ΩԸƽˮʹ罭ϣ
et revelabitur quasi aqua iudicium et iustitia quasi torrens fortis



ձΨDDйԭعķѧӽ


ķ½ġѧ뷨ѧ۴ԡ2006һڡܵھϡ

һ ״Ľ綨

ԻΪǰᡣ

й֮ţϵĹ [1]ڳϦļ֮ţ˳ʱģ⣨analogʽȻɺµνʱ족ִᣬϵͳΣٳ˻ҾõķͽʱƣԿѧΣǿ֤ͨԶԻɹʶձ򡢹ͨΪԼҲ˵ι˰ȫкĻҲгǰᡣȺû໥֯Ʊطֱٻ磬ٿ̨Ķˡ ʮ;ʮԺ󣬸иҵķֹ深ϸϵͳӸӻڴϢͬʱҲɻ磬ԴΪΪķղԹͨҪԽԽߣ໥ӵĹҲ֮ԽԽ󡣵ǣòϣγɡάԼǿεȴѾ÷dzDDȺŦɳˣȷԺ˼ԽͣƮԺͲرȫ򻯴ƹ֮ķ֮󣬾Ƶݱ׽ԤϡԿƣɴ˲ΣʶֻŲǷɼԲƣںܶೡϸҪĵĶ߾ȡת͵ĹУƵġȫļֵϵҺɱDDʧanomieȴŶԲĺ⴦ijΣ

֮һκбҪһȱܣ֮ɷȣǸ̵ۡ

Ϊ˽ۣѧεо£ٲȻΪѧšεҪѧ˵У¬ĸԼۣ꣩[2]˹ı԰ȫۣ꣩[3]ϵʱۣ꣩[4]ɽԳԽۣ꣩[5]дԵԾٳ֣Ҳڵġۡ[6] άӭڵġϢ뷨ɡ[7]ǰ߲Ĺϵ漰塢硢μĻԼҵרҵ塣ǿƶηãͨʵڹ淶ṹγɵļԼϵͳԹεĻ

ĵӽͬΪڽĹУʵ飻ۼ۽ȡڹңȡڸˡ;ʵԣ֮ʣǵĻѡǣ׷ӷɣٽƶȶԱǿƲԼĽԼЧʣߣεijֲɵIJ㡣ֻǵڶѡԶǿιܿԽԼƶȳɱҲ߷ʵЧγɡάԼչΣηֹ͸֧αڱ߿ҪʵǣξܲԵԷʽӦԲϱ仯ķ󣬼αĿɲԨDDβܵڣƶȵӪȱֵʵ塣ˣѧҪΪ⣬۽εĹɼ뷨֮ϵIJͬʽ

߽Ͳ⡣һڣվεӵ¹۲йͳԭԼصƶƣֹͳηʽҡѧ˵뷨ҡѧ˵Ļϣụֻȡ̬ʡšѭȦϵϡν˫ŵִȽзۡȻڵڣͼйʶʾѧĹԸܣرGeorg Simmel¬Niklas LuhmannĴΪ̽ԷѧоλƵҪҳεIJԼйζǸ߻ǵ͵ҲáŵĽڣ¾۽ϵͳλ֮Ĺϵ˼йĻΧγϵͳκձΡǶԷεĿԺ;;Լޡ

ͳԭι

йͳԭһֱǿҪءθ⣬뷨ܴ֮

ǿѣҲʦ׵ĵȼ以ɷڣദΪ߶ [8]ˣرΪнײġӡ[9]ϵϵΣ֯Գ֧ [10]ѵġšΪ죺һ˸񡢸ԡ־ͬԼȺڲİȫУpersonal security߷ģassuranceڶ򻥻ݡЯţreciprocal confidence໥ƶȻ̬ [11]пԾνжϺͲ

֮еϵ˵ϵǣšʳ[12]ԡ֮ĺڲͬڹ͡еΪҪʧĵƷλ롰ŵϦӡ˵ͨҲеΪͳ߲ʧ롰Ŷ񡱵˵ͨ [13]ҵͬǮ´ĽǶաš [14]áŲ롰ȷһУȡǰһֽͣӰѽ̻Ϊεͷȴ£š

ʵϣϲ̫ξߡϷ֤ȷȡ⡣

ǵĿʥѧ̽ʿı׼ʱ͹ƣԱţбعȻСա[15]ͼȻǿͨȨ䡢ơ[16]ʥҲͬţΪߣԲţвعΩڡ[17]ԭ硶ͨ䡷ҿԵ顱ƶȻֻͨҪΪʵ壬Ϳ԰ѳŵ淶ʽϸϵʵϣνΪ߻䡢ҳµġʷȻᳫվƵϡضļֵʵࡣֹй̬˸ٹֱ̣죬ȻܹϷӰ졣ɴ˿ɼ϶ụšţǣǿᡣ

