DZؽǵɡ

 

йĿ

DDҲ̸ĻͳĽͷ˼

һ ӦⷨΣ

ڷָͬ⡣һְѷοʵֹΰֶΣһΪεĺǻڱϸɺȨҪԹȨʩӱҪơ

ǰһַιǶй˶ġϹʱ⡢ƶ֮ν֮[1] ͳι۹Ѿֲġ˲ʿ˵¶һģν跨[2]ţԷιٴѡ[3]˵úһģνߣ֮Ҳߣ֮ԭҲ[4]ԵΪ[5]Եƻ[6]ֻ֮ܶϰյġȻ˽ҲԷһЩȨ˼ѿТطεе񷨡˽֮Ĺϵдһξʵ֡

֮ΪԱ֮⽫

ʷˣ֮ҲϷ֮

ģ֮Ҳ֪ƶ֮طҲ֪䲻 ֮طҲ֮ö֮ãһ׼˽

֮ʱϲŭ֮ƽǷҲ[7]

˸ֱרƾͳ֮£νһ֮֮Ҳ[8]ЩȨ˼ѿʶ̬һֱĮȨ󡣶Դйؼпϣָ

ҹķ֮ԭȷָȻǧ֮˼ӷͬΪһ

[9]

ȻִŷҲƵĹ֪ʵ֤ѧɵı˹John AustinѷΪȨߵ֡෨ [10]һЩвˣDonald J. BlackĶáʵʩơζšҼ乫Ĺ淶[11]ǣЩں˶ԷкϷĴߡԽԿơʼܵ㷺ɺСҮˣFriedrich A. von HayekԷ۰ǿԼ֯ųڷĸ֮⣬ѷΪͨͬһƵķǷ룬Ҫ԰˹֮Ӱʩн [12]

ԶһȨrightȨpowerķιִԼƶ [13]ִĸۣȨʹͨijܷdzĵĻDzĵģҪеʽʵ涼񣬲ڸ˵ΥΪҶκΥܵٴ뼰涼ͨ˾ȼõȷʽԾԱÿһϡɡȨԼϵİԡ־ƶģ͸ЧʵĿ꣬ҪӲͬҵĻͳʵһ [14]ʵִι˼Ͱ˶Ԫ [15]ǣⷨĶԪԺ͵ԣĹĿ걾ҲͬĻαŪϷ̸ʲôִķΣҿйзΣǰᵱȻҪȨΪƶԸܵĴʵΪ֤ҪȻҪĺϷԡ⣨ڽ̻μĻȨϵݱĴʵΪ֤ܽΪνԵġĺֻǶΪʵ״̬зʽϵı׷ [16]

ĩϸ̫סΪһమǹ֮ʿĴ䷨ʼһٶ굱УȻηչĹ̼ۣڷѧ˵йƶȱĿģʽϻģǴǰһַιתһַιۣ̽ƹȨͬʱ߹ʵ;Ȼйѧͷѧ磬ȴһЩ֮ļ˲׼߶棨Prasenjit DuaraӦʱȥ⹹ΪйIJĴͳȨϵǼ͵ȥ⹹ȨϵΪִּѧۼƶȿܣҲ˲άߵҰWm. Theodore de BaryйԴзִͨĿڱԴѰǿƵĺԨDDȻ޴Ǽܹ൱̶ضļֵƫ [17]ΪʲôеԭdzӡƲȥȨϵ߼ԼȮʽԳοŰ򼱹ζ¶̸ҪرִֵۣĽԲɣ÷ѧIJʿĻ֮淴ѡ񣻣ִʹǰй֪ʶȦʧȥ˱ĹʶԼȷɵĿйг÷չijɹǿܻߡʲã˭ĺԼݼڵľ йڽСҡִĽʱ벻ŷߡѰҸĸϣȷгɾ͵ϣڵƱ䶯ϡԶ׼ҪĸﲢʵҪŷijЩƶȾͲòȽԡ෴Ϊ˱ĵҪӰһΪ״ȶҪʲԷһ򲻴ȥƺ־Լ硱¡⻹ΣڸĸĿٳٲܴﵽʱҡ롰ߡĹϵͻḴӻ߼ҵʶͷ˼ԱͨʵƶȰȡĸijɹߵߵIJǣΪǡϵߺ ںΣԾһ˵ȷӣкܵ͵ľ־Ϊ˸ڳϰԷˣĺ˵ȻԴ˷߷߲ƽͨ͸ĸʷ⣬кƫУòͬͳ˵ֽײ˹߷϶ʵ޷Ƶһ⣬Ҳ¶Ⱥ˷ȻƶھBlack is beautiful˶ʱɿͿʼѹǣעξƫķתƵƫνмֵжϵķ档зζǣ£ΪƫĶʵĽ綨е֪ʶȨά֡ΪʲôҲô˵áƣЩԼҲ˵ôڡ֤˺ھǺڡںҪ˵ھѲڷdzȫϤ㣬йڼ˵ƫķ֮γijĹϵһڶʵĽ綨ͬıԼ仯Щߺ͡ھ˶ҹͬ趨Ĺڵͺָͬ˶ΪɿoreosDD뱻Ե¼ƶĸľӢǡƤо㽶ڰ˹˸֮عͷһӡͬ˼ [18]

źΧй⣬֮ϵӻͬ״̬·ҲԼɼǣͬڡھĻǺá֮ıںţֽ׶εйִĻͼȿƾһһʵ۵¡Ҳʹתͽ׶֡ϣңľȷʵøӸӻˡڱΪħ롱 Karl PolanyiִУɻļѹĥ϶ľʹʹִͽ⹹ĸֱҲ׵õݸ˶ĺӦDzòִʱҲ漰ִ˼

