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ʮƵĻʹȵͷųѹֵ˴ҵҰԣ⿪šȫԼûľޱ¼еֵϵĶҡֱֱײһ棬ļ൱̶ϴٳijġҵɾʹйڴ˵ļЧDDֵܲѾӢλ [1]ǣһ棬Ƭǣģ壬ټƸĸ͹ԽͺҲ˻᲻ȡǿʳȱ乫ƶ⡢ṹԸӡ񻯡Դѷϵʧһϵе⣬Ҫ־ȥ귢ĹģڣϵȺͻ¼ĿѾǧ֮ [2]

ı£Ҫ乫ԼгĺǡΪάȶҲòԡεɡԼԺǿġ޼ƻĹơз˼ڱᆳùʽӦǸȫ򻯵ͳһгԸľٴʱͶҲпýͶƱոơζžþ൱̶ƶȾԶ׼йҪһͶʻdzθܼΪг򣬶ӦáҲпܲȡһֹġ͸ġЧʵƶȻֶΡЭǿƵĹϵ棬Ȩ϶ԴԼΪԼҪ׵ķɳԼжϵʵԱ׼ˣзξͳΪֽ׶εĻʶ Ҳ˵ԽԽʶʵƸͷķΧԷҪĹܣЭġɳľ÷չƶȻʵϣйѧΧƷԼгûУѽִҪճ [3]Ϊ˻Ӧ󣬷ѧ뾭ѧ֮ڼǿԻЭ [4]

巨ι۵ͼѡ

վڹŵ徭ѧҡرǰµѧɵ۲죬гصķθݣֲͬĽɹѡ

һǷ롤˹Ludvig von MisesĹ۵㣬ᳫɷεľ񡢷ʽüͼƻĿԣһΧڳ֮䲻ɵ͵ĶǿƴԴĿԣͬʱҲͨƶԤԴ [5]Ҳ˵ҹ淶ȻֱӴٽ÷չȴΪĦԼȨṩҪϣгĽṹĵΪлȫӦþԣintegrityֹ۵ǿȨ磨˾򣩶гЧʵӰĿ˹Ronald H. CoaseԼǿѡ򣩶Ը˽ΪӰIJϣJames M. BuchananȻͬûʵԵĶ

һȫܾ桢ڷɢгͼԼͳ淶ķ롤ҮˣFriedrich A. von Hayek [6]ȻҮҲǿ򣬵ȴȨΪĿģֶΡʽ˼άʽȫҾܾƶƣʵͺװùұϸɡηֹĻ״ר谭мƻȿҲųҰ֮⡣ʵҲ״޷[7]

ӦأִѧĻ۵УڷгҲ־еķܣΤMax WeberִƲƺͷεѧ˵ȷȨʽִлԼǿƵΪ㣬ͨҵʵڹ淶ϵΪɵĽΪṩԤڵͼʽһõϴҪΪֽRonald Dworkin˾ȨġȨ⣨rights thesis˷ġ⣨right answer thesisԼԭߵǰ¹ġģͣthe model of rules[8]գLon L. Fuller˼·ͬԻݺͳȻΪ㣬ֱΪͱ߼ЧԼӦķṩ» [9]ɴȥԷˣPhilip Selznickڷǹҵġҵ壨industrial justiceͲ϶зġӦͷɣresponsive lawĹ룬ɣGunther Teubnerڰ˽ϵġӽɣhybrid lawsĸ [10]ѶDavid P. Gauthier趨ijֻͬĵ [11]

Զг÷չgood governanceֹϵʼӰŶִϵͳļֵжԼйƶơˣDzҪӷζгõӰ죬һҪⲻͬķģʽԲͬгģʽIJͬӰ졣仰˵ڵǰй˼뾭úгչ֮໥λú໥ãȱԲͬȡжϣΪˣҪԵеȺһ

ΧƷг֮ϵֻ

ᣨKarl PolanyiѴһͳгOne Big MarketΪħ֮ĥgrindstone of demon[12]޶׷ѹгֿ˫˶ϰ˵Խϵĸ̬ԼȻɿʡ΢۵IJϻõֱӡ󣬲ƷƣͶȷʽֵľǿʳеʱֵԤ֮ĦΪֹйгļල͹ȡ˷dzǿӲġֱ˵ķʽйطҲָԽṹнֹϴطΪǷǿ˵IJͽһܾһžҡڳгõĺϷԡȻƲгչֽ׶ΣҶӪͺгõĻηչƵĹӦø˹ɱʱ˵Ӧڡ໥ԡ[13]Ȩ󱳺໥ԡˣбҪʹƶȻָڵԵĽṹζһֶԪġ̬ġע֤ġͨ˼ЭϵġԹƽimpartialityӦķιۡҲ˵Ҫʹ뾭÷չйصĹ淶ϵӸԽṹתΪԽṹDzòԵĵһ⡣

ڣڣйľѧҺͷѧҾָȵ˶ԱֵԱԽλ֮Ŵٽ롢ֻܷԼȨ [14]һֱûеõȫ򻯵Ĺиӻµı֡ΪгĻṩԺǿIJҲ¹ģIJɹȷ޴ĹȯҲ۹ҳеĹɷݣһ棬վڳȻϣҡʡáнۡᱣϵȸߺƶȾٴ룬ⲿгйơȷó׺ͽڵƳΡ˾ɶȵ󡢲ҵʱгĹģ֮شٽšȥһdenationalizationƣͬʱΧԴгݶԼƶȺߵĹʾϼҲ̼űԼ¹һre-nationalization˶Ŀǰйǿϵĺ乫ԴԼɳԷչģʽƱάγһǿҸԤĻԽṹܵζζԴԼͶʽٷҪַܹӵõġʣµѡҪǹҸԤȡ߷ʽֻȡȨõķʽ˫ؽɫгIJμӺ͸Ԥ෴ɣDzòԵĵڶ⡣

