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Ү˵ķۣлɨDDȶ۵ѧ


й˼磬Ү˵۴ӣڿʼӰ죬εΪۣ˵һʷȻԡΪҪƼֽз˼ҪȫгԭȻӦۺǿɵļֵ⣬ʮĩȫڸľýṹĸֳɷεĹŵгعйͬ޷⣬Ҳij̶ֳƶˡҮȡ¡

֪ԹҮѧ˵ķ롢ԼоùڡɾйѧǼִѧѧԺڡǸĩӾǶܳڶл͡DZרһ֮߿νëǣ˲ܲȻ𾴡רҵȤصĶڵĴļҮ˷ѧоɳ硢ꡣ¼ơܡڴ˽ⱾΪԹҮ˷۵ĻȺDZڵлɵ۽飬Ծͽڴ֮ҡ ҵ⣬˽ڶԹҮ˷ѧķҪ棬ΪɺɵĻϵɴγɵspontaneous order뷨ԭԼĻculture evolutionĻơ

һ档֪ҮΪ΢۷µѧɵĴˣʼռַϵĸ壨methodological individualismǿΪߵԼΪԡ˽һĽͣҮ˵ĸʵϷˡԭ۵ĸ塱ܡҳҲڷ۵壬С淶壨normative individualismļֵȿĸʹãҲΪض֮Ƶţڡܡģ°ļ֪ҳΪ˽ʵϰʾһҪĹ۵㣺ҮȻ֯organization򣬲ӱ۵ĸ߶¶λɣͬʱҲ˸Ⱥ֮ͼʽл壨social organism͹淶Ϊġ

⣬ܡĻӽǣҮ˵ĸ岢ԡԡΪǿ֪ignoranceĿԼΪΪļ֪ʶĬʾ֪ʶᄈԼԻĹͨЭһ棨ģҳҳĸ屻λΪ塱áܡԭʵʣҮΪҪĶڣȷIJȶĸȨ֮ţҲκ֮һּڱΪʲôάҪһͻķķۡҳ

ڶ棬ܡָҮȻǿԷԵȻcosmos˹Ե֯taxis𣬲ΪֻԷ۵ĺģȴûз֯Ĵ壨ҳҳȻȻ֯һΪԵѡ ڵ˽ڿspontaneous orderѭЩһҳڲcosmos ĺרЩ԰˼ڱϣdzԵĴʩָָδ֪ζκضˡصپǵЧԡDZǰԵģprospectiveݼġҳҲ˵Ӿ龳γɺͽҲձԺδָ⣬ڲ򻹶ĿģΪֹԹԹ򣨣ҳڹҮ˵ᄈڲĹδĹ֣Խǰߣҳ

ĻIJ棬ܡѲĹδĹ֮ijԻΪݣҳ˽дҸΪᴩڹҮ۽֮еŵԽΪƾγɵΪϵͳġĻۡԡҮ˵ϵԡĻΪġҳĻζšһϰõΪlearnt rules of conductɵĴͳҳĽ¹Ү˵ĻϵںϣԸйĴͱӰԶ

⣬ȻĻò漰Ⱥѡ񣬵ܡΪҮǿǸжͶжжԼ幹֮ĻҳҳעDDǺܵλָժ׼ȷӳ˹ҮͼлпظɿռĿĹ衣ֻϧ񶴲챻ûǿĻĻ֮Уױߺԡ ԶͨܿĹҮ˵ѧ˵ФŷԷϵȤҸ˵Ĺ۸к⣬ҮȻǿ֮Ļϵ˹Jurgen Habermas׷еĹͨԼ֤෴֪ޡ˵ԼδĹȵ [1]ڹҮУ֧ΪʶĹһԵģܵͬڷϰߣڣҲ龳廯ضѸоڸԵĵλ⣬ҮȻҲǿԼһҳڲ򣬵ȴ񿭶ɭHans KelsenӴʵ֤淶ϵڲԼ淶ѧڲӽǣ෴ƺĻ͹мֵĸȡ˸淶ø֮ĻԼ幹֮Ļȡ˵ȼԼģconstructivist[2] ԷṹĿȻѡȡ˶Բͬ͵Żѡ