Ժִ˶ [19]ӲҪԿ͵ĺִֻûشþںִǡһǷǣһǷǡظ̸ۺִijϨDDֳ߸ԺͲȷԵϷ־ϵ״̬ʽķΧǡó˺ִĻּȻִ˼ִĺ巶ʽûͼûṩµĴԷʽִǿԵĽšԲĿݡġƽ滯ȵȣʵִĻ߼˵֡ȱȨζԪԼѶ˸ͼֵԪΪƵijǰͺѹ˼־ΪзƵı׼ʫˣִִܹṹıʣȴִܵṹı ںִ˵ʵбȽ塣Jacques Derridaۼʱ͹Ȼơ⹹塱ƺµĶ壬ʵǣͬʱҲǼȲֱֲӻ˵ [20]йǾһʱԡá췴ֵͷҲˡִ֪Իʮġǽ⹹֮ô죿ˡִж Stephen ToulminҲˡִļԡ Michel Foucaultձģһ˿͹۱׼һԻͼ˽ġĹԻܹؽƾʲôΪֵγЩںִѧҪںִѧȴ޿ɻرܵġ

ɴGary MindaоνִѧҪɣʢеѧ˶ɣǷֱзѧоŮȨ巨ѧ˵뾭ѧѧԼӵȨ [21]ȷЩѧ˶۱кܴIJ죬սִ塢ǿԼֵжϵȷֳԵĹͨԱȵλҲ潻гڷȨȨⷴȨӽṹתϷ˼άת˼άȵȣЩdz͵طӳ˺ִ״IJͬ棬ʾдԵĶԪ֡ˣΪɴķܻǿͬģҲġѧϵǺϡڶѧ˶о忼֮󣬿ԷִֺѧĻżȲʵҲ룬ײ˿ɺзִԵijЩ۲Ƕȡˣִ岻ǶִֻǶִķ˼ִѧķ˼Ȼġԣ˵ҪѺִѧΪйִĽṹһ [22]ǣʵؿ壬ΨʹձԵķ񶨱ձ黯˼б޶ִζõμԴͳʵԾԾִͨת򡱺͡ɵɽ Ihab Hassan ȫվִĶϣ˸ִһϸԵľô۶ԷεʵǶϵִѧڣķչСѡ

ҪǣִйлϢϢأзdzŨıɫʣŷҷ˼ʽĺִ˼֮űʵIJͬ [23]Ҫԭǡйִʵ£Edward W. Saidġ塷[24] Լ¶Paul Cohenͼıйʷоʽij [25] вҵԼԳ׷񶨿͹۱׼һִ˷ܵġⲻ¡¶ȶİȨĿɹսǷӦø϶һ˷˶ʶ۷뿼ΣתΧĻֵƫνԱǵĿСȦڵ壬DDйִĸĸ↑ľʵԽԽDDijɥʧ˷ִеԴ޵֮С¡¶ǵּʵȥԶҲ֪ʶԼڵдڵǿδִĸȥͻԣĩйѾȷĹڸĸ↑ŵִʶ [26]ܹٽԪ״ķ˼Լڴ˻ؽԣȻֵûӭҡǣڴΪֹйִǶ˲ԼԻǿֻһҪʷ͵ͳͳԼˮijȥæһ²ԡ񡱵еĻ֮⣬Ҳ̫ŵļʵݡ ȷִԣij̶ֳȵͳΣھкͷ˼Ŀ顣ǣȻһֵʤУҲǿƳģ߳ȥҲеǾδҪЦ󷽡ô˵ζű߷ʶйʷ飬ҲζŶԴͳĻȫ̷񶨵̬ȣζŶŷʽִijЩȱԼԪеķձһӶҪǿֻǡúִҪıУرǶһеǿƻУִ֪ʶӵʥʹҲйʿƳĵͳۣбֻƻִֻıڴͳıʱͻỬ壬ʹйʧȥ˼͸ĸйٵʱڼĸµƶȿհִ֮ĽһʵĿáĹڲˣֽ׶εй̸̸ֽ׶εŷѧȦĵġ⹹⣬äӿĻУڱ˵е۵ұ۾ݣЩIJƷʹͷˡطζСԡİװֽ⾿жٸӼֵأ Զȫһ廯ҪʱۺҰҲҪͨĻͳٽ͵ķʽСֵ̧̫ܣֻݱɻȨͻл޵Ľ֣ȱڴΧڴɻʶ̫ضᄈĹգĶʫʵ˼άģʽĶɣӸҵľγɵĺ۱׼߹е⣬ֻܸijġ֮϶ Pierre Bourdieuάظ˹̹Ludwig WittgensteinΪɰ·͹㳡ݺ·ԼȺͥԺլȹɵԹŶԻ[27] ɥʧУȲ󱣳־룬ҲûкĽͨͿɱԵģcommensurableϵҸԱڸеĻռԪĻ壨multiculturalismıڶ˹ԶԻĻᡣѾ趨龳ᄈ֮Ҫ̸ʲôѭķdzҪһʵеƶѽ˵Ŀ¥ Ϊʹйطε۲ԹƲĽ֣пԿԽĻ߰ĶԪԣҽѹעĽӼֵתԪǢʶۡȻصʡӣ ʶԼ ոףѧԴͷһлɡ˼ij㣬йͳԼƶȽԵʶͽ͡DzͬνᄈۣPerspective Rationalism or Contextualism[28]ͼ漰ضᄈĸ˹۵뼯۵㡢ڹ۵ڹ۵֣ǿһľͬʱҲǿ߻ľԼ˫ĻϵԱʱľṹϵĵԺͿԣƫڤ粻ΪֻԿŵ̬ӭߡѰͬԺ͹ͬģڴ˻ͨԻͨ˷ԪɵIJ֪pluralistic ignoranceʧ֢Ա֢ҵĻܳԶԶԽҾ顢ķԴ̽һΪйȷϹ顢ֽӹʵķ·

֮һܶȫŵᄈûл⵱й׷ҪִΣҲ˵زбɫķ̸ЧӦȫһ廯ʱķƸĸ

йԭķ˼֮˼

˻ΪԴӡ˶йʶ̬ǶԴͳĻķ˼񶨣˹ؼⲻߵȱλҵɥʧֿеʵȴܳǶߺʲôıʽ綨ȥʷޱҪΪֵϵļתһϹḶ́ܵ˵ȱʶ۲侲˼οеҵԷִķʽֵļģʽּԴͳִ˫ϵĸԼϸıʵʽļֵжϺͨĻĺģùеıػȷķʽ [29]ɴ˿ɼԶʮйķ˼нٷ˼ǷdzҪġ