γɶյǷҵιۡ

ʷϷdzľŵĹ£ǿǹҺͷɱȡĵ [18]Ϊ£ţԲҲ[19]Ҫָͱطͳ˵õõСҪԣ˵СųšͷţСš[20]ͱطּϡʹ¡ġ´εľ档ʵʵŷδйأھ۵ķ۵ķ룬ƲûӦϵΪŵĻбҪ˳ָụδҰ֮УԷɶ˽֮䲻ΪijͷԼʹٽûбƶƵص㡣 վԶۺ͹ϣҪŹңȴᳫǺǣԼȱΣĵѧһ仰ǡ֮ˣˡ֮֮׶̲ţ޿ӡ[21]ֻ֮ʾ¶ӡ[22]˲ſԲ˶ˣ֮һǣĽšʷ,Ⱥ޼թӡ[23]DDҲǿԲ˲òΪԼϣ˵ķ׳ھΣȴûΡĴѧģǰһжϵļУһ򡢼ֵϵǵһΪ˼롢бԭΪΪĸ˺졢һеij߶ȱ׼[24]ǺͳƱǴڲ¼ǵ״̬ȱȫеĽDzȡʣIJԡˣҲΪǹһ֡ѧ˵ֻԹҿƵΣͳߺͱͳߵͼΡ

Һͷιϸִһʣ֮䲻ձιͬ壬йκͷɵʵرض˼ʹϵı֤á

Ϲŵʵijаʡš֮໥ú໥תֵÿ졣һԣȷΣҪʻߵѺΪڸ֮γɡǣҲãҲãν֮ӦźʡҲͲбҪ [25]ΣȻǾֲԵģڱ壬ضĽײ塣ڸķΧڣβԴ񣬶ȡڡʡᡱѺ֮ıԲλ򲻰ΪǰᣬһֲȨԻʵٷաӽװȫļùϵĴʽҲ˵ڴϣͨʡõĿŶԾ嵽ضԼʵΪȱԽfaithԼϵԵrelianceijɷ [26]

ҪҪʡۣʾйͳι۵ĸеСȦΣȱͻƸַĶߡһᡢձԼӦƶеǾ˸ΣȱƶȻá

εֽͨ״̬segmentsаԼΣjoint and/or several liabilityп޶ȵطɢաΣǿΪİȫСûδµĽǶν֮䣬ôģ׷ǿ󵽵ͬ߳ԹϵôȻܹһΧӪ찲ȫĵķΧԼ໥ͬٵĸ֣ȴֺױϡͣȦǨı仯֮ʲ⵽ƻִ۵ΣĹϵṹΪ߲ġ͹۵ġġȷĹνӣѷչʵڷ淶ƶΪϵãcreditϵԣй˵ΪʽֳŲ桢˵ѻȻŵ֮ìܡ

Σ䱾ԶԣʵڷıϾͿάֵģˣʵϻԳԽɣܹܷ [27]йʽƶƵĶ֮ڰѷǷde-legalġģanti-legalض뷨ϵ֮мݲͬʱԷԼ˽ȼ䷨ɵIJ㣬ԽԼʵֹĿķѵijɱε÷棬ҪΡ

һDzȡΥؾһ桢СȦܵIJ´ΣضϸĵʧЧȡϵʵЧ۶ӽҷ׵ֱ¼ʱ ΪΪֱӡ[28]һָ˼룬Ժͳ߶ΪТԭ˾ߣѡΪķΧάڲԼε򻯻ƣֻǰѹıĴΪԭ⣬Ҿ뾡Тֱӳͻʱǹס [29]Ƿҵ෴ͬһ¼ΪֱӵĸΪǴ˽ġԹҶֱ [30]

һηӳǺǵĹ۵㣬һȡ֮ì֮ܡIJԱΣٽ벻֮෴Լת͵ʵз·ͼǿعƶʹౣʮڹϵͬʱӡ١ᱣֲͬĹܣ֮ͬ以ҷܺͨһ˷塱֮༫ֶڵĹͬ׷跸ΪĴѧߴͮĶ๦ƷʽΪһֵԼ[31]ʷټʲ֮һҲ֣ǽʶΪʺ֮Ҳ֮һм飬֮һ˷֮ǽʶΪ̺֮СҲ[32]ȻǷԤڵġȥ̡[33]ʵϵȥţƻ˹ͬڲԱΪԽʯĻԼɻ [34]ִ³֣չμӵһ׮԰Ϊһֵġй˷ʶʾĿ1995꣩ĽЧгֽ̬ȵıֻУ[35]

뷨ҵԣڰνڱʱ˾ͱһļأߣ˾֮Ҳţʹ񣬷عǹʹ߲֮ĺ߲ڣΪ߲Ϊ߲סϲ£²ϣģڰܡ[36]ΪһĹʽǡụţţͬġƶȻķʽγɺάѭȦƾͶұ⽻˸Ȼܲ֡ܲɿйͳУڽ̾ϵԽȷƵҲѷͨʷ¿Է֣ڽʽϵȻҪȻСţԸж񽵸ҪͨйţֻͳΪֹԩҵҵIJʵ֧Լ [37]Ŵijֻڷƶȵεǣ˺һԼԭĵָϵͳηĽоԼУǴ̫Դ飨磺̲СͼáءûĶԾ䣨罹ѭڡʹϽ⡷һ˵ġܶijֻ޴ǷʽԼӦжֹͣƽ֧ƶȿռ [38]