ִṹͶžзdzҪ塣ϷǷʤ߷߷˸Ʋ˽ԡȨȨڷʷ֮ȷġϸĽҰԼϵìܺͶԿǣȫ򻯺͵طɺij£ԭе߱ԽԽģˡԱʡʱԼϢĿ½⹹عͬʱչصĻԼϵɲֵĽں´䡣磬ɾȨԼʰȫսԱûֱӹģ׾һ⽻ˣҵƶȱΪʷʽṹԼԴͬĻڣжԵĹ淶ԼΪ߼ȻԾ޴ʱгͼҵĹʾΪƵIJ˾ĸı䣬ʹ֤ȯҵ·ϵ֯Լʵ徭õڽ⡣дṩƷ塢ԷȻ˵³ͷȨΪйʧ֮ԻΧƾоüֵϢȨͿ˰ʽĴ۸ӵķɹϵȵȡ漰־ɵƶԷIJԼ÷dzԻ˵Ĺ淶

ĻֵԼȨʶӰ졣л۹ԹȡᷨϢϵͳβԣǿֽ̻֧䡢ԼЭãгȱȨҪƶ˵ҲȱҪķɱϡȷδijЩеȱݣҪĹequityԼ򻯻ֲǷǿƵİſԳԽڸ桢ԼԼӶǿδԤԼϵȷԡҲ˵ɿԴԭġġЩԻķǽԣun-bargained forΣгΪߵжϺѡҪӵйʵԭҪʵȹ淶ȡݱȨȣ˼ʹϵ֮ǰ֮ϵȷķιۣʹȫûУҲǷdz [15]̬ԭ˵Ƕ֪ط˵ǶԼԹfairnessƫáҽȨĹ㷺Ӱ͹򡢰չĿģԼǷdz߶ȣһȡĽΣɷϵгìܣȱʵЧѧԣйֵ۽йʾ飬пԿ˼򣬳о˸ˡ䣩ʵЧȨӡȾзdzǿԺͱԵǿƻأζȽϸߣԷƶȣǹִлأζƫ [16]ο˷ԷεIJΣΪֹйг÷չȻ޴ӻرܵĵ⡣

ζǰȺгķۣر漰ƶȿɲԵİ˸ؼԾٴ룺ͨʵֶԷεУconstructive trust͹淶ϵͳҲգself-referenceԲƲȨʽϵĿɳԱĵĹ淶ԤڲṩֵƶȱϡͨٷԼΪгļƻúгչĵ·ͨ޶ϵ͹ɾļijͨ˾ֶԼڲٱƶȼǿҵĺϹԡͨй˾޸ĺͷ¢Ϸƶúгչеҵͨж˾͵Խʵֹ淶ϵĺгְͨҵɼȺرʦгеά־ùϵ֮ľ⡣

ӷεĽǶõĺгչDDҲյ鹹ԼԲƲȨʽԵĹ淶Ԥ

Ŀǰйиҵķֹ深ϸϵͳĽṹӸϻڴϢͬʱҲɻ磬ԴΪΪķղԹͨҪԽԽߣ໥ӵĹҲ֮ԽԽ󡣵ǣòϣγɡάԼǿεȴѾ÷dzDDȺŦɳˣỷȷԺ˼ͳһԽͣƮԻͲӰʵDzòȶͰȫָڹȨϡйʽȨҲǾġ˸񻯵ģ԰ѹٻӦ䡢ݸ˵־ϣȨҲƱسȷԡ

֮һκбҪһȱܣ֮ɷȣǸ̵ۣۡͲʵ־õijںԼֹϵЭ;⡣ˣγɶԹʵڷ淶Լе壨justiceΣͨνձϵԽйõĺгչҪ [17]ҪʹгйصķɴӸԽṹתΪԽṹλȻһ׷dzҪĸܸ˺֧㡣

ڿǶԷɵʱһݻرܵǷɵ鹹ԣfictitiousnessȻ鹹ţĹؼڣշΪ鹹legal fictionձѧɣSaburo KurusuصʱͼǴΨһȷ𰸵񻰣öķɽͿԲ棬Ӷ˶Թ淶ѡ͸ı࣬Ǹӻȡ [18]ǣ¹ѧ¬Niklas Luhmann۵ȴܲͬϵͳ۷Ӽ򻯹ܵʵҪǼٸԵȡ򡣼òȴȻ⣬ӶγҲյλơ Ϊ˵Լ˼·¬ĽּҵĹΪȥиԣҪڼ̳ΪŲһȺʱ±ԵķݶDDϴö֮һ϶ķ֮һ֮һиԭʹյĿȼ٣ȥʱֻʣͷ޷涨ı׵ָϴȨԼãͷֵܾףߵԺһλķоԼһͷṩ޴ӰָķҪڳս뾡췵ͷաе£ȫ涨ıз̳Уϴãͷ϶ãͷãͷͷ˳̳ˣʣµһͷԭ黹٣Դϲ ڷʱ¬ָһͷգֻΪʹϵͳšζһֱûôȷԣʵϵͳҲաٵͷϵͳڲDZҪģDzҪģɷϵ [19]仰˵ͨ⣬ϵͳһƺɵġܲȷ״̬¿ʼȴܰ⵱ʵľãرʵдڵijЩ⣬ڹ淶׵Ĵ仰˵ɵ鹹ֻǽг϶ͷȨһߣԷɵα뽨ϵͳĶԼҲյĻϡ