Ȼѧķ˼֮˼֮УƺûüһִεĽṹΣǿԡ񶨿͹ԡԹ淶ϵͳְҵȺн⹹ĺִ˼Ѿӿˡ⵹ѧԺijЩ뷨ԺǿưĴԱ֮ŷġɡԼзѧ˭ʲôıִйȷСЧ΢˸ֹ磬Ҫжȴۼ˾ܳ˻ӣҪǿȨʶðŪĸ¸ЦԷǡĸҹϸǷֺõ£ԵġΪ޲ΪĴۻߡ˶ΪǺ׷Ӱ죬طʵʩ֮ʵIJԣ·ͻȻڷ֮νle phenomene Magnaudһ [30]ڣлķ䲻͸ũ壬ݵص˾ϽΧڡзʽܻӭҲԷƵĵȻ족ڷɼֵ۲淴ĸΪʽ⣬ҲԴѡرʶͷ˼ʵǰ½һִεƶȰšֺ߳һ

ڷĽԲɡĸĿٳٲܴﵽĽ죬ȷбҪһ¶йͳĻʵİǷȷƶȵǷʵܷȡijŷģʽڹϵȼ۵Է⡣ΣҪһǶȶйͳԭп졢Լٽͣйε۾޷ȥ

ǰѾļ⣬ָй˼ӷɺͬΪһҲҪϵԼʵһ棬DZΪ˫С Ρ鷨浽̲áĶԪԼڴ˻ʵֵìƶȻƶȲֶԪںʿֵķɽ˶ֵ֮ʮ [31]Ȼйѧ߶һνӣǣԡ뷨йԭı仯ԶƺûгչۡΪпܵĽĹؼǡǡ

ڡ񡱵Ѿʤö٣ӷѧĹ۵죬ı޷ij˼ʹϵƶȻ̬ڻԭֽ̻Ļγɵġϵ򡱣ðRoberto M. Unger Ļ˵ǡ໥õķ[32]ճУͨϵ໥áּۻ۵ԴԼϵṤ̡ҫı֮ṹƱػᰴμϵƱػѸŻܻ߳ݱ÷dzӡŷ᲻ͬ [33]йϵ򡱲ڹƶ֮һ֣ġΪˣйΪǡϵλ [34]һ֡ϵ塱ĵ [35]⣬ϵҲڡ֮ķʽ򣬶ұ֯򡱵гΪʽĹƶȵһɲ֡ĸϵڣԽϵѧļΪԼΪɫ壬ıԼı߼ʣӶֵ޸Ľṹ [36]ô״̬ӦĹƶȾģӦβεǷУЩг̽ [37]

Ϊϵķ

ôйͳԭͨ뷨Ľת䣬γ˰ǿ뻮һġ򡱣ǿٻӦġϵ򡱣̣һṹеĹϵdzʼμġΪ졢෴ɵ֮䱣־⣬Ϊ˾ŵȱںϷԭ򣬲ոԵĹ淶˵ԸԼϵָЭҪе˵ijϿ˵κһķɾȫϡ˵ΪĿܱ꣬ΪԴԼͨ޷ɵġĺ⡱Уض֮ԽеύȻƵ֣÷һָӵĻ״̬йƺ뵽ΣfractalsʽġӻcomplexificationƸ 2 ɱĹϵ磨䶯ϵеķƣϵɵͳιʽͨ򵥵ķԹ̣桢Լ⣩ķԼɲֵķֳ޷ḻı [38]ΪйͳķȫԱΪһָϵa complex system[39]

Ϊֹû˴ĽǶйԭǣǿԷһЩǿѧѾԼоijЩصļ磬ΤйĻΪһֹŸʵԽе飬Ȩ [40]ָйʷھʹʱѿŷƵ [41]ǿй˾ṹеĶԪ [42]ע⵽ڡ˺һ³ֵƷԭȫϢԭġС棨microcosm[43]ӽʾйͳı֤ǡһΪѭ̥ڻӶࡱ[44]رǿϴƷۣΪйͳĻĹ֮һͨѭޡ[45]˷֡׾дšŴйʽķΣthe ancient Chinese fractals[46]Ϊ׾ɶ̬ͽṹת˼άʽйͳԭһԿס

Զ׼ҳΪϵķйƶƣϿȫͬڿɭHans KelsenĽ͵ľȻĹϵɰʵžŹһڷ֮µİ㼼ܰջԭġɰ˹ɡ˼·иҲͨ͸ȷĸֱΪĿԤԡڸֲػγɲϸı򻯵һֹ̺һ״̬ΪƵɲϷ֦һûġ֮[47] ˷ḻֱײӵĸֲ֮ͬ䣬ȻҪά־ܶķ͹߽ͨijʹụϵᴩġͨƶȡͼ Gunther Teubner ıǡ[48]ִй˵ġȺȺȥͨ´Ҫڸ˵дɾ֪ͨԴʵʵԣҪ򵣸ͼε㣬˱涨ϸԼǿලơ߱һְżȻԡڰ仯΢֮ϵĶ̬ͻȻȻطֱ

ƶƵ̬

ŷ¼ѧţѧԭĵϵνָʹپ¸ӵij󽨹ͨԹ̽Ҫػԭʵֻ֣Ԥǰܳǣϵȴ硣Ӱɽ̣ǵ˿˿ӹյȺѰٹʳĹ켣żȻĶΣȻһš޾ɺֻۡ׷䲻ݣܹøϵ˵ԭˣΪϵķȻӽȻ״̬ģȻ״̬йƵ˼·ˣ˵Ȼǡ

ʥΪﶬɱأʥΪߣҲ

ˣߣ̷ҲԽǿҲ֮ߣ֮ЧҲ[49]

ʱάϣΪӦڵʶơʱ족˾лҲʱˣڿռάΪӦλʶˮߡʩľҲˡлУȻĶǻģΪԩСһ֡Ǵʾ[50]ʷļأۼµ˵·ʱŷǷٰ˷ijһΪĶȴƷ [51]йʵ۽ٸټ͵ij򷴹Ա˸Ӵŵķ׷ [52]ΤΪйͳȨܷԻһ [53]ҸȤIJйʽռݵʣǡǡǷɹ淶Ծʵġ伺Ӧautoplastic adaptation[54]̬Ի߷ѧʱ֮ϣijȴڻ֮С̬ʹñϿʮּ򵥻еȨṹԾ൱̶ȵĵij˵ҵĺϷԲʱɫתӵȨϵ֮Сˣйû趨ΪܷԻռݣֻҪڡ顱̻֮͡ġϡʾóϷijϹ

