ΩԸƽˮʹ罭ϣ
et revelabitur quasi aqua iudicium et iustitia quasi torrens fortis

 




ϵĶԪϡ
ֽȶͷ







ֽڵķѧ۲ǹڡͣinterpretationĹ۵㡣ʵϣɵ۹Ȿ̽Ӧܹһ˾Ҫµķɽͷۡ

֪ɵ벻ͣ͵Ľܻ˶졣ǣΪ˱һһǷǵ̬ĽͲϷּͳΪ⡣ڲͬĽͶ֮֮оݵ£ܲҳһȷĴȷĴǷͨչɵķʽãȵȡ⣬ֽڱãѰڣͨķҵΨһȷĴ𰸣a single right answer [1] or right answers [2]Դһѽͣthe best interpretation[3] Ĺ۵㱻ΪΨһȷ⡱[4]ȻǴΨһȷĵطѳָձԭͬʱ;ľ棬ҲԭϵЭ [5]ѰУٿ԰աԣintegrityı׼չɡΪ˻е˾ֽڰѷɼ֮ڷɵΪԵĺԵֲͬͣǿۣtheoretical disagreement漰ǹڷɵĹʶǶڷɵʵ漰ʲôǷĻ塣۵ijϣ뿼۸ƽͷϵĶƱسϷܹͨѡȥʵƶȴµıͨءǣķɷչʹȲǷҲ־ɵģòܵԱ׼Լ Ϊ㣬ֽˡԽͣconstructive interpretationšΪڽз֮ʣҪIJͨǿߵ־Ƿɱͼں̶ܴҲǸգLon Fullerָķɵġڵ£inner moralityϺ߼ԣcoherenceĵĿġǣֽķѧûͣڷһƶͿ׿IJ棬һǿԷɱͼΪƾ衢ɽһ޶ڸΪͶķijĿĻͼĿԡȻģͼܱɵر֯ȥΪɱ䷢չԼ˽͵أӽԽ͵Ĺ۵ͨ͵ĴߵͼͶ֮໥ [6]

ַѧȻܵ٤ĬHans-George GadamerڹѧhermeneuticsӰ졣٤Ĭڡ뷽ڶһҪ۵㣬ͱĿĻͼԼԤжϣVorurteil[7]ֽڱ˲۵ԼӰ죬رǿƷĽԽƵķʹӱ˵ҲΪһͼ¼ͼһӳߵͼʵԼͳʷ˼ԨԴ [8]ȻõͼıߵģҲǾضģôֻʵֳԽԵΪĿĽߵͼȻߵͼֲܳȻʷṹ֮⡣ʵϴź¸Martin Heideggerʾĺϵѭ˵һ֡ά¡ֹ˶̡


Խ͵ϻ


ǰѾᵽڵֽڿԼɽߵͼĴԽ͵ı׼ԣϵΪһ״̬ڵġǣΪֹдԵַɽͷۨDDѭ壨conventionalismҲ֮Ϊӻķʵ֤塱ͷʵ壨legal pragmatismDDԼӦȴشȱݡѭŷɲеȷijϰףɽ͵ļֵǿԤԣѰжϽǸݾв⣬Ȩκηɹ淶 [9]෴ʵеľԼɴ˲ȨԳΪ½жϵݣϷȨʵҪ;Чɹ淶ѡδǹȥ [10]ֽͷ۵ĹͬײγһʵľǺġݾѷɵʵΪϺϵĹʹȨľԳֽΪѧ۱뱣ֶʵķ˼ԭ롰Լconsistency and senseĶ׼Ϸʵ[11]

⣬ֽˡΪϵķlaw as integrityĽԽͷ۵˼· [12]ȣϷɵȨӦôӹȥξе֮ĹϵǻеԵīس¹棬лϻ̬ṹˣԿȡѭΪ鷨ɽǷıּı׼ [13]ΣԷǷٶʲôӦǷжϵʵ̬ȣڽͷɡжϵĹ׷Աһֵֵּּ԰ѹȥ뵱¡ʵΪȨľˣԿȡʵΪɷչĴ߻ [14]֮ܶԽ͵ıڷͨɵĻֻķϵϵǰ²ֽڻͨʵĽͷ۲ϵҿڳķϵԼܷ [15]

