд󵨵УΪƽȺ˶ֵԼ塢ŮŵȲĿʵϣ˶Ϊ趨֪ʶҪְܵһֻ˶ʹ֪ʶһΪɹĽص֪ʶӶ˶ͷйʹκοѹȺϷĻӽ׼塢Ա𡢺ͳΡ ִķչԽԽͶˣ֪ʶӱϽִ֮УҪְܣں̶ܴҲɴ˶ִǰΪӰ-ݣ˹غͿɣ1997ϵĺִת򣨱˹غͿɣ1997ִ֪ʶҲʼ֣˶ģʽĶŵĽ֪ʶ⵽ԡЪƱԹ˵ش˴ͳ֪ʶӵ룬ΪɵձֵеΪ˵1977ΪֱDZ󡪡ĸˡ֪ʶӡ(specific intellectual)ĸ֪ʶӡ뱻ѹһΪѹߴԣͱ۷֪ʶӵݽн롣 Ƶ֪ʶӸźִ˶תҲܹҺΪ֧ԸĬƣ1985һ˵ȨɢڸͶһȨȺۻвܷ[2]һЩִۼҡơ޵١ĬƵȵȡ֪ʶӽѧҽԺԱıѹȺ׷һʱĺνᱻ΢ȡȫĺ͹ҵ۱תڸߵطԵ΢ѧ֪ʶӵĻְִܱۺθ⡢ݡºͣԵط˵ȹڽźIJļƻΪҪ Ȼ΢֮dzģ߼򵥵ΪִǺִһ˹غͿɣ19911997һ1989ģʽ¼пԺԵؿڶѹȵĹҹȨķ΢νӹᡢѧúСȵطⳡչҪĸȺУִͳƷִΪĿȺڱЩУ֪ʶӰ˶ֽɫ˶ֻӵطĺĵҵĺձġ ִܺ۰ŶijЩͳִ֪ʶӻʶ̬ҪУijЩ汾֪ʶӴͳɫߵ̫Զ֮кִ֪ʶӸijЩȻáʵϣΪγһеĹ֪ʶӵı׼normative conceptҽ/ձ֪ʶӵĶַ֪ʶӡصĽ֪ʶ빫򣬷ԻԡѹȺͲΪȨɡǣҵĽ綨һ֪ʶӲΪ˵ϳ¢˵ְܣǼ򵥵ؽۺ磬άĹֵۻ߿ձı׼ԭ򡣵ǣֵͻձġȨҲᄈġʱġ׼ġһģԶЧʵϣȨᶷIJҲṹģͳ츳ȨǹеĻȻȻʵ塣ȨԱձ黯ҲܲձʽһϹ¼ΪijЩȨһи嶼Чġϵǰˡ ˣһе֪ʶӿDzΪԼ˵ijЩΪĺִҪᶷļֵͱ׼DZеĺڣǵķֹͰᱻѹȣƶȾҪƷе֪ʶӿִͨĹ淶ֵΪ׼ִеķϳУ˸ѧɾ˶ı׼DZ˹ֺѹȽСɣ1989

һ˲Ҫձ֪ʶӵάһ֪ʶӵĸ֪ʶӦռߵءһѰ󹫹ͺڵء֪ʶӲӦ÷Ϊȫ˵ȨӦʶվھƫ;޵˵⣬֪ʶӦѧְ߳ȨܣѰΪձ㣬ܹվߵϣӸΪԵĺѹȵȺ壬ѧϰ֧ǵĶΪԵǿҷʡСԼұ֡Ϊ֪ʶְһ֡ ¼¹֪ʶ

ij̶ֳϽһͶֹ¼ըʱÿ˶ڳΪ֪ʶӣȥʵּɺ¼ѧУóɹҪͶϵͳбãҪ뱻ʱչ˵Ļʽ˵ģ1977ܹѧϰԵ˵ÿ˶֪ʶӣܹպʹĻʹܹԼĻ˵Ͳ֪ʶɡһϢͶԽԽΪúճһֵʱ֪ʶӺͶĸѸչΪ֪ʶӴµĸս

µУҽеĺ֪ʶӦڽеµְܺжͳĶ֪ʶӵĶȻ֮ϢϢأˣµĹӦýڹȥģʽĻ֮ϣӦһЩִ򵥵ؽ֮ͼ֪ʶӺ͹˼Ҫ֪ʶ뼼Ĺϵ˼Ҫµļý鼼ıǨԹ֪ʶӽ˼ ij˵ڴͳ֪ʶӺͼ֮䲢ҪϵԿ϶ǣ֪ʶӣرɶࡤ桢٤ԡĵȿѧѧߣչ˼ӢʥѧԼʮֹעԼǷҡȻ֪ڴӡ֪ʶ֮ĹϵרоһЩ֪ʶʹӡˢԼҲǴԱ20͵ࣨʹȫ֪ʶӶùӡȻһͳ֪ʶӲκ⼼רң֪ʶӺͼ֮ûеϵ