϶ԷɺеϵͳʵҲյĻϣǾͻбҪһ׷⣬ϵͳڲǶΣԳ鹹ԹеġԸ淶ȵȣⲿϵͳһ֧㡣ԶɵʵЧ˵ʶӰ쵽жԼɴ˲ζȡ⣬ԼҲյĴʽʹԼⲿŷΪʵŵҲҪߺ˾ߵͼιһ֧㡣ʣµǣйʲôƶְҵɼȺͼΣ

ͷϵͳڲԣֵµǸչڡ棨reliance interestsԼӦķչĴոյѧ˵ԼηӦñڴ棬һӦñ棬ͼȷĹDDΥԼѺζҲҪ⳥𺦵λظԭ״ʵζŰѹȨΪķԼ򣬼ǿԼεķɱ˾ϴٽ׻еγɣƱؽһǿԳŵԼڴıΧʹлпܽ˽ݷ乫е [20]ǣP. S. Atiyahһչ˸չ⣬ͼԭӰ죬ֻΪŵаԼıʡˣԽڳŵķɵλ˼ʾ֮ijԹϵѰԼĸݡIan Macneil˳ĻύͶɵļƻĹϵԼ۳˴ [21]ɴ˿ɼ˽ĹϵữִϵͳڲǿεıȻƣ⳥汣ԼԷԽнҪ򹹳Ķ

ǣֻΪԷ߿ɽܵĽԼԸʱύܳδضԸп͹۵ĵֵˣͨ˵ĵȼ۽ʵĵֵֻΪijֽǺģΪ߼ֵ൱ΪȻвֵͬЩֵ֮Իһʶһ㣬зdzؼԵ塣Ϊ˵Чû߼ֵжϼ޷ҲͳһԷƶȵصֻ÷ڱֵ֤һɺͳ棬ʵǿijȱIJ߶ȡҲ˵Ľֻڽ͹ͨĹСͨͬص϶ȷΪ˱ύ޴Ӵɾ⡢ʽ߳٣ҪṩһϵеķڰװèDDʵõһ⳥ȨͳҪȵȡҲԱΪԲƲȨʽϵijԵıϡ

ͨʵгDDٷΪ˺гͳﰲŵij

ڿɳԵIJƲȨԼƶȿ׷ʵ棬ȻǴʹЭչҪװãȴԶĵֿĿǰйշ߶ҪԼʧҵֱ漰ũ񡢹˵Ȩǵòֵıʹ˵šˣƶƸܡƽȡнʧҵˮ׼ȺŽͲεȨΪгĽǰᵽ˫ؽɫгIJμӺ͸Ԥ෴ɵ⣬Ҳֵ÷dzͻ

˵гǰṫôҪı䲻г״ȱΪĿĴߺͶ˽ͻвþĵߣڸı䲻״渺޿жΡȻҲԼ棬ͨЩӵĸʵʩģܷʵҪǷεƶȰܷЧƹȨʹΪҪرעǣͳϵĵ±׼гĵ±׼ʵʵIJ죬Ϊһ̸Ʊص²ìܺͳͻԼṹĸ [22]仰˵ӹƽĽǶȨǻгĵԣ׼ֵжϣԱǻͳεĵԣӦԵֽʾġΪƵȨΪ׼

гûУһΪðαӣԼпữнͣԶ׼ζŷ棬ΥϷ֤ȯгڲ߽סҵԱĻ¸ΪȵȣDzʵطͳΪжϾƽƽһҪָꡣǣΥΪΪ˰ڣȻҲΥ򣬴һΪΪǴģӦܵƲãδظеǣײ˰©˰׵óѣܵйػıӻǾͻ÷ȻָΪDDйΧƸ˰޸ıļۣͷdzرһ㡣

ɴ˿ɼгй벻Ƿع淶رǷйأǷƽйأΥƽǷ漰һĿϵйء㵱УĵػƽȡԹжϱ׼Ҫƽȵļֵع淶漰Ȩƽ⣬漰Чƽ⣻Թ淶Ĺע漰ֲΪƲõĻƣĹע漰ֹѧ˵ġ㳵ṩάƷ⡣һԣΪԼĹۻƽȸҪ˼һе˶һͬʣΪ˱뱣ϻƽȣÿ˰ԵIJͬõӦIJͬΪ˱ʵ乫ԽϵIJƽȽʵĵ;ҲԼֵѡɡˣ˵ƽȲǹǿµĵλһƽȣҲǷϵľƽ壬ָͨƶʵֺͱϵɵƽȺʶȵƽȡ νʶȵƽȾָƽƽ֮ܵһ⣬ӹı׼ٷ档ʶƽȵĽǶлƽȵԭDzġΪʹڻƽȣϲ಻ʱ򣬷пܱڡˮˮµĻ᲻ƽȸ𼵺޺ͲǻǿҵIJУرżȻĽɵIJƽҵķοÿ˵ỷͬʹ޶˹John RawlsڡƲеproperty-owning democracy[23] ѧ˵ŵʵ˻Ƹƽȷ䣬ջǻ֮IJ죬ʵϲϵĻƽȡΪˣҲбҪһ̶ϿDzڽƽ⣬ҰƽĿݼչԴԼЧãӦðܹѡʽDZ [24]