ִë󶫸һ˫ŵ˼·ɲ룺ӦȺڣӦŵԭԭǾʲôҲˡ[39]㷺ΣȻԡݾ˴Ңٷ֮ʮϵ˶Ǻõġֹ֮ԤνΪǰģչ˹һ֡ѧ˵

ǣζһضϣԷΪʼշԼ棬ͺ׵¹ߵڴҲ׵ͬȳ̶ȵʧοǰٷ֮µĻ˾϶δҲ⣬ŻλεķͿԼ򵥴򷢵ġ⣬ѧоɹǣһ˵ģʵţһǷֵεϢdzУЩ [40]ϣǿζҡġͼˡΪʵһܵȫĶʼջһкʹһУֻʣ¡¡ҷġdz˻ΣȹŽЭᳫҩζŨĶѧ֮ìƵҲͲΪˡ ѧεķ

ŷѧ磬о߹Ϊ¶ڣ긶ѧУ͸ܽ硢漯šͥСȦ󿼲εԻĶǣμԳΪʵжĻġڽжȷʵԵļ裬й˵֪ʶ֪֮н[41]ֵעǣαΪԣϢΪǰᣬְƲֱжϵijɷ֣ڼ裬ͬʱֹɿԼ֤ȷ

ѧĿԣγΪijֿ͹ۻĻơָͳƶȡ۵ѹжԸ˵ȶλԼ԰ѵЩͶȷʵˣΪӵйͬΪҪţֻҪ֪ɡԸĻDDϵеΪıԭĻDDѾڻ£ΪͬΪĶѾ͹ۻˣαҪ˵֪ʶ[42]ȥԡȥ˸񻯵ӳϣԷϵͳƶԼʽԵҪءεһֻͣ漰ƶȵоԷdzҪ

⣬֪ʶ֪ı˰ڽġġġлһ [43]Ȼֻڽעֲָܴⲿп͹۹۲ġԺǿͣйķΧСо׺̶ȺܸߵйιҪ˵ϢλԿԤΪôԤֹ֮Ρζı䣬ҲԲ

ܽе [44]ijЩͬ㣬ڽ̷ڱǿdzߵʵʼֵϴڡȱʽҲҪڰ᷶ڸǿεʽҪܽҲضʵʼֵԼԻݹԹɵͣΡijΪֵΣĿԻڻԶָ˫ԵĽӦĹΪϣijɫʡ ܵϣ˹¬ܵоԼĶѧ˵ϵǡμԸԵļ򻯡[45]һƬ״̬޴ӲΡһ⣬ǸԵļ򻯵»ϵͳ֮IJ [46]ȻȻγϵͳơ

¬ΪҲͨʹڴһ㻯Ḷٰ́Ҫ棬ѸԴ粿ֵתƵڲ˵ڲͨԸԵѧϰʹεڲԷӳӦⲿĸԣζԻЧӦΪŹ̶ܶЩŽпƺͲ [47]Щṹض빵ͨΪýϵ¬˵˵ϵͳ벻ϵķȴرڱϡ[48]ȻҲϵͳ޹صΣǶ˸Ρֲͬ͵νбȽϣôߵɫϵͳεѧϰ˸εĿơ֮˸εϵͳεתʹѧϰˣƷøѡ[49]ǶйΧΣ˸Σ뷨ΣϵͳΣ֮ϵķۣҲijЩµʶ

һԣȻεĽܺʹij˵ֵķջʧˣҪڸѧϰĵתζγµιϵΪĹԤԣԼʧԾȡᣬԾʧ⳥ȨѰȼãתζʵвҳɱϵ͡ɴ˲ۣǿŵĻôΪʽͻͳһԻγɻҲȽ εȷ̶Ƚϵͣ۶仯Ϣжϣž龳ȡͬĶӦҪתζѣ˸ɱܸߣܵ龳ԼطơοţôضģεڽҲƹ໥õżȻԶαķգȻ鴦Ľ־ӰȱԤԣ˶ֵ֧ȴdz޶һյͼӰʵЧ ֮ijҲΪεѧϰпܵ¹ƽεĿʣҲԸΥòʧΣ

֪¬ѷƼϵͳıʺ͹ҲΪԵļ򻯡[50]бҪһ뷨ɵȲͬϵͳ֮ĹϵҲνԣָ֮ͬĹϵ޷ȶ޷γɳԽṹ䷴ǵԣȻ֮ǶһĹϵȴܼ򵥵Ϊϵͳ״̬ȻԵļ򻯴൱ưٴ麣ͳһʵϵIJԵıǷȷʵԣ벻״̬ ¬ΪڵϵͳУΪ۸Լ򻯣ݻķβûз롱[51]ȻŹֻܷϵͳϽṹķԵΪʵҲԽԽӻDD˵νʷǸԡرϵͳڲĸԵӹ̡ˣĽʹûԶϵͳԵĶַԳˡˣϵͳĸԳ̶ζڻĸԳ̶ȣϵͳĹ뻷ĹɻӦϵͳʼնԻɾͼĹܣǶԻĹڴ۾״̬١鲢Լѡʹ֮øװաͼֵȡ˼ȡѡݣϵͳ򻯸֮ýá¬ķѧϵУԵļ򻯡Ǹĸͨ뻷IJ컯ԼϵͳŶȵƶõķСȶԼ [52]