رֵӵǣѭͷʵ岻ͬΪϵķĹѷǵҲ뷨ɽ͵Ĺ֮Сֽ֮Ľͷ۰ѶԷɵĽͷΪͬIJ棬ۺͷжϣһָ͵Ľṹ [16]

ڷһ棬ʵڽнԵĽֽͣ;ƷֱִʡشġϵС˵chain novelDDǸԶĶƪС˵࣬һߵĿͬһƪС˵DDĽṹ [17]ijһ½ڵֻھѾɵIJֲйн֮ʡ͵IJͬڵIJͬ͵ݵ߻߽߼ȲȫɵģҲȫʧȥɵġƣڽнԽʱ״ҲͶλԽ֮䡣ȻʵͷΪǰĽ͹вܰԼļֵ֮⡣ֽԭıϡֽ͸ܸжϣǡ߼ʡ߼ǡξȷڸеļֵ߶ȨDDһ档һ棬֡Ҫ˵ʱͳһھʱһԭԡԵ̬ȶԴеĹ񣬲һЩ˵ĹƽʵԱ׼ƹ㵽һˡ[18]һĽ͹ͬڲγɵΪֵʶġԵ£political morality [19]мڴˣְҵرǿɼ˼άʽlegal mindֽҲرǿιͬ塱ԭͬ塱Թͬ塱 [20]

ڷжһ棬ͨΪǽ͵ĻʵǶǰһ׶εĽԽͽͨǶߡҪǶԭĽͣѷٶijжеķеϵ޷졣ڵֽڵҪĿأԭξĽȷļֵ塱ȨԴȷļֵƽԼ϶ԹΪǷϷжϳȷļֵ̡ͣҪ빫ȨأǿЧ棬ԭǿǹƽȡӡΪϵķӽԭĽͲΪɽ͡ijҲΪ׶εĽ;ǸȨĻ齨Խ͵ĴﲢҰͳͳתȨ˳˵˾þΪƶȵĿ֮ȷϵ˵ȨǿǶʲôҪһ㱻ΪȨ⣨rights thesis [21]

˵еĽչḶ́ôжеĽ;Ĺ̨DDһԭͱ׼ȷѽͲųͷ [22]˰еᳫġ롢С֤ʷͷͨ͵ĸͽṹжʵϴӸݷɽСһһǶľ˻ٿԽȽϵȨҵжijֽܲʹȶɵõ۸һЩ ȻŹƱһιͬѰҾԴ档ֽȻǿɽԺãlaw works itself pure[23]ΪһϵͳҴķʽչͬʱʵѾų˷֮Ľ [24]ֽΪʲôǷжϲѾȷķĵԡжԼΪ˶չĻϵȫ졣Ź˶ڰѷ¡ķʵ֤شսȻֲܼ򵥹ൽȻߵķ롣¡ۣȨλġλġĿıλĵȲֱͬͣӹ涨ʲôǷֻѾȷķɵ޶ڲʲôǷľ֮ضᶼжԵġͼenterprises˵ضȵԭlocal priorityʲôǷĻشֻΧڲ [25]

ֽڹԽ˫ؽṹԼʽжϵ˼·Ȼܵ޶˹John RawlsΪȷġ˼Ծ⣨reflective equilibrium۵Ӱ졣νɵ۹ɽ硢ȨԼ綨ģȡڶϵεijֽԵġҷ˼̬ [26]ǣڰʵϵԽǿѡȷԡԸ˵ĸԴ˵ԼЭȷ棬֮Ҳͬ [27]磬޶˹ǿͨԴ̿ʹԭ͵жϴһ£ڸļֵϵ֮ʵصʽ⣬ѻԵĹϵΪԣpublic reasondzЭڴɷ˼ԾԼжҪõ [28]ֽڸԵĹԸļֵ֮ЭԼӳЭġˡ淶checkerboardlawsַ񶨵̬ [29]һԷжϵĽǶֽȷʵӽ˾ʵIJҪҲ˵ܷ漰ձԭѰĴҲ᳹ס