⣬ɻҪԷ򱣳һ£񡰱ɫľҶɫʡ״ΧʻƲ֮仯ұνߣ֮飬Ե֮[55]ס[56]ڹΪʩڹס[57]ԶԿơ[58]ΪطЭǿͳһΪ˻ءˣϵͳⲿر˼ʹϵ磩֮ķּġġ£Ƚ׽ڻֶ֧ξðҲȽ׽СҸԼĴѡţֳ̼ͨķʽСΧġڵӦľнѧϰķʽöΥΪⲿŵȵԼӻ򻯵֯ [59]

̬ƶҶڷֶεúѾܻǡǡ෴ȡ̬Ĺ۵㡢֤Ĺ۵շϵĻš΢Ӧ֮ʵʩЧҲнֹҰУ׼ĿķΧ֮ڡ԰˾߱ΪᲡٴҽʦĻôйķִииݾۻ洫طеԼ֤ƣΰۺҪȡǶԳսԣһʮȡ߾ٱ绰Ѳͥȷʽߡʮһȡģȫ涯Աġϴ˶صҪķʽҵУִñЭ۾Dzģòսս˼ȷ˼Ҫ ˻Ҫʣйıǽ˾ۺ͸ۣһס伺ӦĹôġӷͬΪһ⻹ܳЩìܣ

ڻش֮ǰӦöԹIJͬν֡۷Ĺϵ۵ʵȨ״̬ϡĽǶⷨɣָ־¼ϵķʽֱӵǿ뱻֮ȱϸĸԼĵ߲ем价ڻ߿͹ۻΪý顣ȻҲԶȨʹƣҲòҲöкǿԺżȻԣȱƶĵرȨ鷢ͻijϣȨռݾԵƣʱɵͻֵú¶ǡˣĿԮȻֻDzӦƬںӶйǿ·ӵһ档 ҪָһۡйĹϵڡͣҲرάַΪǿԱԲŵȨƺ⣬Ȩߵ־͸صм͸ĩˡһԣԷʱȨijֱͻᷢһʵĽ˼ʹϵʹԱʧȥ⣨ƶ󡢵󣩣Ƶǿľ棬ұվΪԩ[60]ĴμĻַﵽҺաij̶ȣβ󲻵ľ棬ҲòȨά֡һͳ[61]⵱Ȼ˵ҵļȨԾϺǿһǿԿ϶ģֻҪĹܹͺûԸĹۣĸʩûףôȨͱȻں̶ܴϰе߼¡ ⣬ڷɵĸй塢֮֡ǰйIJǰѡ뷨֮ķϵΪǰģ̸ʱȻڡ˫СȷǸ̸޵ġڱϵȻֲͬǣʹйȡĽ綨ʹϸ־ǿڻͬǿ֮ķּйġĸ١ʽĻΧЩ壬Dzòϸ˵ľԺDZDZѹֵģҲdzȱȨĹЩʿ³ѸᷢҡɱˡƳˡ֮ĸ̾ԴͳķɻDz˵Ѿǿʡ

糡ԼЧIJ

ҵϾҪǿƺʵֽ̻ĵΡ빫˽ġ¡ԼԾȨʵìܣ˳ָʵìܵĴҲʹй׸߼ìܵӡ󣩡Ϊʵķ֮󣬲رҪȥ̡޴ҽ⳰νʥġҡιƽ¡ͳģʽֻöͣDZݵIJ档ҲΪͳԭһ־糡ҡ

糡ҡĸѧҼȣClifford Geertz [62]ΪĹϵз࣬ԷֲͬĹƶȰţһǰǿΪȨ˰ȨӲΪεıʣ񶨻ĻصҪԣȻҲҪԣֻֿӲĸǰȿεıʣӡǵİĻֳ糡ҵձķѧҳβһΪǿ٫ͥǿҲ벻ҲйͳҲ [63]йơڷԼۺⷽкǿԴȡʷʵҶ԰йȫ͵dzֱ̬ȵġҲΪйȷܽӽ糡ңֻdzֽ̻ͨһĻ֮⣬Ӧ֮κľ֮ʹۡ[64] ԼʾڵɭȻ档ǰǻȨǺڹ˳ıݣǻȨʹڹıݡھ糡֮УԱǹڣż֤˵á

ھ糡ʹƲÿӻIJ棬ڡĵһԷʷʵΪز˷dzʵķָԼΪԵʽ֮󣬽һеĺ͹½͡

֮ԱǶ˾ʵУʾʵͬʱȨ

̿Ա֤֤ڹ빫붯Ա̹׵Ľϡ

⣬ﷸ̻¶ַ֮ʵʹ֮ܡͨ

ֲͬķʽڽ¶֮ʹߵ

ͳƲõijȨεêԼʾͳﷸ֮

Ļᡱ[65]

ʽڰǣֻоֳ֤֮

ĻŻ¡[66]

ڱӦֻʾȨ˸еĴУҲƽտ񻶵

һ棬ʹԵĽɫߵȨܵŪﷸٲȻΪӢۡ[67]

аתɧ췴ڣй硶ˮ䰴ҲȱȽǡΪ˱Ϊ֧λķգǺ˶̷˾ƶȵִĸǰʽͨͶ˵ﷸʵʩѧУ [68]Ե̵ҰΡӸ𻯵ijͷʽȡ֮йͳƲÿӻʽȻдijЩطijЩʱڵĹдᵱС

⣬ڽ¾Լγɴ棬Ȼ̻򴦾ôڡϷԡҲ˵ߡķԼ˵֮Ľɫֵݳš񡱡סһ˺͡ļ͵Լʽձʷá͡ĹʽĺȺƣܴ [69]Ҽʽ֮ͬ佻ΪԷϵһġڴĹϵ͹ṹйɵʵʩڲȡģһƺȽϼӵķʽӶ糡ҵҲάǿ