Ȼҽڵ߿ƼУҪź½綨ڳ֣ЩҪýͼϵķչҪеĻ֪ʶӵĸ½綨ͬʱҲҪԹ֪ʶӽ½綨20ڣԼҪܹ˼šıֽΪͨṩѧ֪ʶ¹ͬʱҲƽ⣬жءϣغ߶ء1969Ҳ˵Ӱ߹㲥¼ĸDZܣҪ֪ʶЩµԼСְܻrefunctionЩ¼תΪʹ͸ĹߡҲ߹㲥͵ӵоΪұӰ߹㲥Ľ֮С1974ǰ߹㲥ԼĵͨѶýڹҿϵͳ˽˹˾жкͷԵաĵ͹ʵӡʱ߹㲥ԼͼʹЩԽ뿪ţ-֪ʶӼ[3]߹㲥ӡĵͨѶģʽµ硢ۺϢĹˣЩҪ빫ڣĹиԤ֪ʶӦЩµͨѶչµļΡ

ҽڵУЧüDZģЩϣµĹ֪ʶҪӦµͨѶۣΪĻδΡҵǣ߹㲥ӵȹ㲥ý飬ԼڵļΪϢ۴µĹͿռ䣬ȰDZΪְкͽĴĽ롪ͬʱҲΪµIJݡƺʹͳλṩµĿԡǣЩµĹ򡪡С飬㲥͵ӽĿԼڳֵҳ֮Ϊռcyberspace democracy򣬶Ҫ֪ʶӻµļɲ¼

ˣŵǰĹ֪ʶӱ¼֪ʶӺͼ֮ĹϵҲǰṹиӽܡ죬ҪΪһ֪ʶӾҪȽչʹоͽۣɹ㲥ͼµĹµĹ֪ʶӦȥγԼսԣԱЩ¼רȨζκһܹĿꡣһУ֪ʶӵ˺ȿɱﵽĿҲﵽĿ֮꣩һڵϵ 򼤽ļ

ʱУĸҪһýεIJһξ˫زԣȣͼִýʹǸضԡ棬ʩͱƷ(necessity)ӦýලF.A.I.R.ýеĹƽ뾫ȷѾչý飬ýûгеǵΣýϵͳ͹۵չֽͨдų۵㡢㲥ӽ֯ڲýʧܽԼķʽͼʹִý

һȫͬս漰Ѿýϵͳⲿչý飬ý;УҪʱΪ׷ҪΪηִý鴿롣ˣӡˢ㲥ʽýչԻΪֲԵĽڣѾý֮ĹԷչԽṹ ڹȥĺܳʱý鷽˴ĹȻţýεķչԣֲԶDZģκһֵ׷һһǴġˣչһּýӦöִýУʹõĽΪԭʹǵýϵͳҪӿѡij˹ڵӣӹڲĵӽӽĿչϵͳڵСΧ㲥ļԼ֡ӾͼӡˢĻÿһĻеĶĻΡ Ȼ˻˵漰Ľ̸ۣһ¡Ϊ˴ǵıۺ͹ʶõϢڵУ߹㲥ӺͼϢҪԴˣҲᳫý֧еΪ֯ýӦñ֯͸˻úϢӦ¼ƽĿζ֮𣬲ɴ֮佨ȷϵЩһǵξ֮СعעΣǽʵζ۲ڴˡ ༤֯Ѿʼʶý֯ζĹؼأڽǿн¼ζļΡʵϣ˶Ҫȷý顱(the Right)ʵý飬ǾͱǵĴڻʹǵĶڸĹдϾǴ߹㲥ԼǰļϢԴϢˣ㲥ý¼ڽ綨ʵӰ칫ѡԼھʲôӦúʲôӦԴžԵĽɫ֪ʶҪڵط͹зãͱͨѶͼʵɺͽ⣬Խ¼սԺͽĿԡ Ϣ