ԶҮرǿɵгԼͨĽܱأJoseph A. SchumpeterעҵΪھʽʱĽеIJͬáڻγɵIJͬϷʽԼӦ֯£෴ʼչǵ˹ܣAdam SmithʽгͼʽԡˡԸ棬ȴȤбҪָһ㣺Ү˶ɾǰСʲռ磩ͽɸˮƽ壩֮Ҳš

ֵעǣҮ˵޶˹John Rawlsġ塱вܹ֮ͬҮ˱׵֮䲻ʵԲ죩DDûȨԽԵԤ裬ҲϹԵĴڣĸҲ롱áȻͨԴγɹĹ۵صʶĸЩϬͨ㣬Ү˸ǿǷ취Լϰù˵IJͻȻȨԼʽġʱԵĹʶΪӦҮ˵ĸҲаأHannah Arendtĸ˵ġԡԼڼϸֹ˽ǰ²ҪԵЩ

Ȼҷdzͬ˽ڶԹҮںֵشۣΪһġεĸȻܹ;ܾūۻǿƵľȴΪȷͱṩָ롣һ㣬ͽڱúܾʣӹҮǶˣǿģڣβſɵã[3] һֹҮ˺ԵԼֵȻ޷֪ʶͿѧĽǶȽп͹УôʵҲֻʵļЧоġ

ʵ˻۵йǷʵ֮⣬ҮЭ۷Ҳиɻ͡ܡ漰ݾͿԿҮѧ˵ĹؼȱһɵļֵһУҳһּԷΪǰᣨҳͬʱΪδ޷״̬¡ڹҶģҳҳȴΪеķ򶼵ɵķΣҳҲΪǿԻɶӷɹ淶ҳΪʵǸ޷ͬʱġϵ۱֮£ʣ뿪˻ζͲԼƶƵѡ񣬺ԱϷΣֺԱϷεǿѹɣƾһͻķܳʵָˣҲòԹҮϵǢԼӦóֱ̬ȣжϻ˽ڵͬ

ǻһ̬ͬùҮ˵ͿԷ̴֣п˶רƵΣԼĿĺԡߺתǿԲͻǿԺԷƨDD˼Ĺؼ [4]Ϊ˱ڲ֮ū۵Ľ֣Ү˲ŴŷƹҺҲбҪз˼ȡ˹ӵĽѵᳫԸɵжͻĴٽŬ壬Ӧø߶ȵۡȻҲҪ⵽뻯Э΢ơٸʱѶԵ̬Ϊˮ롣ȻҮ˲ǷߣȴԵ֧λΪĸѸ˵ı쵽֮ļֵܳѴ󲿷ֵ򶼿ΪIJԤڵżȻԽϵ嵱ȻҲҪԽȨ liberalism չ libertarianism DD [5]

֪ߵеļԺȸְֹܻӪšҮȽһɣԲԭ۵IJɲַιԭҿķι˽λ˾λҲΪԷڸ˻Ĺ̡ڹҮϣ׵˽ΣȴʶȵģҪķپָƽЭǰ¡ڻϵСھ״л֮޶ȵǿɵ롣ˣǷѧۼԵĿ͹ۻȱ㹻Ĺעʼǿ˵Ϊ໥ñˣ֮µɣfreedom under the lawķɣthe lawǡɵķɣthe law of liberty = nomosʵϻǹᵽ [6]ڹҮУʹҲɵķΪǰģȷȨΪĻ

޶ǿɵĽǶҲòһ˽ͬȶҮѧ˵ĻʵĻۡΪĻ۵м׷ٵһ˼·Ϊжǰڵijֽṹ׼ȷ˵ijֽṹʵϵ״̬ں̶ܴϣĻлݱ̣ԴлĽǶ͹ϵķѰӱ֯ū֮ʵܷܿ״רʷǿơ;ҲδɡԶҪôǹҮ۴Եì֮ҪôDzܼ򵥵ذĻΪҮ۵ĻԲڵĽ͡