ҵ⣬һԣִϵͳԻԵļ򻯾лԭ۵ں̶ܴȻڵԵķ룬ԾԾؼٶֻһΨһȷĴ𰸣˲ͬǣεļʼڸԵķ룬ġѡġڲϸ֮еģ븴֮ı߼Щ塣仰˵ϵͳԸԵļԤıȻԹ涨һյĹ淶ֻʶ͹ʵĻţֱӶԻš¬ʽϵͳԡҲա족Ϊ [53]ΪϵͳεļٻӦģܹ򻷾ŵỷһֵij̶ȣпԹ涨ȴڱȻԹ涨ڱϻڶȻԼڴ˵ָҲ뵽ұ֮еˣܸõػӦ˵ָҲܸػ˵Ρζνܻ֯ƵĹ淶ԼϵͳԭϾܾԼ ǣйͳԼʵȴ۷սԱҡ̻Ϊһ̻һмһһһС̻֮˺һۣʵϷϵͳ뻷֮IJ죬롰Եļ򻯡ǻ [54]ν顢λһķϵͳкܴĿԣҪнϣƱسΪһϵͳڸȻѵóȻԹ涨 [55]״̬УǸԲûм򻯣Ӹӻơ˵ȽƵطɭ˹Talcott Parsonsѧ֡˫زȷԡ⡣Ƿν֯һ𣬲Ҳ¬Ԥĵϵͳûб뿪ǹһϵͳʹĽ綨쳣ѡʵϣķɶԪƣij̶ֳҲٺƵľϻҵս [56]

йʽ龳ΪԵĸأԸҪԸԽм򻯣ϵͳ뻷ĽޱĨԸԵļҲͱѰ졣״趨Ϊ˸񵣱ʵĹʱʸĹȻȻԵ÷dzҪҲ˵ͨ;ңʶվüġļ飬ԵЧû𽥽ͣεij̶ȻһӴɴγɳڵġ˼ʹϵضĸΪʡֲͬ͵ȫ˸֤ۡγ״ṹʹθױ̤ʹΪжԼΪʱĿԸпܻȡ㷺Ͽɡ ƱڲȡҳΨDDͨķʽӮöԷΣͨͨķʽԷIJ¼ɣĹͨװĵԷĽ䱸־ԼDDΪԣͨԳѭͬѲŻʧĸԸҲ֣ᷢͨεڴȡΪںܶೡ϶Чʵġӳϣǻٻҵ뼪˹ı԰ȫۡϵʱ۽жԻһЩ ȻԹϵΪǰΣƱ򡰹ϵ롱[57] ߡϵ͡[58] Ũ񱡵IJ졣ʹȡҳεΪԣҲΪ߷Erving Goffman˵̨ǰ̨¶ͬIJ [59]ΪȫΣ˱ȽΣΣ˻ϲεԴҲ˵ɽڡΨDD봴쾭÷١йΪһ뷨ͬζȵ͡ĹңƬԣûпȫ۵İ˹ϵ;ձԼƶΪǰִֹеijʵãϵڵĶζȶųеҰ֮ [60]òϵǣʹָձζȵͣҲȻʧ塣Ϊƫζȱձε״̬׵ṫΣرȨԭ򡢹ѽҷ໥ɺͲ¼֮󣬸ԲȡʣIJƱصԵ»µԽԽƵεķΧҲԽԽխ [61]

бҪָЩʾͳʾй˵ձζȺܸߣʵеľ顢ֱIJͬĵͳΪѧ֮۵ȵ֮һ [62]

ڣμӹѧլһɽڣѧһʷֵĹйֵ۵ĹͬоĿֱڣ꣨ȫУΣЧʣͣ꣨УΣЧʣйʾ顣һεʾԾӵμǿڻشռвȡdzֵѡڱߣռȽϣԾζ͵ֻ̫ࣨռڵء߾ [63]Ͷζԣݡйֲᡷ༭ڣеġй顱ȫΣЧʣı߻شεıǣ [64]ҺլڵģУζﵽεıȴ½ΪθǿȺΪѧ廧ҵߣ[65]䷢ô̬תȷܷѽ⡣ڹһεȻǾӣźȫᣨΪȽϲεǾԼлأڣϣǶ˾IJԵúͻ [66]һ˵ζȲԼ˵ζȴﵽ

ܲܽƾݾͶ϶ձκܸߣ

Ϊڽж֮ʣӦصصӰ졣ȣ鷽ǷڱϽʵɿĹĸŵĹɲӦпܳƫȫƫġͣʾдɵԱŵеģƲȡͶƱʽα漰Ļشϣ˵ѡƱܵԺжϵӰ죻ԶɶԽͣԽ޷˽ʵ뷨ΣǷʾʹյȱݣеĸ᲻ᷢ壿Ǻ׷֪εĺһ״̬İĸСϵȻΪһ̸ϵϵȻΪһ̸ȨݻΪһ̸ζȵľԭʲôԾ쵼ȨηСԶĻػIJ˽⡢ijһƵȡԲͬӡ󣨹ķΧΪԡЧʡͻ¼ҪжϵȶпܳΪθеĻ⣬䡢ְҵˮ׼ȿ͹ҲᷴӳǷ˵жϷ档ʵϣео߽ʵ֤óĽǣڣйĽѹϵϣͣ˵̬ȻӽΣʵͣڲͣбҪԴ [67]