ӶԪṹ͵ı


ͨ˵ѰкIJֽͬġѰhard caseڶϵûȨжϣ漰ȨµǰֽΪѰȲûȷģҲǽ˾ĨDDǿ壨strong senseϵ˾ˡˣѰĿͨԵĽͣڡֻ֣©ǸϵҳǸӦ߱ĹȨ޵ȷΨһȷ𡣿ǣѰںܶೡǡǡ˹ͮJulius Stoneĸػཻ֯ÿһĶԪԣmultiplicity״̬ [30]ѵóл޵ĽۣҲѶ϶ijһֽʽΨһȷĽԪصĻйȺ壨communitarianism񹲺壨civic republicanismĻԪ壨cultural pluralism or multiculturalismĸֻԼνԣpolycentricĹ [31]縻վֹ̽ƶȵĶԿ [32]Ӧѧг˹ڷĶԪɵIJͬģ [33]

еIJͬεĶԪڣԺرĿǰγȫƴνιͬ塱ĹзּʣʹΪλĻԪſǰսҲ̼˸֪ʶϵȫϾٴơν編򡱵ĹƣȻڴá޽ʱĶԪͳһԵì֮ſܾʵ壬DzòϣҵķѾ˺ܴĸĹۡij˵ȥ ɵ۹ ĽʽЩֲǻٻεļ

⣬˾ĸﵼ˸ԺϵķʽƶȣϵͳĽṹʵҲѾ뻮һˡľ״̴ӣͿʼǧ˰̬ [34]˷Ժ참ĶԪ縴ڷԺmulti-door courthouseԱɵĶԪ˽ӪԺprivate adjudicationݷշѰ참rent-a-judge᰸ĶԪ編Ժٲócourt annexed arbitration programٲmed-arbȻЩµľٴ뼰䲻ͬϷʽһռе˾ҲһΪƶȵɲ֣һֱҷɽͺͷжϣȴԱΪԼʵԶӰ죬𲽸ıνԹͬ塱ĻͷΧƶȴʹϵԭеìܸӼ񻯡ԻʹͬձԭIJΪ̶ĸ֣ӶijһԹ֮ļֵ߶ͬ׷ʽǷǵʧԼݵԡ ı޹ϵֽҲʶ̬ɫʣеľĻԣreciprocity˵¡ιͬΡͬʱֺܽذֻּۻ۵潻ǿ京ֻǸĻ˼ʹϵ淶 [35]ǣۻΪ¹淶ô󣬱ȻҪύ棬ֻھϵвȷǷﵽ˻ݵҪҲ˵ڱһ龳ѻȨϵһζŰȫ͹۵жϱ׼϶Ȩķij̶ֳȵԻDDȨ涨ϵϵҲһ̶ӰȨȨ϶һִϷνɽԺáʽܷ᳹ǿԴɵġ֮԰ύڣ֮ЭԺͻȨϵάֺͷչ۲ȷԣֻǵijֳԽԵĵ¹淶ôȨϵͻһֵͬķΧ֮ڣʧȥڼֵԪ״̬гԽ֪ʶԼijһضֵ۵ձ塣 ԼֵԪĵΪǰᣬɽͷۺѰͳһĵ¹淶ϵΪϵݣҲͨȽϵóʵԵΨһȷΪʲôΪ£ͬļֵ֮DzɱȽϵģҲﲻЭһµĹͬۡʱ˶ԡˡ淶зԣʵֵ滹DzòЭжϵγɺԽԽؽʽϵĺͳϵİš˵˹Jurgen Habermas۵صӣġ֤ѧתƵġ򡱺͡ԵۡԼġ塱ǻɡ£رǿԹͬ塱Ĺʶ̬ȺεǷʵǷУϣֽһĻش ȻֽɷۺͷжɵĽ˫ؽṹ൱̶ϻͶԪ֮ĽŹϵǾͷ۶ԣᣨnarrative consistency淶ᣨnormative consistencyϾͬߨDDԨDDҪӸӵĺ崦ڸļֵ۲״临Իᱶʱijһֵ۽ҲʽЭܷ顢ҪҪ߿ŵͻ͹ֳ⣬ıĽͲͬıĽͶԵʵͼ뵱֮䡢֮໥ûdzԾЩҲϵѶȡˣ˫ؽṹƫؽߵԭ̬֮࣬ûܹƶȻӸϽйص⡣ ֽѧѾȷ˵ķϵĴԼεΪǰģˣϷжϵĶ־Ŀ͹ԼԡȻڿThomas KuhnĿѧʽ֮Ψһȷ⵽УΪֻǡ淶Կѧnormal science֧˼άʽҲûй֮ͬ磬ȡĺģʽڵֽΪΪԹͬǰԭʶڿΪʶ̬֧ԷʽϿ˵ķŲûйɶԿ͹ʶ۵СʵԵֽڵĿ͹ԡԷɽͷ۵ԴڵĶԼۡ ֽйʵ