ڽձķѧҵĹ۵㣬Ϻעνо򡱣the sensory orderڹҮѧ˵еĻ [7]ΪֻдӹҮѧ;ѧ¹๦ʵԼԸԵǿУDzҵìܵԿסʵϣijϲǹҮѧϸɹԼͨĻ໥öʵ򻯵ͶӰҲ˵ڹҮΪлķιǿҵģԹܵķѧ˿ ڹҮ˿ǿƵ뷴γɵķӳȻǡͼ봦´̼źŵġģʽΪġ򵥵˵ҲӦ򣬸˵ġС桱ġ桱ͬ͹ϵϣ졢֪вܽȻֿҮǷ񶨵ѿʽͶԪ۵ġˣҮ۵ŵ˵Ļ˵ϰùͳĽһ㱻ΪŴԽ˵Χγɺͽչĸ˵ǡж໥áȻҮ˵ȷ˵һнԴͳΪĻһ㣬ʼԹŵĴͳΪ۵ıģŲһǰʹЩֵ۸ٹ̵ĴͳҲΪɵĻ Ү΢żȻȴȻһ״̬ɵġ򲻿˭ƣҲҪһ߸ϵ߿͹۷ӵ㣻ΪһӵĸȻԸġղͬĿĺʶɻǺõĽǸΪӵܺͣҲֿоķһֳֶ̬Ѳֱ仯ЭһģʽΪһԵΪ򣬵ЩΪȫԵĽǶȼ˵Ҳ߱ȷĿġҲ˵УĿģ԰ɱΪĿġԹҮ˶ԣֻ֯ž߱ĿģĻǼֵDDЩƻɡ빦ԭʽʵʣ˵ȵȵĹֳԼֵ γĻУΪ˺֯ǻԴǹؼҲ˵޶Դѧϰ˼ǹҮ۵ıڣҲг۵ıڡǣԴ̱Ȼѡ񣬼иѡҲмѡ񡣹Ү˵۳ϸΪĿģܳ⼯ΪĿģ׵¼ѡ޷̬¶ͬ⣨acceptanceijķ񶨨DDΪͬĿĶԵġijϿΪĿԣҲνͬⲻͬ⡣ȻʯԪ۹Ү˲òͬΪȨΪε [8]ǣҮֻڸԼϵIJͬʵԼҪͬij򡢻˵Ϊѡ򹫹ѡͬ˵ΪַɹĻǰͬٶ뿪˾ձԼͬҪԺͽԱϣԹкԱϣ

Ү˵ĻشǰѼѡͬԼӦĿԶֵ֮Ƶжϣķ֮Ҹ˾븵ҮAlfred J. E. Fouilleeĸѧġ졤׷Guillaume J. de GreefĸѧĸֹԼл壨organisme contractuelleѧ˵ҲΪˣòѼֳֵΣһֵǸʶIJմжļֵֵǶԪģڻIJ֡ڶֵǶΪжĽɵҪԼάֺͷչıҪԼ֪ļֵһԵļֵж [9]ͼõڶֵȡȻĿ͹ӽǣ۵Ԫƣmeta-controlЭ۵ϱ۷ϵһԡҿл⾳һ£ͨͣºⷽ족

˲ϵļֵԪԣ巨ѧĸѧ˵û죻ǰ½Ϻͼѡ񣬴һЩȫͬأH. L. A. HartͼͨڶDD֯򷶳DDȷЭжֵ֮ijͻ˹ͼ֤ͨ͹ͨԨDDԲķDDɺԼʶ¬Niklas LuhmannȻҲӸڸ˼ֵжϵĺϵڶֵɫ [10]ȴϣѷǼֵijΪڼֵԪԵı֮·εԸݡǣҮ˵ĵڶֵȨ򡢳Ϲ򣨹أ֤򣨹˹Լ¬ֱ֮𶼴Ĺϵ

