ΩԸƽˮʹ罭ϣ
et revelabitur quasi aqua iudicium et iustitia quasi torrens fortis

 

ʩܷѧ˵ƫ


Ҳǡγġͬ·ڵһսͰָ֮ʣ¹սҰܡζ⽻ݼŵIJо֡ǣ𣬾ͳΪʱٹǿҵԸ

ı£¹λ˼ңǻʶͰģȺ󳫵ȨıҪԡһλ˹Τ˰ͶƱ۹ͳƽĹ룬ƶʹ֮Ϊκܷĺ֮һ1һλǿʩءرǿȨߵľԼͻƷķdzٴ룬ѧĽǶΪκܷڣ涨ͳǿִȨ˲ı 2

˼롢ƶԼʵ֯һʷ£й֪ʶкȨ֮йҲΧơȨϵDDʩصרƻΤġγġΪһ̸ 3

ʵϣΤȻѸ˵־ڴȨͳϣ˰ЩҶŲܴٽ¶ϿչȨֿ˶Ҳӷιҵͼ޳ˣǣȴȻֹΪԼ˻κƶĵ߶ڵԭʼάгõľӦĴĿܡΤ˼УʹŹǿԾѡķʽұƾȵȣ͹ɹθĸĻ񣬼ʹΪǿҲDzܰϷԼ߳Լ 4

ʩ˽ȻͬЩҪǰ׵ˣֻʣdzԽɳȨ߾ϡdz״̬µͳǿȨԼ书ѫϺȲʻԡ⡱ʩûмֵֻûɶֻΪȨĿĶĵԣʲôʵ֤塢ᡢȨ벼ʲάԼ̫˵ȵȣһ֮ѣӦرעصο⣬ֻΰֿȳ 5ɴȨԺʩؽһѷdz״̬ΪϵĶüԳ滯ͺûתν˼ˡԼȴķιҸ޶ɴ壬෴Ҫɴ޶ιҡ6ԡϣյĵ־ιҡDDǿ־DDȡǿġ֧䡱֮Ļ7

κܷıѷʦ

ֵ֪ʩηѧĻʽѧ˵ϵУ˭ǵĵˡʼվмҪ 8ӹԵʵǣӣʩؾ͹ȻΪˡΪɴ˶ĿģҪ־壬Щԡеܷ롱֮͵ġӡ ¹ܳķѧҰͼArthur KaufmannѾָͬʱѧȽϣʩضĹ10

ʣôһķ˹ڷѧҡôܳΪγġ嵣ߣЩ⡢ھܾ巨ѧۼңǻͬ¶λ޼ɵػСҡ֮ʵʷҰȻҪΪϡγġ͡ġǩǶʩص׿ԽѧʶԼļŪ

ȻЩ˿ܻƣƲȥϣ̨ʩӭĸӵ·̸̲ǰǡܷѧ˵ԣĿĻҪΪ塰족Ƕκܷġϣʵ㲻ĵˡ

ǣóֽ۵ɺڣ֪ʵءˣGnter Maschkeָϣ̨֮ǰʩѾѧ淶սԸ´о11 ˹ء³˹ػErnst Forsthoff˶óͣͼԡҡߡԪ׹ҡķʽȡΪιij̬κܷ12ͼʩҲΪκ깲͹ľĹˡ֮һ13

ˣǻбҪµ״ضܷѧ˵Ȿľѧֵȼ֮缰̺侲ĿͷͿԷ˼ڵijЩäԼιƶϵȱݣͿԸرκܷĵڣͳȨɵڣᶨλɵڣȨԼڣ͵ڣʷޡʩصȷԳ䵱йθĸѷʦԣевʩѧ˵оͽܣֻʩѧ˵⡢ƬԼʵ ϵ񻰣ͬԺ־