Ϣʱȫ򻯺ͼԵضȼƵĽ⹹ijǿȺԿȨĻռӰ죬ӶƽȼֵռͬʱҲҪṹ͹ϵʱԴͲƸķǶԳƻֲӮͨԵĽ⽫ǿƶ⡢ƽȵij̶ȡǵӻʱٵƽۡıδﵽʶȵƽȣԵش [25]Ȼͬвͬľ幫׼һŶۣҲѽбȽϡȷɵĸСⲢζṫûйԡûпձ黯ļֵָꡣˣǰҵᡢҵԼҵ֮䣬٣ۻǻ𡢸ɫġ һҵԣʵֹĻͼʽΪɾгϳڹõҵټԤҲΪֵѡɣϱȽϰġȽϾпԤԵټƽȵĸӦʵۺвײ㣬һƶĿţʹ˶еֿɼһҲھӢײɼֵݸײƽȼֵ֮𵽾áһҵᣬ˺ܴ仯гȻɾģȴ൱̶ϼ˲ҵ֯ṩijڰԺͿԤԣǸҪ͸ڵ涯ԽԽ֧гӦķԡżȻԡԡԶֱǿķᣬȵijﻮͿƱ÷dzѣֻܲȡºȷΡºص˾ʽάֹηƶڹҺиҪ塣ı£ؼƶƼȲǹ˽ͼʽҲǸҵͼʽֶַͨνһṩгеʧߵᰲȫȫɾҸԭ״̬ṩ㷺޶ȱϡ йڳΪĹͬʱҲϢΪĵ¾õҪݵ֮һ;ڵǰйҪʵֹòͬʱҵҵIJͬҪˣйڽгĹȻҪڡԣ롰ƽȡ֮ѰҾ㣬²ᳫͬԣ֮ĿںšΪⲻ첻һƻʮĸγɵ»ơʵ߱Ϊڳǰ£ƶԶУٷйؼԵ塣ԷΪǰٷ䣬ݻ棺չٷ䣬˰պͲԤ֣漯ԭȨԼԤʽ˽ٷ䣬ͨһȨԹԼԼǿгеĵλԵԣͨƶȰ˽ٷʵȨIJ档 ǿ˵ֱܳϸȨʵṩḣп޶ȱԼֵѡռԷιӽ룬ҲھõĺгչζйԽνɡ롰ɡĸﲢɴ˴гԼ֮ƽͻϡҲ˵Ӧɾ볤֮ѰҷйʵҪġ·龳ij֡ΪɵǿơߡΪгļƻ

ҵĺϹԾӪ빫ƽDDӲ֮䲻ɵľ֯ĵ¾

гܷгչ벩ĵΪǷϸϷеĹϵǣǰȫĽṹǨͻ˼еƶԷ顣Ծ޴ʱгͼҵĹʾΪƵIJҲ˾ĸı䣬ʹҵ·ϵ֯Լʵ徭õڽ⡣ı߽ʧ֮÷dzˣϵͳĸֹϵϱϣ̬ԽԽżȻԡͶȡȶļɻ״̬ʹгطʶ֪ӪҵԣָĹƽο˾֯ĺϷӪ״̬£ƵĻӦҵڲܹǿľӪȨЧغԼĻƣˣҵϹԣcomplianceƶ˹㷺Ĺע [26]

νϹԡ Ȼطɹ涨Ϊģһ㣬˾ڲĸֹƶȣ繫˾³ְ̡ԱԼҵ򡢱ְҵȣƷλľӪĻԼṩʷҲйϵʵϣպϹҪҵصĹ淶ΣҰ䲼ķɺҵƶĹͬЭгҪһԳйͳ淶ϵĹԼԼֽ̻ԪṹЩ֮ȻҲһۺ ϹԵƶǿҵΪ׷ԵԾŬȲƬĹǿƣҲǹߵĸְ𣬶֯ʵһֻӦʹáʵǹ˾ЭͨغøʽĺͷʽĹʵֽȫľӪЧԼؾòŵĺгչάӪijź͹ԡӷεĽǶպϹԵҪҵĹ֯ƶȵϸǿз棨mandatory statute⣬ⷨ棨directory statuteǿӦһڹԹ淶ִзٻһЩ޸ĵĻռ䡣Ҫı仯ǣϹҵڷָӵ֧ϵ෴ҵڲͽԼͨٱƶȵĻලҲɶԵһDD÷ϵӸԽṹתΪԽṹDDĽ

ľ飬ϹڷɷҪҪڡָϡҵijγ߶ϡΪ˷ֹ֯Ʋƫ赭дԵ»£淶ļ˶Է˷̷νдغʹIJľ׼ӳӲʩƶ˼·йع涨ǹ뷸ġǰƵġзҵش֮ȵƶԤΥΪġΥʵ걨ġ̹еġ˾زȡЭ̬ȵҵᴦʵ̹״ӿһƶһֺȤ˾ߡΪᷢҪ֮һҵԤΥΪĹƶȣơϹĿcompliance program߸ڣ ƶԤҵĺϹԱ׼ͳ򣻣ѡθ߼ܸලйر׼ͳʵʩйر׼ͳְȨ޻ֺίз˳ע񣻣ȷ˼ͱƶȣΥΪȡ˳ͽǿƴʩΪֹظйعƶ [27]