ѰҾIJ

ǿӽǺ͹Чƶ£˶ԷӷȽּۻ۵Ҫ󣬽ΪԭdzҪءԻΪģŸʽľԽԽĽȡԱԼ˿˵мȴгҲλгԭ͹淶ԳΪ׶ij̶ȣλ˹ڶij̶ȣʱijĵ͹ֵĽԾͻ͸֮У⹹޹ֺǿйṹзһЩִhypermodernơִء

һΪйĴͳǡ򡱣ֻ֮ϵֹǴġ÷Georg Simmelָ¹ϵʵҲźĽԼѡĻᣬʹھרͳ֮£ͳ߻ǿԱӻԳŵ֮Ҫ󣬻һѡռġΪǿͼĨɱƶһԷԺͷãôɱͺڻữִеʵЧҲ [70]֮ڹϵ򷢻ӹܵһеط˾ּۻ۵أ˷򲻿ܻԭΪijҪأ淶ҲǵģԾ尸ĴܳųżȻءǣ˾Լйص󶼿ڲ̶ͬϱΪѰһϵԴ̣ƾѧģг̬õҪƾǨDD÷˵ĨDD֮ġԲģGesellschaftsspiel[71]

ڹϵᲩͻձ黯й [72]ȨʹòɽIJżȻԡԼ̬ԣʱŸʱ⡣ˣͬһΤԿйʽIJ̺塱ҰԿɵĴͳάطKarl A. Wittfogel򿴵֮ϵġר塱[73]DzȡԪӽйľزʱͻ֣ᷢ뷨֮ԭѾٽлԭĴΪ˱äĴбҪµĹ߿ʽԵо˵İйΪϵһֳԡԶ׼ԭŷִεģʽһսDDƺһԻԭΪ־ͳսԣȻ˭ȴ˵ȨǵԿɱģͬʱҲȷܹųϵĵֿﵽĿġ

Сÿͬȴδܹͬ ȡϵķʽйͳķ򣬿ԷеȷྫƶƣͳսԵĹ۵ǿԻ̾ģѵ󶼿ԵõȽ˵ȨרҲܻٸͬ⡣ӦóϣйԭԼƵִܼȡȥּǩ̬ȣΪֻҪʶ̬һͿ´󼪡״趨죬·ãйƶȱǨĹŷȫغϣٵطҪ辶һ棬ҲܵʵľǺġĿݾȥһΪֲĻٱ֮ʵ̫йһִձԵִ򳹵ױ۾ йͳͨ桱ý飬Աȹϵһе̬ʹԭ͹淶ʵʧȥ塣Ӻ۲ϿԵģҲӻˣʵĻȡȻ̬ȣͻν˫زȷԣdouble contingency޷ [74]ͻᷢӻʧأòǴӼ򵥵ӡҲǴӸӵ򵥡Ǹӡӡٸӣ⣬ںܶ¹ѡͻúѡһ棬΢۲ϿΪ˫Э̲ܽײԺģԺҲǵϲϣ϶ǾѵһҪ޴֣гҲͱÿпޡ֮żȻԡԼ̬Թǿ£ͻȱ͸ȣһжòȷȲڽ׳ɱļͽװȫҲΪȨʹṩᡣȻĹϵ硢֮໥Լ伺ӦļֵȡҲʹȨܵһƣڹһڲԾװãȻȱԼȨƶرⲿලơDZʶйԭشǷȱǷȱŲҵķչԼȨʶǿ¶ֻͨԷƽִDDָ˵ǽ⡰ȡ˵ ȥϵִDDֲҲҪʹԵijܹԲӦ䡱Ļơ

ķй˲ңԶ

йĶԪ淶ϵ˾еѡռ䡢ĵ塢ԣýύķǿ˵עȨṹĵԺͷ˼ʵǶʶ̬֮УȵȣЩʵڲ̶ִͬľǢģijЩ˵й֮޲˲ųں⵽ġִijˡһͬġִᷨ [75]йͳѡ񡢽˵˼dzȱƶıϣΪһʱһʵϵԱȹϵңĹ̴̫ԣʵϵżȻزܽЧķȱȷΪԤڡųӵȰʿڲ֪һ˰೵ʱ޷ȷǷа೵£ײĩ೵̬ȿֺѸֱҪò͹򶼼̤һͿ

й˲ԽԼģıڶԹּۻ۵ķӡдڹȵĽԻгԣ³Խڵ֮ϵĿ͹Ա׼޴ȷ˽áһռκθ˻ŶڼȵϿ˵ִķԻгһǿṹܽˣƱĻͨƵִΪг춨гԵĻԷֹΪȫĴģгҪձҲ⻯гԱɴֵ춨гԻҵΪͨоĹƵм乲ͬԼ˼ʹϵĸݡγͳһĹгͬʱҲͨȨƺƶơ͸ȷķɹԼƽijǿȨңҲȡƶȻķʽѸѡתдѡĿùѡĿܷƸѡ񡣶йԣ൱̶ζҪѳΪ⸴ӻʧص֡ԲӦ䡱ĻƣҪʹճѾЧķɹ淶оٹ㷺ּۻ۵º棬ʹȨϵ뻥ݹϵ [76]øӼĹʽǴӡ뷨״̬صϵġ˫Сӡ˫زȷԡ״̬תΪԲӦ䡱ijŨDDȱѡռ䣬ֱⱾʻĹ淶塣