ɴ˿ɼͳݵȷŶֽ͵ء

뷨¶λ ǵ̬ǷḻʵģάεĻҲԷֳɲͬ͡

ӣйֵ۵ĽԿ˼봫ͳĻһУ˸ˡ䣩ʵЧȨӡȾзdzǿԺͱԵǿƻأζȽϸߣԷƶȣǹִлأζƫ͡ȷڱǶȻ򡢵Լ֮ЭڴгҸ񡱣ڷ˼εΪԼ߰ˡεΪԼҲΪεĹ淶̬һΪơԼϵ磬뷨εĹϵۣ٣⡰뷨ϵ֮ഫͳ˼·Ӱ졣

Ȼͼǿ۵ȴͬҪǽһִ̽Խձε塢ƶΪǰϵͳΡҹ淶ڲĹεķԭԼйнƶȴºδµDZڿԼ޶ȡ

Тͨڡ֡Ϊĵ˹ϵšϡԼ绯ԡ֡ԳΪĵijԽ˹ϵṫռ䣩ĸ [68]йḻѸ֮Σ˽£ȱ֮ͬ֯ΣĹ£ǰһԸ߻ݹϵΪ硢Դӵй۲ͱһҪԺƻ嶯ĺźͻŵİ״̬ԼӦƶ֯βͬڸεһ໥ļ [69]Ȳ˼εܺͣ෴ȡ֯ΣҲ֮֯νһΪŲгԱĹʶΪǰ֯ΰʽĹ淶ƶԼʽụϵȲͬ棬ϵͳϵͶӦرǿ֮ͬľ⻯Ʊص¶Կ͹۵ġķϵù̵ԺʵЧ

ִ˸personaԼڸȨĶԿΪᣬƺ֯εγԼ֯ЭڻϲĻºĽԹ淶޸ģƺҲԵЩӲءʵϣЩĽȷЩ޳ĪĵطǣӸԼ򻯵ĽǶƶȰſԼǿδԤԼ̬ȷΪԽڸ桢ԼԼձε춨ʵĻ֮ɿԴԭġЩԻķǽΡ ʹλԼεijϣȷĹ׵ƲΪķҲֲεIJ֮ԲáƻΪмʱЧƲãΪװȫṩҪƶȱϣԷֹεʧرֵָĻαһЩۣ磺᲻ȷʱҪΣȴγΣγεĵط֮䣩ûбҪ׷ΣҲηdzǿ״̬ﵼձεӽޣ⣬εĻǷŵϢУʵϺ֮䵼² [70]ˣΪʹ۵ʣҲҪΪǨĸܸ˺ͻ֡

йʵҪʵȹ淶ȡݱȨȣ˼ʹϵ֮ǰ֮ϵȷķιۣʹȫûУҲǷdz [71]Ĺϵİ˻ĹռDZײӡԶ͵ģԲò߸ӻָȨϡΪߵȨҲǾġ˸񻯵ģ԰ѹϡ˶Ȩһ̬ȾԣһȫȨƶȻʽȨԼһDzȨּۻͼʹԼľľǷϺҪʵȨҲƱسȷԡıγɵʶ˵Ƕ֪ط˵ǶԼĹۻƫáҽԵȨ͹򡢰չĿģԼǷdz߶ȡԻᄈҪԷƶάΣȱʹɵõѭ漰νԷαε⡣˲ŷ򷨲ܷӱεĹܡ ϵҪȡȵȻҪȷʵЧ˵ [72]УܹǿơԼյáع淶ΪõͣΥ淶ΪƲãֻʵطľŵĹ½þһݼԭҲҪԹ淶ΣйѾֹ෴Ϧġٴ⡢ͷ𺦶ԷϵΡ

Σɵݼʵʩ빫ƫкԡĹ⣬һоԲͬ顣Ϊˣ˾̵أ縻յIJıԼΪⲿѹҵжϣֽȨıʵϾӦ֮塣Ҫѹ淶ԼڻΪԾжƾǿDzеģҪϵijϡûԵͬӵϵԻΡ

õ֪ʶˮ׼ܸߣԱǿнϳߵְҵšҲ˵ͨڵĽѵʸ϶ԼҵڲɿΪϵһֶΡ

ģĵ߱йƶƱмᶨܹطʹԼһ㹫ϸִйģӶڷϵγĻơرҪžĶΪDDΪ׷һʱıݶ̤͹򣬾ܾԭԹΪԼȵȡ϶֮ĽȻɶĹ㷺IJš

ڿǶԷɵʱһݻرܵǷɵ鹹ԡȻ鹹ţ

ĹؼڣշΪ鹹ձѧصʱͼǴΨһȷ𰸵񻰣öķɽͿԲ棬Ӷ˶Թ淶ѡ͸ı࣬Ǹӻȡ [73]ǣ¬۵ȴܲͬϵͳ۷Ӽ򻯹ܵʵҪòȴȻ⣬ӶγҲյλơ

Ϊ˵Լ˼·¬ĽּҵĹΪȥиԣҪڼ̳ΪŲһȺʱ±ԵķݶDDϴö֮һ϶ķ֮һ֮һиԭʹյĿȼ٣ȥʱֻʣͷ޷涨ı׵ָϴȨԼãͷֵܾףߵԺһλķоԼһͷṩ޴ӰָķҪڳս뾡췵ͷա£ȫ涨ıз̳Уϴãͷ϶ãͷãͷͷ˳̳ˣʣµһͷԭ黹٣Դϲ ڷʱ¬ָһͷգֻΪʹϵͳšζһֱûôȷԣڱϵͳҲաͷϵͳڲDZҪģDzҪģɷϵ [74]仰˵ͨ⣬ϵͳһֿɵġȷ״̬¿ʼȴܰ⵱ʵľáˣԷɵʵڷϵͳҲյĻϣҲεġ֮á飬顣