Զ׼ڶֵȻԪƵĹܣȲǹ壨justiceĸ淶ҲǾԭֽѧǿռԼֵжϣҵĿ뵺Ҳͬǻѧϰͷ˼IJɻȱԼֵϵͳһΪĻвǻ۽ᾧǶ֮ƣgoodԹDDÿʡ˼ʵʽָĺгԼءĴѧЩ·

ĻڼֵڲԿ͹ۻĸֵԿ͹ۻձԼӦȨrightӦþԽԡǣҮ˵߸⡣ܾȨĿ͹Ա׼Ѹ֮Է໥úԷԽԼ׹֮᳹С岻ǹ໥õĹǹ໥õĽʹᣨthe Great Societyвķ׼ûģҲDzеġ

ǣѧѾʾгʧܵĿԡɾĽ¢Լ̬ͬȨôɾͻıɥʧ£Ľܿܽı以ĹηֹԱϵŤԷԽƾͲǸ˵жļֵܽˣҪԿ͹ۻĹԱ׼ҲҪĵԼɾǿԱϡijϣ֯ڲⲿ֮ĹϵӦΰţҮ˲ûҪĽҲٶе˶ɺΪ߼ֵǫǫӡڲͬᣬͼȫвͬĻй̻Т˹ѳԼұľˣhomo economicus֮֮ɴ˿ɼҮǽٶǰ֮ϵģоߺЩǰͺԲ˵

ʵϣڹϣŷĻͳУɣϣĶӦeleutheros磨eleutherosͬ߳ǰpolisιͬȸϵһ𣬲Ǵ˽е˵ֻڵ춨˾зԵƶȻʱɲܴǹҮ֮ǿεɡǣͬʱŷĻͳΪǰַɵġԷġʩǿƵģôΪձҪʵķԻʵҲͱ߽ˡϣҲֻϣҮ˼ɷι˵һɳϵΣ¥ɡԻε״̬£ȨðܵõʱƵijϣµΪ޵еĹ塢ȫɫʵлԼԱĻ̬ı򷴶ѸӡɡЩȻǹҮԸ⿴̬ҲԸЩֻЩǶѣһDzò̹ʵ˵Լĵġ ꣲ£ճ壬ءйڣڣ

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[1] ֹ۵㲻ɵҮ˵Զֵάظ˹̹L. Wittgensteinڲ˵֮¡ڽ̵ȼֵ˵֮ķࡢ۵ļֵж޷ͨʵп͹ۼ⡢ɵѡ񲻵òԲĹ˼

[2] ڹҮڽṹơͼɽ͵ constructivism һʣͨΪγɺ͸淶ϵһϵķɽ壨legal constructivismͬDDߵDZȽϽӽҮ˵۵Ļ棬ɲȡ塱뷨ʾ𡣵ȻΪ塱Ҳ޴

[3] ͡塷磬꣩ҳ

[4] һ㣬Үڽݸ塰δȥнʾ÷dzġҮļ׶ó״ѧ磬꣩ҳ

[5] Ĵѧ˵˹Ү˵⣬ŵˣRobert NozickСšϣJames M. BuchananضԼŵȡ

[6] ʯԪҮ뷨Ρʮһ꣱͡ºһΪҮ˵ɸرǹڷɲɵдģͻҵ⣬ұʾͬڵڶʯĵķֻ㣺ȻҮ˲ȡιıԻû޸ĹڷɺͷεĸһͨΪԭȻʱǷٵľҪǷɵĿġȨⲢǿԼģɶɵǿ֮Ⲣܻޡ

[7] DDҮ˵ķۼľ磬꣩ҳ

[8] ʯԪǰģҳ

[9] Үˡԭ룬꣬꣩ɡɡһ룬йٿȫ磬꣩¹ڼֵʵIJЧĿĵǰ飱ҳ

[10] ҮѾֵָ뺭ܽơġҮļǰҳ