˵ĶйִıҪԡǻӦһִ̽εʵе;ԴͳԭӵĽҪСϡʥŷʽȷǼѵģϸطȴڡ뷨˶֮йвǿĶ·ӣǿƲСⲻξ档ˣνص˫СҪʵ ĺ⡱롰ǿơķ룬ʹΪĸ˼Σʹǿ᳹ʵ֪ڽй׽Լƶ£ĺ⡱ѾһݻΪϷĺ⡱[77]ڸķΧڣǿơҲ汻ΪϺǿ [78]ȻԱ⡰˫زȷԡ͸ӻʧΪּķλ𲽳Ϊй رǿɳʾɣҲйܹѸٽ³ʾԾʵֻҪйͳԭһ۲˼ͿʶһΧ顢ȨƵĽ涯̬żȻУзαӽ򻯡żȻķʼһж޴̸𡣿˵ڴͳĻִĹ֮ʵһֽ֮죬ӦܹIJͱ촰ֽ˵ٺѡͨ׵ز壬ץƺʹ֮ǰȰѹ˵ֻ۽ӮҶϿɺͽܡȻǾй˶ȫġץ˵̲ȴӡƣץšϣˡ˵ֺƵĶһΡ˰Ȩ⵱еʵ˵컨׹˭ԸͬǴҶü棬浽ܷļΡôĶνij̶ȣ򣬽ƷϴƲ档ԹֵҳͻתĹУ״ɹʶЭľǡʵжϻǡ˵ΣҲ˵Ρij԰ţ֤Ŀ͹жϻǾ֤εķ䷽ʽ𰸽Զֻڳõ֮󣬲ܼ˫زȷԡӦʵҲõĿԲŻ رڹ淶Ԫ߼ֵԪ״£Ҫ漰ʵǷֳũ۶еº [79]ִεij۾ҪԳ϶ԪΪǰᣬһۺ;Ĺռ䣬Խ۵ļֵⶼ˽򣬲ϵIJСȻʶйĻ;жԪǰṹתڽһӾԪḶ̌ǾȫûɾܾϳڶԪľ塣ʡڶԪı£뿪˳壬ԵȥѰϵ壿ô˵ᳫһֻԭ塣ǡǡ෴Ÿֲļֵ໥֮䲻ܻԭӸж˶ұ仯ӣرҪΪĴʯêءһԣۼִԣҲкִԣΪϵķҲΪϵķ򣻼Ƕ̬ģҲһЧİװá

ĶԪɱȽԵı£йͳͨͨƶý鲻ͬ֡ͬءڵγ˸ȽġȺ·ߡСкطáȷơΪͨ´ĸ;ͷʽʵ԰ճԭиı飬ô֮ۺĺԾͻǿɾ̵ˮ׼ͻߡرϢͻռռĵӹ££ӣ̡̳·ϿԼ̹׷ϵͳԷ֡°汾Լ˼Ե޿ [80]״һΪķṩǰһҲߺ淨ִЧʡرͨ˾Իvirtualising administration of justiceйпܿԽִ˾ƶȻijЩ׶Σм价ڣԸѸ١۵ķʽϢݵķΧпռĿӻ¼ԺĺͥηٵϼԺԼⲿĸ棬Ҳ˾ֶٰ참ԱеЧʣڼǿලۼලԴﵽҲ󡱵˾ĿꡣȻڴ˻ϣ񸣿½һԼලװáʾִԹȨĻҲпȫʵ֣ijйɫִڼȷɢּСලԼĵ硢Լеγɺͷչ ˵йͳɫڡ浽ԭ֮޶ڷɹнн桢˵໥ãִν˼·ûȫĨɱһɫֻҪԭе趨޸ġðѷʽּۻ۱ɺϺıЭ̣չ۱÷Էչ֤ΪԾװõġȨⲿලΪĹ̳֮䴿żȻϲıڷְҵЭ²ļԲģѶ˾زȡġȨ޲塢ϾĹʽɡȨ޷ԸĹʽ˵ȵȡıﵱУȻߺҪߵĽɫҲҪҪΪԹϵ͸ܱΪֱӵнֹҪͨߵļ𡢲˵Լȡ㷺ⲢγɹЧϣ˵ĽйصһƶȻҵرǰзʽĺȫɼʸͳһƶȵڵ˾ĸʷӰ콫ǷdzԶġ ִ֮ܶйDZҪģһʵеġڴͳԭƸĸĻڽ桢۵໥õĹж̬У֤ͨγɺĶ򻯹ѡơڽƶĸĹУбҪ𲽰ĹעתߡǽӭһճԹ½йᡢ½ִεʱ

꣹£廪ѧѧԺͷ棬ĸ巢ڡսڣڣ

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[1] ״ϵϡ

[2] ӡ˾ƪ顤̡Сư֮Сı

[3] ӡԷ⣬ϲ𿣵Ұáߣ֮壻ߣ֮áʵһӡѧ岹һ٣

[4] ӡȻ䱾˵ַԭۺ׵ν߾ط߳ʽĶԷʵ֤塣

[5] ӼִΡ

[6] 顤洫

[7] Т塶ѷ־իۡ

[8] ˡĴ¼ԭ

[9] йķ֮ظʧҺϼļڣᣨл֣꣩ҳ

[10] J. Austin, The Province of Jurisprudence Determined (ed. by H. L. A. Hart, Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1954) pp. 24, 32, 184ff., 253f., 346. رֵעǰ˹¹άᣨFriedrich K. von SavignyӢ÷Henry J. S. Main˵ʷѧ۵֮෴ɵĸӹϵһ㣬гȡ˼ʷ쳸󣬣꣩ҳ

[11] ˡɵΪԽ룬йѧ磬꣩ҳ⣬ڲ˵ķɸйʷ֮ĶӦϵ Kam C. Wong Blacks Theory on the Behavior of Law Revisited I-IV, International Journal of Law Vol.23 No.2 (1995) pp.213-215, Vol.26 No.1 (1998) pp.75-119, No.3 (1998) pp.365-392, Vol.28 No.4 (2000) pp.327-374.