ʩطĸƽԼӦͬԻϵΪһ֡Ϊʽԭɺƽȵ֮Ķһƹʼղسձƽȣͻڹ͹IJʧȥʵʡ

νʵʣԻƵĺĸ񣬶ˡ14άʵǰĹؼڡֵѡ15ô˵ƺƽȣνҲòԶ˽˻ûרԼбƽΪʵԴۡ

ȵȡȻѧʽҹ 16ʩذѹҶΪ˸񻯵壬κνоϵ־ͳһ˽ܺ 17ӦϵǰƽȵеӳȻǣڶõȨߣǾľdzǰƽȣӦΪȨDDòָȫԱ߼¬ʽ⡱ݵ˼ˡҲǹľӢڳеı֣˲뵽йʱһ塱໧񡱵ķɴͳʸжʱࡣ ҸȨṹһԪʶ̬ҲһԪԡ۱18ʩصĹ۵۲죬ϵġͳһԺ򡱾ǡϵܷ19κܷ˵־Ž塢һһĹڸңܷó½ۣΪκθ淶ͨһԾϡͳһʽ涨ṹ20ˣҲ˵һܷźܷ򶼾壺ҡһ˸ͳһ壬һɵġԾĸ־෴ҷһиΪҵIJҪǣǣȫӣGehorsam21

ǣϾϵ˭ľһԵġɸĵ

Ȩ񣬾ϵֻ񡣵񾿾ʹȨԼ־ı仯½оϣܹƼеĹһزԼܹзΪɲֵĹֻɹȫ̴ֻȫӹңô־ֺδӱȻξϵıʣʼһСͳΪָô죿һؿǹѹʱҲһ־ ڡܷѧ˵УҵĴֻУȫġֱӵԾ־Ϊܷġ޸ṩݡ 22ϽܷԤijͷ֮ 23ֻܿж֤24׷һ£ʲôȫֱԾ־ʩȻѾų˫໥ЭЭԼͶƱѡ 25ôڷɳ֮ľϣDzָҸͶ췴ж֣Ҳյʵܼ򵥣νֱӵԾ־νԽľϣֻһȺԿͷDDȲʨDDʽʾ޳ɻ޳ɡ26йũġһ°ŵ

ʩصĹ۵㣬ڽȻĺȲʽ˱仯Ϊ⡱ǣⲻͨɵۺ֤ֻС򡰲Сļѡ񡣼ʹһ⣬ΪںƽʱڣʾʮֺҲûбҪ£ûȷ־ǡǡȻܷͬ27

Ȼʩص޴ǼɼĽͻ̫ɱ̫ǿԶһйΪܽʾͳĹϵǡ˵вҲСǡ˵㲻ͲҲСмһԻСȨ߾ϡ˶ѣա

ӡ޶ȵĴûĹҡ

ʵʩضԹһ֮ĹϵʶûͣںȲƤIJϡһѪָ޶ȵĴζ޶ȵͳΣʱֻҪ޶ȵͬԾ㹻ˣͿԴһЩϡڽϻ׼ͬȫͬȺдһͳһ塣״̬Σǣͳһ壬⵽˺ӣǣҨDDǴͳһ״̬DDҲʧȥݡĹûĹҡ28

һУôĹҾͻɱûĹҡǺεȾٰΪʲôΣյ״̬ȥŤתʩزɫظǣһ㶼ڽξȨһЩˣύԼشڴ𰸺мٵľϳɷ֡ˣ񶼻׵ͬȳʵ29֪ˡΪɵ񡢶ΪӵĹ޶ȴȫ롰ķ֮ڣֻܵõһ֡

ܶȫй֤ʩض߻ۡйָժ֤ʩȻѧߵijʵȻô߼Ӧʵʵسϣ忪ĴǶ֢ҩġΪֻǿ˵ԡ֪ȨԼɲȺṩжϵijϢǿξߵĻԺѹĿռ䣻ֻ걸ַɳ򣬲Чضмල⣬ͨƶȻʱ־ı仯Ծϵķʽ

ǣʩصжԼΪȴϸĽ෴Ҫɴ⵳Լϣո־壬ʹĬĬؽܶõļȳʵӶʶʱֱӲ˶κܷƵĸ죺һĹתһûĹҡȻȷǡγġ塣һƫ֪¡

ʩػڳ̸⡱˵⣬޷ͨͶƱķʽģΪΪһѡͶƱܷӳԸ 30ͶƱֻ˵Һ͹Ѿ˽˻ˡǧ˽˵ܶôЭһ£Ҳܲ⣬ֻ˽ܺ͡ 31ʩν⣬ֻǡϵڼͺȲʡ32ֻǡ־ֱӱͱ33綨⣬ijijصۣijйͨ͹ϴɵЭ