϶ԷɵϵͳʵҲյĻϣǾͻбҪһ׷⣬ڷϵͳڲǶεⲿԷϵͳһ֧㡣ԶɵʵЧ˵ʶӰ쵽жԼɴ˲ζȡ⣬ԼҲյĴʽʹԼⲿŷΪʵŵҲҪߺ˾ߵͼιһ֧㡣

ͷϵͳڲԣֵµǸչԼӦķչĴոյѧ˵ԼηӦñڴ棬һӦñ棬ͼȷĹDDΥԼѺζҲҪ⳥𺦵λظԭ״ʵζŰѹȨΪķԼ򣬼ǿԼεķɱ˾ϴٽ׻еγɣƱؽһǿԳŵԼڴıΧʹлпܽ˽ݷе [75]ǽһչ˸չ⣬ͼԭӰ죬ֻΪŵаԼıʡˣԽڳŵķɵλ˼ʾ֮ijԹϵѰԼĸݡIan Macneil˳ĹϵԼ۳˴ [76]ɴ˿ɼ˽ĹϵữִϵͳڲǿεıȻƣ⳥汣ԼԷԽнҪ򹹳Ķ

Ƕ뷨ɣòսʹλƾпɲԣػӦϱ仯ķǿϵijϣйʽᄈУʵϴŽǿΨʹɵԼܶÿִߡ÷Ծ尸ڵۺжϣɾҲѳΪ͹֮ԵԼġ⡢⡱ΪΡΡij߶ȡй˾һֱûн¹ijַй񡢶ᶼǾձġڷɱǿʱйְѻΪĻھύѰϵͳεĸݡ ǣֻΪԷ߿ɽܵĽԼԸʱύܳԸп͹۵ĵֵˣͨ˵ĵȼ۽ʵĵֵֻΪijֽǺģΪ߼ֵ൱ΪȻвֵͬЩֵ֮Իһʶһ㣬зdzؼ塣Ϊ˵Чû߼ֵжϼ޷ҲͳһԷƶȵصֻ÷ڱֵ֤һɺͳ棬ʵǿijȱIJ߶ȡҲ˵Ľֻڽ͹ͨĹСͨͬص϶ȷΪ˱ύ޴Ӵɾ⡢ʽ߳٣ҪṩһϵеķڰװèDDʵõһ⳥ȨͳҪȵȡзѧ֮ء

ǽ۵Ľ

ĵij㶼й飬ĿΪйزĵķѧṩһ׸ͷĹԿܡ

ͨϵij죬ΪйԭǿεģҵġͱطСųɴšȨţȴƽϵ˼ʻţҵġŲԱţбعȴֻ̻ӦͨȨĹӢײ㡣߸һˣιͬ޴ӹֻھֲΣȱձΣڽͨеȡšַ֤ʽڹͳΡݻɽᱣ໥ٽҷľʱȥŵķԺȻ˫СּǰѷϵνʼͣΪ߽ԴȨIJϣûвȡЧƶȻֶζνгֵıҲûаλƵ뷨ϵڲΪʵڹ淶ԼĹء ݷѧоɹεƶͬΪ׼Ŀ͹ۻҪϢķѧϰԼơҳֵΪֹùϵˣִй۷ΣӦҲп뷨ҹ淶ϵ淶Ʋ֮ʣϵͳΡ֯ΡձԼڵλװõȽǶȽʶ̽ƶȴδµIJͬԭԼ֮໥áΪֹעǻڽΣӷȴǷǽΡȻⲢζŸ͵βԵԷʽӦԲϱ仯ķαĿɲȡƶƣҪεҪغͱ仯뷨֮ϵԼʵĴ䷽ʽܹɵζȡйصʵ̡Է˵ͼΣȻ൱̶ȡ롢ְҵΡжͼ롢оִеһ֯ԡԹ淶ĹɣǿԾݴг಻ͬϷʽԹѡ͵ڡﻹҪ˳ָڿ뷨εĹϵ֮ʣʵԹ淶ȻdzҪɻȱͼѰһζȵĿ͹۵ġȷжϱ׼ǾڡԵľ㡱 ҿЩ淶ʵԼθ֮ĶӦϵ䴦̡ʽоԵʵ֤оͷѧֻ֣̽Dzϵؿ̸κͳŵļֵָѧϵԡ


ꣵ£ճɸ壩

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[1] ڶŮĵȴν塱DDʹҲԸͳеεȺ塣ijЩطƹЭʵѾ͹˼ͥڵΣ