[12] Үˡԭ룬꣬꣩ĵҮ˵ۡйѧ꣸ºšԪۨDDҮ˷۵оۡڣڣ꣩ʯԪҮ뷨Ρʮһ͡ڣڣֵ꣩ע⣬ڷִĽ˼ı۵IJ棬Ү˹ʶ̬DZʵͨġ

[13] ơΡ磬꣩͡ʱйƳ磬꣩¡ʲôDDԨԴֵ֣¹ι˼ƶȵԴǨءڣ̵ִ꣩ͨԡйλ֧㡱Ͼʦѧڣڡ [14] һ㣬׾塰򣲣͵ķᡱԭءйѧڣڣΪߵļĽйѧ磬꣩աҶԶԪִι۵ᳫɢ׾塰йĻɱìܡȽϷоڣڡѡ񡱡ⷨѧڣڵȵȡڴ˳һϣұܵЩĵǡ뻹DzŦC. NewmannΪִʽͣinflation of discourseķԿ֮Ϊá

[15] ΤMax Weberĵưǿƺǿ棬漰ͬĻµ⡣أH. L. A. Hartӷڵӽ˵һ͵ڶķࡢΪռijϹĸԼȻ޶ݡ룬գLon L. Fullerӷڵӽ˲⡢߶ԶԪԵĵԼȻ¬Niklas Luhmann͹˹Jugen HabermasԽȻ뷨ʵ֤Ķ֣ϵͳĹͨΪĹͨѰļֵݡ⣬ִɽṹĶԪԣϣغ̫صĽ֯Michael Walzerִν֮пܡʽϽṹģͣҲѧӡ

[16] ִҰейΡĶ򡷣ɽ磬꣩ҳҳҪѶߣڽùҮ˹ڡ򡱵˼ʱΪ˷ֹӹ׻⣬עõһֻǿͨǿķʽı䣬ͨɸĿԣڶͨԴʵԷչԹ塣ҲԱƲԷԼλԼȨֿΤ⣬̡츻룬磬꣩ҳķǣΤΪ干ͬӵгԽܷɵȨĽʹͳһĹгҪĸݱ׼Ĺн׳ɱҵʮѣִҲ޴̸ΪΤ⻹ȷġ [17] йѧΧһЩȶ£ˡҲо٣ԼйѧȫоΪִѧйִֻᣨ꣱£ٿϿԼߣ쾰Ľڼĸҵδ塰ںִѧоеDDִѧйִֻ뷢ժҪ˻ԵлԼұδӦμӻǸ⣩

[18] ֵձѧѧԺھϴΪȨװõ֪ʶ۵ĽǶȽйٵķCf. Inoue Tatsuo Liberal Democracy and Asian Orientalism, in Joanne R. Bauer & Daniel A. Bell (eds.) The East Asian Challenge for Human Rights (Cambridge Univ. Press, 1999) pp.39-42.

[19] йص׺ţ䶰ֻ鹩ʱοһǰѷPerry AndersonִԵԴ룬ҵ˾꣩Ѻִ˼ȥʮһ Fredric Jameson, Postmodernism, or, the Cultural Logic of Late Capitalism (Duke University Press, 1991)رǿ˺ִʷ׶ԺͺҵʱһŷJean-Francois Lyotardִ״DD֪ʶԼϷСֿ룬Ǿޱ꣩̽ʾ˺ִƶԼκϷ֮Ĺϵ

[20] See J. Derrida Force of Law: The Mystical Foundation of Authority , Cardozo Law Review: Deconstruction and the Possibility of Justice Vol.11 No.5-6 (1990) pp.920-1045.

[21] G. Minda, Postmodern Legal Movements; Law and Jurisprudence at Centurys End (New York Univ. Press, 1995) p.2.

[22] ׾Ľйѧ磬꣩ҳ

[23] һ㣬⡰ѧй±塱ʮһ͡ڣڣ꣩ڡʲôйġʱڡʮһ͡ڣڣ̸꣩йѧԺʷʶʮһ͡ڣڣ꣩кܾٵķ

[24] E. Said, Orientalism (Georges Borchardt Inc., 1978).

[25] Mainly see P. Cohen, Discovery History in China (Columbia Univ. Press, 1984).

[26] 䡰˵йĽǡʮһ͡ڣڣ꣩ȫ򻯵սʮһ͡ڣڣ꣩ [27] L. Wittgenstein, Philosophical Investigations (G. E. M. Anscombe tr., Basil Blackwell, 1976) p.18.

[28] N. Rescher, Pluralism: Against the Demand for Consensus (Oxford Univ. Press, 1993) һԪصļʶۣ绳塢塢ԼӺȣֱԿ죬вοֵ

[29] ڴļۣԣǰӢʱ뽪廪Լдѧ֮йִ˼ʷرǸԼġ⣩۵ۺѵóĽۡ [30] ʮʮ֮ηԺг²ȡ֪ķʽϰӮú糱Ǻķѧ߶жݴľŷĻķɼҡã꣩ҳ

[31] ͬıǡйɵһӢʱıǡѧķһǿһ档Ǻ뷨ĸҪͨ巨γһƶԪܹйصͬ桶ййᡷл֣꣩ҳ£ǣҳĸ¼Ӣʱʷ˼롷ҵ˾꣩ҳ¡ [32] ִеķɡ¡ܺ룬йѧ磬꣩ҳ

[33] ŷĹϵԼϵᣬѧоBarbara Yngvesson, Re-Examining Continuing Relations and the Law Wisconsin Law Review Vol.1985 No.3 (1985), Gidon Gottlieb, Relationism: Legal Theory for a Relational Society The University of Chicago Law Review Vol.50 No.2 (1983).

[34] 顶йĻҪ塷޹˾꣩ҳ

[35] ԰ïˡйϵ塯ĻԿ족ѧڣţҳ

[36] Ľҫѧ˵еĸȺ塱йĻţѧ磬꣩ҳ

[37] طպۺ׾ķDDйṹͣɣΣţң֣ġѧ֮ڶ鷿꣩ݣش˵

[38] Ҳζйдһѡռ䣬ӻͼ׾Ľעǰҳ [39] ڸϵĸĶ J. Casti & A. Karlqvist (eds.) Complexity, Language and Life (Springer Verlag, 1986)dzѧŵԿףṩ˼

[40] Τ̡עǰҳ

[41] ͬϣҳ

[42] ͬϣҳ

[43] ͬϣҳҪָڡС桱Ĺֵ淶޹صׯʽң磬ҲԷΪĿʽɾ硣ӡС桱롰桱ĹϵԼγɵĽǶ߸۵Ȥܼ˵ԭȫϢԭйԭ֮Եǡϴִһ˵ġΪңԼΪԹΪ£λͬ [44] ӡһΪDDйͳ˼뿼͡磬꣩

[45] ֡йϵͳ˼άйѧ磬꣩һƪһǣҳ

[46] See Arnold Keyserling and R. C. L., The I Ching and Five Stages of Creative Time, http://www.chance and choice.com/Chance and Choice/chapter5.html. Cf. also R. C. L., Fractals, Evolution and the I Ching, http://www.ichingwisdom.com/IchingWisdom/intro.html, and his The Chinese Laws of Creativity,http://www.lawsofwisdom.com/LawsofWisdom/chapter8.html, Katya Wlter, Tao of Chaos: DNA & the I Ching Unlocking the Code of the Universe (New York: Kairos Center, 1994).