ں̶̡ܴܵ񻯾ͳӰ죬й͹ͬĻʶڣرԵسֳһֶԪԵĽṹġϡγʲͬԭ򡢹淶෴ɵĹϵ˾رǻ˾ʵһڶԪѰҸѽ߸ϵԴ̡ڸձԭĸϷУֲܹһ龳бȽȷĽ𣬵ԶûΨһȷĽڡȫ顷˵˾ĹؼΪƽ̡Թۣۣڱδȫǣδȫǡ DDȻһֻھӵЭʽ⡣ν޶⡱֮˵Ҳֻʵ淶ϸ򻯷ʽƲκͼսٷȨѧͣûͨõķֿ͹Եľ֮ĺ⡣йʽʶ̬У˽ڹϵ֮УɸԵΪ׼򣬷۵Ľ״ʵǷɹ淶ıˣ˵йԪһĶؾԼ״Եֽڵ˺Ͼս ȻֽڿǷȷʱȻ۽ԽԵġܲһͼѷжϵļֵ׼ʵԼΡµĻϣָá֮жԷɽ˼ġ[36]ʹԭΪжϺԵĸݣҲڹѧǿĵĺ˼ûбʵIJ죬ڴʽʵԼԴ¡ǿʵԵȡͨµķ龳˼ά뷴˼йϢϢͨġһҲ˵Եķѧ۷ṩȷʶй˼ԼԿܡ й˾ȫԣǡǡ෴ӷϵķ˼ϵ [37]ֽķٸһϵС˵д淶ıԴȤͬʱˡ顢Ϸ⼸棬ۺͷжϵ˵ڡԲ˵ȡڿ͹ʵġонڡ ־ġ̶ȡԼۺͿ͹֮ġȺڹϡ[38]й˶ԣϵԹȻҪҪȴǻָƻ˵˼ʹϵ´ﵽṹϵľϡԴΪй˶ԷõĿָֽ̫ŷ۵DDرķǷڷɶǷʵʲôӦʲô [39]ǸһЩ˵Ĺ۵㡱ӦٻӦ䣬ڲͬ龳вʵĹ淶Ľϵ [40]ӡơĹʱתˡţٵԷ顱ָϣdzȷ֤ʵһ㡣

ΪʵֺάֵΣϵԣйķɹǿΤ˵ġС棨microcosmߵֽ˵ġСܷminiconstitutional conventions֮ЭԼһϵиѡΪϵĺ֮ΪڹϵиЭѡǻģijһڵѺ׵ʧȥ⣬ δȻ΢ŽԤѧйԣȱɵѡȱĺͽ᰸ۣҲ˹ҶԸȨĸѹ̬ȡϹУΪֵĵ˵ǶھȨϵĽ͹ͬԭ˵Ȩֵߡڴ΢ʱٲغܴ󣬿ͨýöԵ˵ĺҷĽϡڴش󰸼ʱȻϸշɰ£ҲԡȸԼпɲԵġȷʽ·йֳʵ Ϊɵ۹ʵIJǶʵеһ [41]ھֽڵйطָΪʵߵķҲҪ˾ĿԤ֮䱣ʵľ⣬ʵ־κһԶʱԵģķΪԼзıҪƺעȥġеĻԡ߹δָDDȥδ·һʱԻγ˼Σݾ [42]ȻӱϿʵ巨ɹ۲ǻųġԴȨʵĹ۵㣬ȨֻʵδƽʱһĿʹӻ򹤾߶ѣ߱ļֵ [43]ƫпܶԺϺִܴ˺ڷĽΪҪ£пܷΪ⻯ġΡԼαĿΪʵ巨ɹ۵ĸ׶޷ͨ˾θɵķʽȨáǶĶֽڵΪʲôΪȨԭԼԵķϵ˸񻯵Ⱥ [44]˵ˣҪԺԵȨԵȨϵʵԭIJ桰ԲӦ䡱