òָǣԼϺȲʷʽڵ⣬ȻйɫʣҲֲֻܱ־亭ǵķΧѡխݣҲ͸Աȫ־ο㳡֮෴ӳ޷Ⱥʱ֮֮ȥķ磬ҲȾĸղʵϣһεĹҲܡҲӦصġװա֯һн١沨ݴ˽¹شξϣǹܷĻϣ漰ʷתۡòǰ˼롢ıԶǵһԾϡγʶһʩصȻںͿһʱ

ԪȨԼɳ

йȨǿԼۼҶѷΡȨƺԼ򿴳ɷѧ÷һ 34ʩҲԷȨͳ֮Աǡڡܷѧ˵һеȨΪΪȨߵȨΪͳһġɷָģԽȨԭ֮ 35ʩضԣʹȨʱѭ涨־ֻܿж֤Ӧñһй涨ͳ֮ñ 36ǡ־κضľ37

ЩȻҲ֮֮оݣؼڣ־˭ܷȨΪıܷʩΪȫ־ġʲô淶һֳһִԵĶζͨĴʹһֲɼĴڱÿɼ38ſԳκμȴͳ߶ԳʸԼΪԵ׷ʣ

޷ճѡͰԼĴҲ޷ͨʵķȨƺԼĴĹҵȷҪΪ޶ȴɡûĹҡضĺϣҲͻᷢһԶĽȻǷ񣬹ҵһҪϡ ʩزŰΪ涨μѡٻĹ39ΪƱص¼ͷȨִʵڷȨԭԭԻˣʹֶ֮֯Ρ40οͶƱͳѧȷijδܽξϨDDһ˵м䣬ֻġעε˲塢ӵͶƱȨĹδضθȤЩû־ˣһЩ־ԣϡͲʲôһŹֵԭ41

ǣ˸еŹֵĵʩʼûȷǣЩ־˭˭϶ƾʲôЩ˾ܲܳԼȫоϡ´

ϷȨƺƶƵȷʺιȴΨһеȱݣرʽԭյġɱξϺͺ42Ҳ˵Ȩ֮໥ԼĽᵼ¹ͳһԡͬԵķֱʹרɥʧĻԭˡʩطԷȨƺάȫĹ⣬ĿΪȨרԼսɨƶϵϰֱԲ¶ļȷҲԵụ́ɰ֮

ʩضԷȨƺԼɳǰģҵͬԡȫԼֵϵһԪˣ壬˼ĶԣΪڡ΢˼һ¾֪ͬԵ趨ǿܵҲͲҪˣDZҪҲͲˡԼҪ˵ĵǡֵܡʡµİ˲Ҫǿĺ֮ڽֵܡԼͶͬĴֵһԪԭǡǡǼֵԪʵ˸־ijʵлرǽʮ֮渴Ӷ䣬ԡֲԼֵȡĶԪԽԽijֳԽԵġձԵʵʼֵΪγɹ干ʶĹ𲽱Ϊ췽ҹ̷Ĺ¡ ֱƶЭ ڶԪļֵ۳ͻĶԲͨɳʵ޷ڽ̵ġѧġµĹʶĽ֣ڹͨɾĹʶ˽ԼIJͨγ˼ɡٽԻЭڲֵ֮ͬ½໥ݡϣִܷòԷɳԼӦʽҪΪҲòԸֺϵ֮ЭԼƽƶȰŽξϡʵʼֵӽִܷȻͨ۶ЭƱسֳĹɣһַdzӵġ̬ij 43