[2] Niklas Luhmann, Vertrauen; Ein Mechanismus der Reduktion sozialer Komplexit?t (3. durchgesehene Aufl., Stuttgart, 1989[1968]), ͥ忡֮뱾DDḴơ鷿꣩

[3] Anthony Giddens, The Consequences of Modernity (Polity Press, 1990), ̺뱾ִԵĺֳ磬꣩

[4] Robert D. Putnam, The Prosperous Community: Social Capital and Public Affairs, The American Prospect, 1993 Spring, pp.35-42, and his Making Democracy Work: Civic Tradition in Modern Italy (Princeton University Press, 1993), Сź뱾ת磬꣩

[5] Francis Fukuyama, Trust: The Social Virtues and Creation of Prosperity (Free Press, 1995), ־뱾ΨDD봴쾭÷١ϳ磬꣩

[6] ֣Ҳۡй㲥ӳ磬꣩صҪĻУž⡱ѧоڣڡܹ⡢εĻһԵĽ͡ѧоڣڡ

[7] άӭϢ뷨ɡ꣬꣩

[8] ˵ѽԶšѧӸױøȷף壬б𣬳šӡĹ

[9] ھӵĽ綨Ϊ淶Ӣʱҡӡ롱ͬϡй˼봫ͳִڹ͡ҵ˾꣩ҳ

[10] ÿӵĻ˵ǡ˶ţ֪ҲΪŲԨ

[11] ŷڡۡ˵ġھӣ¾ʩСˡһ⡰ԴӣСˡȽϣһĿȻҲָӴ壬ȻҲȻҲ񷴱ĩȻҲ߽ͨȻҲӡԡǵĹϵһdzҪý飬Ⱥڲţڲ޷һöҵѡ

[12] ԨӹԻʳ֮ӡӹԻزѶȥ˹ߺȣԻȥӹԻزѶȥ˹ߺȣԻȥʳԹŽŲ

[13] 츴ۡŲDD˼֮һ족ͬϡѧ֮䣨°棩ѧ֣꣩ҳճ磬꣩ҳҲָˡ衷롶¼IJͬ⡣졢λĸںһֽͣΪʸӶҲֱشģͬڡԨһƪ˵ߣҲƶӡ֮·磬С֮²ݡ֮磬ȡһտ˼¹ɡΪɼ˺աƽʥһ߼⣬ʵΪʾΪǶţؼƺΪ̻ɾ͵ʡ񡢻ŵľ档

[14] Ǯ¡ѧۡӡݣ꣩ҳ

[15] ·

[16] ڡơĺ⣬ƴѧҿӱڡ塷ġ衱ͣʱ£ᣬг룬Ԥ趨ʾdzη

[17] ԡӡ¦

[18] ݡʷǡ̾д£عȾߣδ֮ż֮ľڹţļñߣʮ֮Ī㡣Իߣʮ𡯡һ֮ʮۡ [19] ӡһ

[20] ӡⴢ˵󡷡

[21] ӡڡ

[22] ӡ߱

[23] ӡ󼡷

[24] йŴ˼ʷۡ磬꣩ҳ

[25] 󴫡֣ʡļԻŲУҲӽ֮ţ֮ʣ

[26] ȱй˵׻Ͷ̬йءʹͽĹϵҲʵԺͽԡѧڡ˼йڽ֮Ĺܹϵβ룩һ˶лҡ̨ʽѡġڽгĸβȱ롶й˼ƶۼҵ˾꣩ҳ

[27] ڿй֯ʱΤָȻûֱ漰ڲ⡣˹Τ̡츻룬磬꣩ҳ

[28] ·

[29] ͬ桶ййᡷл֣꣩һµڶرǣҳͣҳ

[30] ǡ󼡷ԭǣֱ֮丸򣬶֮Իɱ֮Ϊֱھڸ֮ǹֱ֮֮֮Ҳ

[31] Michael R. Dutton, Policing and Punishment in China: From Patriarchy to the People (Cambridge University Press, 1992) p.38.

[32] ͨʮְۿһhttp://www.dushu.com/chapter105682,28482.shtml䷨İڷؼ˼ƶȹĽ磬꣩ҳ

[33] ̾顤ߡ

[34] ž졶йƶȡӡݣ꣩ҳϵǡϿ࣬Ų㡣䴴ףҲҳ

[35] ҪעڣʣǰѼԱȣǴδʱǷȰ׵ĽǶʡݵľ幹£Ȱ׵ߣˣռݷضȰ׵ģˣռȰ׵ģˣռͳϼʶʱȽоᣨšФ͸й˷ʶ桱ۼڣţ꣩ҳ [36] ˾⡶ܼͨͶʮ꡷ƽעͨݹż磬꣩ҳ

[37] 󴫡սйСŵĶԻ

[38] ֻҪһйѧԺʷоɽԪʷоңУ?£л֣꣩ϼֻࣩࡷϻƼѧⷢչ޹˾꣩ͿҵʵĻ޴ʵϷӳһ֡Ρ˼άʽڡͰ족޾пԭ֮ǻжϡ [39] ԡëѡ磬꣩ҳ

[40] ɽСĹDDĽġѧᣬ꣩ҳ

[41] ѧDDữĸʽоӰ뱾Ͼˮ磬꣩ҳCf. Guido M?llering, The Nature of Trust: From Georg Simmel to a Theory of Expectation, Interpretation and Suspension, Sociology Vol.35 No.2 (2001) pp. 403-420.