ָйͳڡ顢ϷĿں¹˾Ͱйȵּۻۻ߻ʽ棬ʵַ˹淶Լԭڷγν˫زȷԣdouble contingency״̬ںܶ¹ѡ÷dzѡַɱӻǷȱŲҵķչԼȨʶǿ¶ֻͨijܹԲӦ䡱İƣunmoving moverܼԿ˷ [45]һϣҺֽͬڶʵ巨ɹ۵СǣֽڲͬվرǿʵԭΨһȷԹͬijԣɳһɵ̬ȡΪڼֵԪִᣬձԭľԽԽϽԻʷ׶֮󣬲ͬȮײϵֳԵĶԪɣʵԭϴһµѿǰԴΪбҪԵ֧ŵʵֵתֵ˵ڶԪĸУֻгпܳΪϵ壬ֻȽԹʶпܽʵԹʶ ۵ڹѧҲǢġ٤ĬƷĽԽʱϷеľġһıԼƷĴڷʽȻΪһĿԲϱ仯ͨ桱ķϷʹϷΪģʹֲıϷߣһйڶòݾĵʾ [46]ͬڿǷɽ͵Ķ̬ԼʾʱصҲӦΪǰԤԻʶΪĵḺ́İƶȻƣرdzļֵΪȫԲܽȹ涨ʵԼֵĻ֮ϣֻͨһһֵĺԼ⻯𲽴ɡһ棬٤Ĭ˵Ԥж϶ַ̬ȱҲһԤжϣһ㣬ʶԣҲ޷ԡ [47]ˣϴԤжһ£ϴԤļֵǰᲢͼɴ˵ΨһȷĽȫͬһ¡ ȻֽھDz֪ݺ塣ʵϣں̶ܴϼ̳˸յijȻԼɹѧԭĺ˵˼ [48]ӵԭҲڳ壬Ҳ˵ڳֵķ롣ˣDzֽܲ۵ĺ۵ǷеΪʵֵġԵ¡ڽеϹܣֱɼҽ͵ġԵ¡ΪϵһҪɲ֡뷨֮ķ鱻֮󣬲֮ͬĻϵͻпռ䣬ٵжƱܵѹŵӰ죬ʱȫûЭķۺͷжǺġοʵ֤ķɹ淶ϵҲŽṹìܣҪڲЭ½һԹ֮Ľͽ췽ҹ̷ʣֽԹĿģȻҪͨзɹ淶ĺϺԭĽЭ淶Чַ롣ǣڷЭΨһȷĵطαװdisguiseıװ𣿸Ҫǣӷɽ͹ͬӽԣڶԪоܲʵֵõֵأ



ڷϵڶԪԼӦĽṹìܣȫϵϻֻһּ롣ֻڷְҵĽ͹ͬڲôòԻΪֵԪеһԪο˾ʵУΪκηٶ񡰺˹١г˵IJܺνϻҲֻǾֲϵġҪƹ㵽ȥǾͱʹ֮жԲͬձԭݲʣױһ̾ͳɫʡ

£ΪԵķϵ㲻Ӧijμֵһ壬ҲӦijιͬڲѰѰ̬ȣֻܹڲͬļֵϵձԭ֮ٽͨĻƣԽṹìܲϽЭӶɶ̬۹̣ƶȵIJϿǽͺ֤ijԹ ֽڰΪȨšԼϵij֮ļֵǿйԵ۴һΪصλáǣֽԼȴôšһغˡõijξе۸ǵԴԼʱijôᵼ·塱[49]ôһЩʵڳζǷξĿȫϳҵĻشǷ񶨵ġҸĵĵ뿪ʵֵij򣬶뿪ʵֵܷڲ֮ص⡣ʵбҪһǿֻһ㣬뿪ʵֵϵҲ޴̸