ǣʩطܷۡ

ʩؿͳһԲǴΪȾͳһ־вģͲһִ淶Եܷϵͳ 44˵ȫֻܱǿһԴ˼һ˵ȫֻڻ֮ûпɱԺ޴ӹͨIJͬᄈĸƬִ¡ʧȥϵǰΪֵ֮ͬЭʹܷɥʧʵ壬Ȩ֮ƣܷԴڵϣЭζŻرܾ 45Ϊԣڽļ˶֮䣬ͬĽ׼֮䣬Эһ㶼DzܵģǷdzѵġ46 ڷȨƺϵķιĸȱҲͼرܡյġɱξϺͺ47

ʩֻע⵽ЭĶֻͳһĺϣͷƫȫĴΪιĸͨȨƺЧرϾϵԣڶ̬ʵֺͼǿ˹ҵԡʵϣľҪԭ͹淶ձԣʽ壬ҲҪٻӦ䡢龳вЭԼϡ¶ǰߵķ񶨣ڶԿĽšΪ֮仺ͽšʵƽ⣬ҪͨĹ̡ϣɳǻԺͷ˼ʵìܵĶ̬ƽ⻯Լϻһнװá Ϊ˴ﵽ̬ƽĿģͬʱҪԸţȻҲҪijԭ֮ʵжϺٻӦ׼һ˵ʵӦðͽ棬ȷӳԭϸԣͨЭȨжϣֳϸ֮ĻԺԼϵȻڳзҪáΪˣҪʵԻԣҪΪʵеء ʵϳǿʽԣ޷ڲͬļֵ֮дʵĶ̬ƽ⡣ǣʵвݻԽеֱҪǰ½УҲҪʽҪζʵͻԵȶܵƶԿܵԼܻȨߵľ塣رھʵ巽޷һʱйؾֻҪϳҪͱΪ׵ġϣͳò͹ԳʽԾñͨʵԣʵԾԭʵԣзϳԭľΪ̬ƽĻʵԣԾڻԼ 48

ȻϵͳͬڴġȨߵⲢζŲͨϡʹǿȨȻƳijֲľϵЧãҲζųֻлرܾϵı¡ǿĿģDZƶȻ֮Էʽġķʽоϣǡǡ෴Ҫеľ϶뷨εĹԱʧ

ݾǿᵽΪ˵ıԣԽȷijֵּԽײƹֵּʹҲij嶯ˣžŹһձʵۣԼӦļֵһԪƱصͻڽͳȨ͹ұijضĹУпѪ¼ս壬ͨͬİ취ֹʵԼֵ۵ļάԪֵƶȿܡҲ˵ķɳijֵּۨDDȰ˵ƫִҲ˵˼빲ʶԼͳDDԹԻռ¢Ϻ֧䣬ԷֹijһѹĨɱһľ絥

ô˵Լֵ۵ĶԪΪǰijƣӸضļֵĽǶпڲ̶ͬϹǿƣΪֹijһֵּŴﵽ𡱻ĵزʵϣųǿΪĿĵǿƱ͹ɺҪʵʼֵԭЭͬնϣҲãȨƺҲãҲãԼķԼԻķ룬ڵľЧ˵Υͨ˵ıԡԼͬϰ֮ӣǸݺƽԶȺѡķΧбҪʵѹ

ˣƶƱξϣĹ޴ӻرܵһϣҲһЭDDƶЭĿǰйٵĹθĸľϣڴЭԾϡ

ꣳ£ճ壬ءʮһܵ͡ڣڣ

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2Cf. Renato Cristi, Carl Schimitt and Authoritarian Liberalism: Strong State, Free Economy (Cardiff: University of Wales Press, 1998) Chapter 5 Sovereignty and Constituent Power and Chapter 6 The Constitution of Political Liberalism, especially pp. 111-113, 163.
3С㣨ࣩʩηѧϺϺ꣬꣩ǰԣҳ
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6ʩءɴ뷨ιҡ꣩ źؾ̫Ұϣϱࣩʩʱļǰҳ;ϵ˼ݱ̣ George Schwab, The Challenge of the Exception; An Introduction to the Political Ideas of Carl Schmitt Between 1921 and 1936 (2nd ed., New York: Greenwood Press, 1989).
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