ϹԵҪҵرǶԴ˾߲ļأ棬ڷɷմlegal risk managementĶƶȰšҪоӪȨԱд񡢽ҵΥڲٱγɻලĻ [28]ijͷ⳥ٽΪ˹е˽˹˾qui tam actionȵȡҲ˵̡Ȩ뾭ӪȨ롱֮ڷӪȨලȨ롱ĵڶҵ⣬ۼǿñϺͻɾ͹ƽԭֹ¢ԾӪԼ֪ʶȨҲɺϹĿҪݡ

ĿǰйӪҵǹҵ̸֮ڵϵҵеĻƲ͸ӪЧܵԹȨȨ˫ظš©䣬ͶʹԼԽʹ۾õĻܺãûܷͨ͡㴢ҲĿɹֻۣҪʵԵĽɻͱȻ˵ʱܱΣľ޴աһ©ǹɷƸ첢ûʹ֤ȯҵЧҹ˵Ʊгں̶ܴѾɱΪȦǮװáԼɶͶΪշ𵴡ֹʱжԲҪװֻйҺҵдͨɣԼռɷģΪ֧֤ȯDDԷͨΪǿںϵṹĴܵĹԼСɢɵȳɿмȶͶżȻԲϽз ȻֻҪ©Ӫ߾лͨҵת˽йɼּƻƶ԰շ乫ԭͨ͸ijʵʩҵðͶԹҵľȼñڴƵ͸ҲߣȫIJҵʱгʼղ򡣷ֻҪҵṹԼҵʱгϷξҪȫ浼ɾƾͺܿշʵжԲĿԼʵ徭õĴģݳʧءˣάַͨɲϽҵͬ˵ĶҲԼ֮һԼʺܸߵķʹúϷӪҪУͬʱҲҵϹĿ˸ϰ йĹ˾ڣ˽ϴȵ޸IJڽ꣱£Ч¹涨Ļͼڻ͹ƵͬʱǿҵĺϹԣͨͶʡʡСɶȨȷʽٽڲҵʱгγɡԼơҵṹ棬˾޸ĵҪݰٶҵĸԤͷǿԹ淶ãغǿ˾³ԼڲЧƾӪߺ͹ĸֳ»ְܣɶλƶȣߵĹϵгȵȡرֵָǣΪ˷ֹҵεķΥгҵ¹˾ڣ˷˸ƶȣԷǷӱծ׶Էش𺦵ҵ׷ķΧ˾Ӫʲ֮ƸԴȪ ṹĿںϷӪǰ£ǿҵľ߾÷չЧʡҵ֮ʾļƶȾ͹ԣʹҵ֤ȯ׷뷴¢Ϸ֮ϵУҪؽͨ̿ǣָĸٴҲͳˡ¢ϷȹƽҵɻıҪͬʱҲɰѾúгչ¢ϵĹıϸֿжϱ׼ҶǿԺгģʽҵ֮䷴ԵЭжӪϲ໥ֹɡھӪеĹԼط֮IJҲоֵӡ йҵĺϹԺ;һʵѲݻԣǵڶ漰˫ؽɫӰȽϴ󡣵·¢ϷݰٳδͨҪԭҲǶ¢ϵij̶Ⱥͷʽۺܼңȵ漯ŵĵֿdzǿйػΪгĵIJμ׷󾭼úʱȻӵҵɱƣرڲϢƲֶβȨıߵֱܹҾĽΪ˱ΪԱѰıгƵôҵĺϹԾƱسΪ޻̸֮ϣȨʹʵϢų¢ǽͽȫƵĹؼǶԭͨķ¢Ϸȫɾй¢ϵеʧгɵġʹȻ¢󡢼չⲿ⡢ƹʲó׵ıΪҵսΪЭֿжԲĹͬԼ幥صҪ֮ĸӹϵҰ֮ [29]ҲҲΪ¢ϷĹ涨һ״̬о˵ı绤

ַƶȵĺгDDȷ˾ٽʦȨԼ

ΧƷ¢Ϸʾ¼ҪϾɺ͹ƽȱȡ񣻶ҪάֶԷεΣƶȺ͹淶ìܡ˶죬ԡЭԣȫʱƵϻҵڹڷҪʹʷطԹ淶ҲνǢharmonization of laws֮ûиַƶ֮ĺгҲͺʵ־÷չԼĺг

¢Լشгˣζžù͵ڵĻʽԸı䣺ǰɺֱӹתº˾ȼúͼԼȡйѧҵıǡԺгƵĽ롱[30]ԺҪг淢Ӧеãϸ񱣳̬ӵվȨͶжij̶Ⱥͷͥˮ׼˸ߵҪ ֪йûвȡȨƣԺӦḺලƶȲΪɴڽзԼԺԺᱨ湤ѯȻ߷Ժʵͨ˾͵ķʽһ̶ϿԴ淶ϻƶϣԺִϵԭ򣬲ܶԷɡط˾顣߼ӳϣ˷ԺҲܶƶ;ijΪ˾Ĺ涨⣬Ȼ߷ԺԶԷɹ淶нֽͣͱлйصķΧ֮ڣȻ̸϶ܷıĽ͡ɴ˿ɼȷжĹؼǰ˾ķΧ󵽳ΪԱ͹ȽкϷ飬ԷԼȨصĻк [31]