ǵµļʱмϢӵҪãһϢϵͳΪýϢεıҪɷ֡ڼµϢͼͨѶϵͳԴĿҲӣΪ⼯Ź˾ϢĿƣҲбҪµĹϢϢģҲܹʹδĹýҪϢ͹㲥һȿҲ ʵϣһDZڵ㲥ڵϢͨѶȴ˫[4]ӳؽϢȴǻĺͲԵġͨ͵ʼнͨƽõ绰ڻֱӽƽܹʾơվԶַ̻ңʹһ͵ĻΪܡ漰IJ롢ۺͶƱڴýʱthe Big Media Age˱ų֮⣬㲥жϢֵıơý鱻Ź˾ƣֻ޵͹۵㱻ͨμ1992

ʱÿ˶üƽμۺ磬ʹڴýʱųԻ֮Ĵ˺Ȩɴˣһּµռ乫the new public spheres of cyberspaceչֳΪĹṩһֲ䡪ʹ磬ʾƺվۻ̸ǵĹ۵㣬˿ԿǣԸĻҲӦһЩվʵʱreal-timeңܹ໥áЩʽһֹڽжԻĻʽµĹзãĸ

Ȼֽ벢ܴʵеζҲյĿռΣգַտռУɱΣͨʹϢΪǻΡȻݿվṩ˱ҪϢԴ¼طϢѰоݿLexis/NexisDialogueӵдıֽ־ڿӽĿűŷᡢѶżȵȡݿPeaceNetȣӵй̬սƽŮȨԼ600̸ֻ⣬ԼϢѧվԽЩվĶԸĻغʹӡЩվУ֪ʶӷɹѡϢЩվ̸ۼỹıۡԵļݿУ˺ܹԶ̵ʱڻþϢ 磬ܹýͺսоΪҽͿͨһϵеԴйظϢʹܹڹںսĸֻͻϢ𣬲ԾʲǴ¥޸ĵϢʣɣ1992գйսԺ;ϢһϵеϢԴ¶ЩϢԴܹݿҵŹ˾Ҫ֯Щݿ⣬֪ʶҲѧŽӴδϢ ϢαΪݿԵݿеõɹѡϢ[5]ʵϣʹ֯͸ܹԼվͨЩվǵϢܹصáͨѵġһУҽ˵ϢվʾơʼƶζĶԪġȻҪ˵µϢԴýͼ֯ζ֮ĺڳ֡ӡˢ͹㲥ýܹ֯ӼԴϢ֮ɢ֮С֯ҲԴЩԴϢͨӡˢ㲥ͼ֮ȥпߵϢֳܹͨԣ֯ҪʶڵʱֵͨýϢеDZ ⣬ΪԵĹ㲥ӡӰÿһĻʽԼϢӡˢý塣µĶý弼Ѿվϳ֣ڵ㲥͵ֻijζѡʹϣعһµͨѶϵͳΪܣͨѶϵͳÿһ˶ϢϢߣ⽫ıķΧͶԣͬʱҲɻΪصϢ/ĻĸṩµķΧڴˣҽӵζԭĽǶȶ¼ͼμۡ

ζ

¼ڼظıÿһɴ˴Ҫսʹ־޴ı仯ۻԼµIJԶЩ¼ԸгЧáȻ¼ڹѧУճз˻ġ˽ġѹȵõҲǰӼ¼ؽǵijСѧУúIJҲˡˣһҽעǣ¼ܱǿоټ˶¼Ϊƶӣ˵¼ʹڶлȨġ

ǵƷҵ߼ճиֳ񻯳̶ȣռϽ˷Ʒһʵij̶ֳ𾪵ġķˡһЩҵ֯ṩѵЩطṩѵļڹṩͨÿµƽۻѵ֪ϵطûеģһ˾ͿڼʱijƷеķƷռ֮һϻ÷ḻϢ֡

Ȼϵط绰ҲûУ͸ˣЩܹӽͽ뼼ռо޴IJͬ¼ռ߲ϵطǿ˵ܵڵǰˡ˺Ͻ׼ռеҪɫʹʵˣͳƺоҲŮԡɫ֡²ȺռøӻԾ⣬ڷУͨͥѵһ֣21ͳпܳΪӻһͨƷȻͽҪȵӻöࡣ֮еͨǽļƻʹЩʹûе绰ӻ綼ûеǵԽӴͨѶ[6]