[42] ͬϣҳ

[43] ͬϣҳ

[44] ͬϣҳ¡

[45] ¬DDḴơͥ忡֮뱾鷿꣩ҳ

[46] ۡ¬ۡ鷿꣩ҳ

[47] ¬ǰҳ¡

[48] ͬϣҳ

[49] ͬϣҳ

[50] ¬Ϊȫķʽִϵͳۡڣʣ˹Σ¬ϵͳۨDD˹¬ۡټһ룬ľ磬꣩ҳرģҳ

[51] ¬ǰҳ

[52] ¬ѧϴһƽ룬Ҳ꣬꣩ҳ¡˳ָҵ⣬¬ϵͳ뻷֮ϵĹؼӦȿ˹Jakob J. B. von Uexkllġ硱ѧ˵ѧ¸ѧԼάɲٶʽ֮ijмϵȿ˹ľ糡뽭ؼ¾룬Ʒ磬꣩ȿ˹أGeorg Kriszat￴硷ո¡룬Ҳ꣬꣩

[53] ĽǶȰշϵͳϵ˵ɡɣһԴϵͳ룬ѧ磬꣩

[54] й˺һΪԼɲִŶIJȷԣӢ֮ʨDDѧѡ񡷣磬꣩رȤǣ½ɽ˼Ϊ壬֪ʶΪý飬ͨĹ֮ĸңȥ֮ζع顰漴ġļ桱ԭ״̬ĸ飳ҳ˵ġĹ򲢷ǡԵļ򻯡ǶԸԵķ֮񶨡

[55] ӵ㣬׾塰йĿԨDD۶йĻͳĽͷ˼սڣڣҳ

[56] ׾塰ϵĶԪϨDDֽȶͷ⡱廪ѧڣڣڣ꣩

[57] As for the idea of relational distance, see Donald Black, The Behavior of Law (Academic Press, 1976) pp.40-46Խ뱾йѧ磬꣩ҳҪעı֤ϵһζȱΣһҲζԱ־ķʽرܷգ;μĹܡ

[58] й˼ʹϵֻͨDDԹϵԹϵԹϵDDķܣĻƹӣй˵ȨϷͬϣࣩй˵ȨϷͼ鹫˾꣩ҳ

[59] ġ߷ΪݼDDճеҳ֡ʯ룬鷿꣩˼ʹϵʽŵĹܣͬϡΪǨDDΪѧ棩dzҰ룬ѧ֣꣩

[60] ʵϣɽҲձʽĸζ֯ҵϵнṹԭҲǼҡͬԼ˼ʹϵ硣һ㣬ıڻݿձʽĸ˨DDȫ򻯵ļ塷󾭼±磬꣩

[61] ֣ҲڰεƱΪɱ֮·ͬϡۡǰڣ¡

[62] ܹ⡢ڡεĻǰһиݵϷɽļ⣬Ϊйһζᡣ [63] ׾塰йʶ񻧷ѧ־ڣڣţ꣩ҳ

[64] йĻDDѲء磬꣩߼ĥ뱾꣬꣩ҳ

[65] ׾塰йʶǰҳ

[66] ͬϣҳ

[67] ǧʯǫй˵ļֵۨDD仯ʶ񡷣¬ᣬ꣩ҳdzȤǣꡰй˷ʶʾĽʾЩζȽϵ͵˶޷״̬ǿҵķ̬ȣӵ򡣼š˶й˵ķʶDDйȫ飨ˡڣţ꣩ҳ

[68] Тͨйꡢ꣩ڣƪ͵ڣƪ

[69] Cf. Aks Zaheer, B. McEvily and V. Perrone, Does Trust Matter? Exploring the Effects of Interorganizational and Interpersonal Trust on Performance, Organization Science Vol. 9 No. 2 (1998) pp.141-159.

[70] ɽСĹ졷ǰҳϸ

[71] ׾ִйķƱǨձ磬꣩һ¡໥ԵķִСرǣҳҳ

[72] άӭϢ뷨ɡǰҳ˵оִЧʹͻ᲻ź˳˾ҪעǣгĹ۵淶εĹϵǿǷɵļơ

[73] ɡ鹹ѧᣬ꣩رǣҳ¡

[74] ¬ڣͷյķDDѧĺ⡱ɣࣩ¬ۡ鷿꣩ҳرǵڣڣڣڡ

[75] ԭ L. L. Fuller and William R. Perdue, Jr. The Reliance Interest in Contract Damages, pts.1-2, Yale Law Journal Vol.46 No. 1(1936) pp. 52-96, No. 3 (1937) pp.373-420. Ҫ۵Լã꣩ҳ꾡Ŀ塰Լѧе⳥ۨDDᡯоƳᷨţҳ

[76] See P. S. Atiyah, Essays on Contract (Clarendon PressOxford, 1990), esp. pp.73-92, 355-385. йǰ飱ҳCf. also David Campbell and Donald Harris, Flexibility in Long-term Contractual Relationships: The Role of Co-operation, Journal of Law and Society Vol. 20 No.2 (1993) pp.166-191.


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