й˾Ƶʷ׷ݵϷڣ÷涨˾ǰѷԺĺϷķΧϸ޶ھΪڵڣаΪ϶ľΪһһоٳڵڣڣȷ桢»ƶľձԼľųܰΧ֮ [32]Ϊ桢ԼձԼľҲǾΪοгΪһ̶ϴִзɹ淶Խ͵ԣ߼ϷԺҲܽ顣ߣϷڣ涨ԺĿijල֮⣬άصְܻһ棬Ұάڼල֮ǰԶ׼йͱ˾;Խԣ˰ȨϵִԭģҲ⵼·ϵ໥ִ͹淶ϵIJг οǣؿʼ޸Ϸ͹⳥ݰһҪΪʵܷȨ涨ȨԳΪ⳥ϡζΧĴչҲζŸлȨԵطĹƶԼձԾĺϷԽ;ҿԵйزųей⳥ķΡΪӦ޸ĺҪ󣬷ֹطȨغظ참һԷԺйƶȽиĸرŤתطԺơԼȷڵطͬи [33]

ҪʵжӦýһȡ߷ԺȨܷԱݽк飬ʵֹ淶ϵгڸ߼Ժ߷Ժˡơȿ͹ܷӦ¾棿߷ԺԣڣԺԱıʼڣ֮両ְԱΪҡйٺųƣ֮ڵӴȽϣСʵ̫ɱ˵ж顢С߷ԺĿǰй˾Ļ̬ƣԵúܻΣڸȨṹԼַ˾á

Ȼ߷Ժ󷨹ֻУλձֻ߲УλԾзʸߵоҵ׼Ա١߷Ժÿ󷨹ٰ칫Ҷĸĵ٣˵ʵɾŸŻķɵģҵ߷Ժݣ˾ͳݣУ٣ѲԺ٣طԺƲԺΰڣ٣ԼݵļԺϼƣ٣ķձȫķ٣º²ˣ߷ԺзʸǣˣټϽ˵ǹԼְԱϼƣ [34]ˣ߷ԺȽϣҹ߷ԺıʵСÿ߷ԺļƻΪӦ̺׼ȨպҵҪӣԱҪӣϵıƣзʸߵֿܽﵽˣְԱƱعǧŻԼΥܷ˾ҲҰ֮УʵȻԶԶ [35]

ڰ١ԼʦڵְҵɼȺ嵱УʦӽˣҲӽгᡣǾõĺгչǸȨıϣԼ淶ЭʦзżҪн򻯵áӣ굽ڼ䣬йʦɳıǣٶȵȷdzɹۡˣڰ١ڵְҵɼҼ幹УʦռıȴȻֻУ֮ҡڣ꣬йķʦǣԣҵͬ״̬纫ģԣģԣձģԣģԣǡǡ෴ [36]òָ˾绤ʦ֮ڹģõijҰά˶ʮ֮Ѿ·ɻռijЩȱݨDD϶µ˵ǹ¶ϵȨŤƺ͵ڵķơˣ˾ĸ룬бҪѵְҵɼҼŵڲ֡ıͷؽηչĿճ̡

ΪֹйʦƶȽĶͶڣԶ׼ҪǾ󡣰ʦλɡǮľþ족[37] ڱͼطӳһ㡣Ǹ߼˾ڣʦڵҵĸ [38]˷гĿԺ;ƣֿʼʦĴ [39]ȻֻƬǿƱػ֮ʦӪָȻۺͷְҵҪ󡣼ӪָıҪԣ˾ڣͿʼһǿʦڹ淽ú񣬲֯˷ԮijҲΪʦڣķԮʵϾй˾ǿԹ淶͸״ʩ˷ҵƫġְַҵһɫģһ̶ϷʦȨƵĹܣΪȺṩԮҲάȨһҪ档ȻһڣԶԶ [40]

⣬ԾΪܸ˶ƶʦƶȵĸĸͷչǿƺ;ӪЧ֮࣬Ҳĵظı˷Դãʹʦӱϵ͵غˡгݶijмСȻʦԮԼɷܹ൱̶ϻĵʧԺ͸ֲӰ죬꣬ʵѾУرˡʦ˵ɷĿհ׵شαϸײڽܷɷƽԣֱĽ䣬ȻѾΪƽһdzȵ ֪ӣйʼսԣɳԷչɫǣģС籩СƶȵȣѾΪᱳ£ʦΪʽҲ֮仯Χƹľ׺ӣʦΰˣһij̶ֳڰѷɢȨתдƶȿȥڻУʦҲԻͨԼҪý飬ڱΪĹа֯߻ЭߵĽɫ֪Ҫ˽ȨҪǿ乫ҪͽȫɵгķιңӦʦĻΧǿְҵɼ빫֮Ļϵ

ɳԷչĻȨƶȱԤ

Ծ뷨֮ϵеֻΪйгչһЩؼƶֱ漰ΪгļƻƲϵİ乫ҵϹԡɺ͹ƽ˾ƸĸԼʦܵǿȵȡΪۣرǿƶһ֣ȴоװáһΪʶ̬ļ۶ͨȨݰһԷλЭ漯֮ϵġԤᡱ롣

Ѿȫ۵ȨݰıִƽṹӦӪҵɻҪֱӽֵͷ乫ȨзͣʹڸĸڼγɵͲƲϵóֵıϡͷľáṦܶԣעĿǹʹȨöɡСǼƶȵͳһԼزǨijͲ׼ȹ涨ͨⲿνúгչɻȱǰᡣܾȷصĸִԾȨ徿ǸüȫĻ壩ȨԱϵظʸߣаӪũ⣬ôгϵּۻδصºġЧʵԴãѾ¶ߵķغͷǨ顢ɧ½󷴵ҡ