ۼ¼öô㷺ͨdzԵѾΪͶΡɻȱҪ֣ЩҪδĻDZü⣬ļӽ׼塢ԱȹϵǰڵIJƽȵвʵΣգǣҲһֿԣһͼĹΪ˷ЩṩᡣҽӦؾٳһЩѹȺͰȨļ¼ǵƶճ̵ķʽǣ˵ͼ⼸־ ռָǵľԴάͳμź͹ȨĽɫȻ˾ǣڷƷڱԽԽĻöԽԽ忪šǣռӦñһͻijһĵش֪ʶӦô֮ѰԼֺĿԡͳμšȨͱص֯Ѿ¼ƽǵճ̣֪ʶҪδζзãǾͱ¼ƶճ̣߱ѹߵԼֿ ռαڶ˶Ѿ˷ḻ֤෴ѵ֪ʶǵμƻѾЩ¼͹áīϲǡ˹ݣũλӴһʼüݿ⡢λ̨ԼʽýʹǵĶ͹(Zapatista)ӵÿһԡı͹涼ͨѸٵش[7]19951£īȡжһ˶类Աصĸ˺֧ߵĶīѹָ֧ʾУ֪ߡȨ۲ҺʹŽһµǡ˹бϢ׷׶īԹ̸жǶ߽ѹīӦط˶ߵѹȣֹ1998ıдʱīѾ߽˶̸У1998߱طɱС鰵ɱ¼ʹīٴϵҪͰֵľ޴ѹ

ڿȽͨѶĽDZܣʴġٯ1967߹㲥ڰǸеҪýҲ߶ʮ¸Ӱƽʶ̬Ҫá⣬¼ƶʸص˶ƶýķչ1984ڷóЭanti-NAFTAУҲµͨѶ˹㷺ãɣ1994ˣ1994ϢûʹóЭֹͣȴ˶δõˡˡ(Nick Witheford)˵óЭ˷ȫʱ֮ķȻDzûдﵽԼֱĿ꣬ǣֺ½ĶԻ谭ˡܲδɳضó׵ķԡ˶Ϊ粿źͿ置֯ĥĻᣬΪδ翪ոձЧá

ˣ¼Ϣʵζ˵Ȳ޹ؽҪģҲаʽĿ롣ʹܳɹռϣϢͶ˵ĽҲܹá磬ͿӢϣָǷַСӣǴ͹˾ĵ͹ʡʵٻɭ֡ɱӺͲʳƷȵȡҲ˷dzͿߡMclibel֯ӵд͹˾Ϣġ;۽McSpotlightվ֯ר֤֧ǵ꣬19977и͹˾ǰδеĶӰ죬ͨʼСءͿ֯ƣǵվķʴ12000000Σߡ־Guardian˵վ֯Ĺһҿ˾ϢΪȫԴʵҲһθΪɹķ˾սۣ19962£http://www.mcspotlight.org

͹֯Ҳʼ¼ˡףMike CooleyѾ׫ĶԼϵͳʹ»üɶɥʧɽɽɡ沮Shoshana ZuboffΪ߿ƼܹʹͶߡϢʹԶܹչ˵֪ʶͿʹ֮ͺȡ˶the Clean Clothes CampaignһɺŮ1990Ϊַ֧ɱ¹˶˶֧Ĺ˰չʹѹեԵĹõع⣨http://www.cleanclothes.org/1/index.html1997꣬ӽ˺˰չӢĬ£עӢӢͷ˰չվùŽᣨwww.gn.apc.org/1bournet/docks[8]

Ͽ͹֯籱Ͷ֯the North South Dignity of LaborΪϢͷôȡΪӴӡˢý飬ԼľۻʹͳζʽˣսڽͨѶʵʵ˶ͶϣʹcyberstruggleΪζȡЧѾΧͷηϵƼսԡʵ͹Ǹ˶ʵػʵ

ϲʱȫ򻯣ߣcyberactivitistsѾͼͨչȫԵŽʹ²ʵȫ򻯣Կ˾ȫ򻯵ʱʣWatermanĻ˵ԼΪýĵʣFifth Internationalڳ֡һ罫͹ŮȨߣƽԼĽ֯ϵһΪһˡŽṩ˻Կ˷ִεľԣ󣬼˹غͿɣ19921997

⣬ΧԱһϵжҲµͨѶΪн顣1991꣬˹ǷʺϾ߷Ժ󷨹پ֤ᣬ֤˹ܵɧŵİȡϣ˴ԱDzûȡԲϸ˹Ĵ󷨹ʸһ¼ʹŮüϵеȨй֯Ů֧ŮԺѡˡ1992ѡУŮԺѡ˱κһδѡҪ࣬ҲǶԴͳһ ŮȨѾվʼĿ¼ͨѶʽǵĶΪŮʱáɧŮriotgirlsĸ˵ýĿƻ־վСƹǵĹͶ޵ŮŮĸŮ֯ҲվбǵȨ档̲Ҳ¼ҽѧϢΪжζĽ̶Աǵ֧ߡ

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