[47] ӺʼĻáһΪΪģķΪˣ˷ΪʮʮΪʮʮΪʮġԻգλҲʮΪ٣ٷΪǧǧΪ̸֮иɣ֦֦֮֮Ҷϸ֮˹Ϊһ֮˹Ϊ򡱣ߡƪӿѧĽǶ˼ij󽨹ΪԭĿУGeorg CantorϡѸ£M. J. Feigenbaumеڱ֦ͼԼ²壨Szolem Mandelbrojtͬģעǰ׾ҳָһ㵹̼ġעţֻҪǿһйͳڴӻеԵлԵݻԼıԵڰѾۺ͸۽ǰѸӻԼΪ򵥶ǴӼӵϣһŷ¼ѧţѧĹ淶ϵȫͬۡ [48] ƺͷʵʩƵĽǶȶԡĹŵ䶨ǡáڣְ֮ܶҹݣͨ¾ģķܸ飬ҲϴʵνؼġɡԼġѭƶȡ

[49] ۡگʥƪ

[50] ¡˵˼롷̨ӡݣ꣩¡£ƽѰȻеĺгDDйͳĻоϺ磬꣩ʮ¡

[51] ϿһШDDŷȻ̸ۡ磬꣩

[52] ԼɪרŶԴ˽йġй˵ķȻķ£ɽ룩˼롷ڣţ꣩ҳ¡

[53] Τ̡עҳݡ֮԰Ĺ۵йֻͨ⡰ȡʵֺ壨رϵϣִ

[54] һΪйȱִķзӳøԡǰ׾Ľҳ¡

[55] ӡ

[56] ǡ񡷡˼㡰Ŵɲǿͳһ˼ʷǡϡϺż磬꣩ҳ

[57] ӡ

[58] ءͳ

[59] йɴӶΥIJԴľнѧϰͷ˼ӶԻƣ׾ķDDйṹעҳҳ

[60] 籱ʯзΡƺǿ沢ĸĸʩĶ˹ʯDDйʮһ͵ĸĸҡ磬֪꣩ԡ⣬ԲȨԩ֨DDϺڵ·̺ʱԼµ룬ɳ磬꣩ҳ¡

[61] ڽͨԽֱߵġءƶʵԻĿƣŷ̹Jonathan K. OckoǧټϾǨDD峯ľءл룩ߵ̡ߺϱࣩѧйɴͳйѧ磬꣩ҳ¡ڵڷȨĸг⵼¼ȨҪ󣬲ܹ⡰Ȩĵߡйоڣڣҳ¡ [62] See C. Geertz, Negara: The Theatre State in Nineteenth Century Bali (Princeton Univ. Press, 1980). ľҡԡҲ꣬꣩

[63] βһŴй˼ǡɽ磬꣩ҳijԡ٫

[64] ١ס

[65] Ъ¡ĵDD봦룬³磬꣩ҳ

[66] ͬϣҳ

[67] ͬϣҳ

[68] һ˼·ӳϣͼñߣJeremy BenthamƵġһԼװãPanopticonμִȨıʡǰ飱ҳ¡ݸʾۿйΰԼƶȱǨҪѧɹСMichael R. Dutton, Policing and Punishment in China; From Patriarchy to the People (Cambridge Univ. Press, 1992). ⱾCf. Ji Weidong, Power and People in Relational Network: Dutton on Chinese Social Control, Law & Society Review Vol.29 No.3 (1995) pp.553-562.

[69] ǰģעҳ

[70] ŷˡ÷ѧDDữʽоϾӰ룬ˮ磬꣩ڣ¡λλ

[71] ڡԲġĸݣĽ÷ѧĸ⣨ᣩˮ̫룬Ҳ꣬꣩ҳ

[72] һ㣬ƹࣩй˵ȨϷͼ鹫˾꣩ѧΰй˼ʹϵеƽһоѧоڣڡ֡񹤵λѧоڣڵṩʵɹο

[73] See Karl A. Wittfogel, Oriental Despotism (Yale Univ. Press, 1957) Chap.3.

[74] ģԡɭ˹ϵۡ뱾ľ꣬꣩ҳ¡

[75] ǰһϵġִۣںáйִձִںۼڣDDձޡĦ鷿꣩

[76] Ժരmulti-door courthouseĸƻ˼·ҲЩ֮ͨڹڵ᰸ơеĵ롱ؽƽࣩзʽĸ뷢չйƳ磬꣩

[77] 磬깫ίԱ֯ڣ涨ԭ򣬼ԸԼȨ깫Ϸڣ涨áԺ°ӦԸͺϷԭе⣻ⲻɵģӦʱо

[78] 磬񡰹ķѧ̽֡ѧϰ̽ڣڡֵṹDD³˫طĴѧ磬꣩Цɳɿѧڣڣտ֡򷨵ĹܼƶȨDDгԹ涨ⷨѧڣڣ¹ϹϨDDϳ֮ŻйƳ磬꣩򡷣йƳ磬꣩پϵӽǡɳ磬꣩

[79] Ҫִαһ֪ʡʱɡԴ׾塰ĸȨʮһ͡ڣڣ꣩ҵѸ˴𰸡áγɻƵʵڡ˵ŷɱ˵ŷɱ㷺ŷʵ״̬˵ЩŷɵˡҳdzͬĿǣڡְҵĶλйѧڣڵڶָڴڿƾĻΧְͨҵרԼɴγɵִεĵĿԣҳ£ֽԷְҵȺΪ֧ķϼֵȡԪìܡ [80] ׾塰λʱ뷨±֯DDϢй˾ĸеáѧڣţ꣩ҳ
[80] ׾塰λʱ뷨±֯DDϢй˾ĸеáѧڣţ꣩ҳ