йЩѧоΪ乫гԹΪΪĿǰȨݰΥ⣬ͰйصҵƵøĸθĸĽȥˡĴάȨƵûпʮһ͵ȫ򾭼ûڷ̵ı仯йԣǶֱߵҵ̶ԣʣ⽫ͻˣҪ⽫ͨͶͣǼ伤ҵ۾ı£Ͷ˾ԽԽСֻҪģսɹҵֱӴ̼ҲԽԽ١ʱгѸ乫˾ĶξԼҵļԼ̶ҪĴƣֽ׶ƶȸĸӦþƶ˽лӪΪҵɰ󣬶෴

ʹֻǽʵ⡢άµȶȨݰѧҲصжϴDDͼԻرθĸάƲеļȨƵķʽֹʲʧ䲻᲻Եľ㡣ʵϣرĸԴڹƶ˽лΪУҵò޶òܻʹȨҵӪɱĻЩûɹ⣬˹Ҹ޷תлóֵ沢Դƶҵṹתͺᱣϵ [41]ɴ˿ɼαİ취άƼиּΪȨṩѰᣬıȨṹμǿԹʲıǹ⣬ӦȨƶҵѹ

ΧȨصģԲͬ漯֮е׵ؽ־֮⡣Ϊˣ˰աԼһϵƶȽиĸǿԤ㰸ִ״ͼලѸ˴Эɻö͸ġԤᡱøȺڱƺ鵥IJԤijѧЭļɣ߹Ȩص߾ Ԥᡱƶ˼·ĻȾôƵ۷ΧЩڲͬȺ֮йƽ˰Ͳ񣬶ʱһ̶ȵķλȴ飬ʵʱȥ֮ζִҪھ÷ʵϹƽԭƽ䣨ƽԭԴΪǰǩһֲλ߷ǶԿЭԭġʽᱣԭԼԼġ漯 [42]ھֲλƶȰţȨṹϽֳᷨЭsocial corporatist intermediationò [43]ҼиЧԼ֮ķʽ෴ɵ档ЩdzƶȰš

֮ܶӦðɾгԷιһƶпܸõضžǡ޼ƻĹơԼεɡɵĸֱ׶ˣ𲽿سйúгչĵ·

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[1] http://finance.people.com.cn/GB/1037/3944145.html

[2] »http://news.xinhuanet.com/legal/2006-01/19/content_4072115.htm¶Ĺŷݡ

[3] 磬⾴йĸǰ;ĶԻƾڣڡǮӱһг뷨ΡƱȽϡڣڡ뷨ΡȽϡڣ꣩⾴Խ롮ҡεгá鷶ۡڣڣ꣩

[4] ѧԾѧĻӦǡΪй񷨵ɳ磬꣩ƽг뷨Ρ鷶ۡڣڣ꣩ƽࣩҡг᣺йķ뷢չйѧ硢꣩

[5] ˹ɾָͨĵ֮Ĺϵر̩ޣF. M. TaylorO. Langeгģʽ֮ͨҡгϵѧDDΧơüۡͼʽ󾭼±磬꣩ڣ¡ڣ¡

[6] й롤ҮˡҮļ룬׶ó״ѧ磬꣩òָʹܹӢΪԭ⡰ɵķɡһķζΪЩǣǿᡣļҮ˵ķۣлɨDDȶ۵ѧۡйڣڣ2005꣩

[7] Robert C. Ellickson, Order without Law : How Neighbors Settle Disputes (Rep. ed., Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2005). Cf. Karen Clay & Gavin Wright, Order without Law? Property Rights during the California Gold Rush, Explorations in Economic History Vol. 42 No.2 (2005) pp.155-183.

[8] For details, see Ronald Dworkin, Taking Rights Seriously (revised ed., Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1978),his A Matter of Principle (Harvard University Press, 1985), and his Law Empire (Harvard University Press, 1986).

[9] Lon L. Fuller, The Morality of Law (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1964).

[10] Cf. Robert A. Kagan and others (eds.) Legality and Community: On the Intellectual Legacy of Philip Selznick (Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc., 2002).

[11] E.g., David P. Gauthier, Morals By Agreement (Oxford: Clarendon Press , 1986).

[12] Karl Polanyi, The Great Transformation: The Political and Economic Origins of Our Time (Boston: Beacon Press, 1957), Ӣɵ뱾תDDгγɺͱ󾭼±磬꣩ҳ

[13] See Ronald H. Coase, The Problem of Social Cost, The Journal of Law and Economics Vol. 3 No. 1 (1960) pp.1-44.

[14] йķŴءҵ֯гơϺϺ꣬꣩άӭҵйҵĸѧ磬꣩

[15] ִйķƱǨձ磬꣩һ¡໥ԵķִСرǣҳҳ

[16] йʶ񻧷ѧ־ڣڣţ꣩ҳ¡

[17] ԾѧĴţάӭϢ뷨ɡ꣬꣩Francis Fukuyama, Trust: The Social Virtues and Creation of Prosperity (New York: Free Press, 1995), ־뱾ΨDD봴쾭÷١ڣϳ磬꣩漰йζȵԸɽķܹ⡢εĻһԵĽ͡ѧойڣڡΪйԭǿεģҵġͱطСųɴšȨţȴƽϵ˼ʻţΪκ˶šҵġŲԱţбعȴֻ̻ӦͨȨĹӢײ㣬ʿǿԡšġ߸һˣȫιͬ޴ӹֻھֲΣȱձΣճͨеȡšַ֤ʽڹͳΡݻɽᱣ໥ٽҷľʱȥŵķԺȻ˫СּǰѷϵνʼͣΪ߽ԴȨIJϣûвȡЧƶȻֶζνгֵıҲûаλƵ뷨ϵڲΪʵڹ淶ԼĹء [18] ɡ鹹ѧᣬ꣩رǣҳ¡

[19] ¬ڣͷյķDDѧĺ⡱ɣࣩ¬ۡ鷿꣩ҳرǵڣڣڣڡ

[20] ԭ L. L. Fuller and William R. Perdue, Jr. The Reliance Interest in Contract Damages, pts.1-2, Yale Law Journal Vol.46 No. 1(1936) pp. 52-96, No. 3 (1937) pp.373-420. Ҫ۵Լã꣩ҳ꾡Ŀ塰Լѧе⳥ۨDDᡯоƳᷨڣţҳ

[21] See P. S. Atiyah, Essays on Contract (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1990), esp. pp.73-92, 355-385. йǰ飱ҳCf. also David Campbell and Donald Harris, Flexibility in Long-term Contractual Relationships: The Role of Co-operation, Journal of Law and Society Vol. 20 No.2 (1993) pp.166-191.

[22] Cf. Jane Jacobs, System of Survival; A Dialogue on the Moral Foundations of Commerce and Politics (New York: Random House, Inc., 1992), ̩뱾г ͳεձ磬꣩

[23] Լ޶˹ΪƽDDۡҦ־룬ϺϺ꣬꣩IJ֡Cf. also John Rawls, A Theory of Justice (rev. ed., Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1999) pp. xv-xvi.

[24] Cf. Amartya Sen, Inequality Reexamined (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992).

[25] ˼ԭ¡һɣгᡱĹDD͹ľ񡷣磬꣩

[26] Cf. Jay A. Sigler & Joseph E. Murphy (eds.) Corporate Lawbreaking and Interactive Compliance: Resolving the Regulation-deregulation Dichotomy (New York: Quorum Books, 1991) ϡ˾빫˾Ρйѧ磬꣩ԭɣҵϹԨDDӡطӦ󡱡󾭼±磬꣩

[27] See U.S. Sentencing Commission, FEDERAL SENTENCING GUIDELINE MANUAL: Sentencing of Organizations (2004), Dove Izraeli & Mark S. Schwartz, What Can We Learn From the U. S. Federal Sentencing Guidelines for Organizational Ethics?, at http://www.itcilo.it/english/actrav/telearn/global/ilo/code/whatcan.htm, Lawrence M. Friedman, In Defense of Corporate Criminal Liability, Harvard Journal of Law and Public Policy Vol. 23 (2000) pp.833ff. Įx衶ʽսԵĺϹ澭ӪDDҵϮķɷյԤΣã꣩

[28] գࣩϹڲٱձоᣬ꣩亱һɡڲͨƶȨDDγ⴦󾭼±硢꣩

[29] ڹƽ벻ƽóס뼼¢֮ĸַԼΪĹͻʯһܡ뾭áҲ꣬꣩ͬϡķ뾭áҲ꣬꣩ [30] ʡȨƶȱǨDDйĸľоѧ磬꣩ҳ

[31] ԺĽɫݻ廪ѧ߼꣩ҳļۺDDȨϵƶȱǨIJġʱڣڣҳ

[32] йص˾Լйƶȵϸμ޺šɡй˾ƶȡⷨѧڣڡ޺ţࣩй˾ƶȡѧ磬꣩

[33] ĺ˾ƶȡйѧ磬꣩˾ĸо޶ɳ磬꣩

[34] йݳԹᣨࣩ˵ıȽϷѧѧᣬ꣩¼ϡ

[35] йеĹͼDD̹ļзе˾ĸ쳸󣬣꣩

[36] ͬϣģҳ

[37] ij硶йʦڣڣҳ

[38] ˾ʦһĸйʦڣڣҳȷķг߷ڡձꣶ£ա

[39] ʦִҵΪ淶Уꣳ£лȫʦЭͨڣ

[40] ļйṫԼʦĹձɷЭᣨࣩ޵ķɷDDʦӦ÷ѧִ磬꣩ҳ

[41] Ľƽʡضִ⡱ƾܵڣڣ꣩󡢽ʡӢؽܡƾܵڣڣ꣩ [42] ⷽţ䶰дԵE. Pendleton Herring, Group Representation Before Congress (Ann Arbor, Mich.: University Microfilms International, 1929) Լ Robert A. Dahl, Dilemmas of Pluralist Democracy (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1982) 顣

[43] вͬͣҪָšҵȲͨгζԿͨ໥ЭϰߣľʽҲõṲʶƶϵ֧֡ײ³򣨺ϱִࣩ塷ɽڶ룬ľ磬ꡢ꣩۶ԣ漯ƻ߶ԪűʵIJͬʵпԿǵĻ̬Լм̬ҲԷִӷת䵽ԪĿԡ