ˣԵֽڵ˫ؽṹķɽͷ۽һССãѷ֤ڵijܵؽѷжںͨϵصʽܵؽڴ˻ϷԹͬʵֵԼɴ˵ΨһȷļٶΪֽķɽͷֻ˷ѭͷʵIJ㣬ڼ˹ȥδͬʱõ㷨ɶԪṹҪ

ꣵ£ճ壬£տͷ廪ѧѧԺ


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

[1] Ronald Dworkin, Taking Rights Seriously (Revised ed., Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1978) p.

[2] Ronald Dworkin, Laws Empire (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1986), preface pp. viii-ix, and p.412. Cf. also his Is There Really No Answer in Hard Cases? in University of New York Law Review Vol. 53 (1978) pp.1-32, and in A Matter of Principle (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1985) pp.119-145.

[3] Ibid., p.87.

[4] See Stephen Guest, Ronald Dworkin (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1991) pp.137-141. ˳˵ڡɵ۹һУֽȡʽȷĴ𰸡ƺΪֻСΨһȷĴ𰸡ҲδȻĵһļԴȨȡݣҲʲôʵԵı仯

[5] Dworkin, Laws Empire, op.cit., p.187.

[6] Ibid., p.52.

[7] Ibid., p.55. Ķɱ߶ɡṹ͡Ħ鷿꣩ҳ

[8] Dworkin, Laws Empire, op.cit., pp.58-59.

[9] About details, see ibid., chap.4.

[10] Ibid., chap.5.

[11] Dworkin, Taking Rights Seriously, op.cit., p.12.

[12] Dworkin, Laws Empire, op.cit., pp.95ff.

[13] About details, see ibid., chap.6.

[14] About details, see ibid., chap.7.

[15] About details, see ibid., chap.8-10.

[16] ̽áĵ۹ѧЭ־ڣڣţ꣩ҳҪΪ͵ķ档ƪ֮ͬһ־ڣڣš

[17] Cf. Dworkin, Laws Empire, op.cit., pp.228-238.

[18] Cited from ibid., p.165.

[19] Ibid., p.3.

[20] Cf. ibid., especially pp.214, 243f., 263.

[21] Cf. Dworkin, Taking Rights Seriously, op.cit., pp.82-88.

[22] չֽ̣Լĺ˹⳥еĽΪ͸ķCf. Dworkin, Laws Empire, op.cit., pp.238ff.

[23] Ibid., p.400.

[24] ڴ֮ǰѾϷ޷رεġE.g., see Ronald Dworkin, Law as Interpretation, Texas Law Review Vol.60 (1982) p.527.

[25] Cf. Dworkin, Laws Empire, op.cit., pp.239-240.

[26] Ibid., p.413.

[27] Cf. Guest, Ronald Dworkin, op.cit., pp.148-149. ʵϣֽ۵Ҫ˼ԨԴǹصķʵ֤޶˹ʵԵѧ

[28] See John Rawls, The Idea of an Overlapping Consensus, Oxford Journal of Legal Studies 7 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1987).

[29] Dworkin, Laws Empire, op.cit., pp.176ff., 217.

[30] Cf. Julius Stone, Social Dimensions of Law and Justice (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1966) pp.653-654.

[31] ԡᡣSee Michael Polanyi, The Logic of Liberty; Reflections and Rejoinders (London: Routedge & Kegan Paul, 1951) pp.170 ff.

[32] Lon Fuller, The Forms and Limits of Adjudication, Harvard Law Review Vol.92 (1978) pp.394-404.

[33] 磬ڹ淶ԭĶԪɣгΧеķΡ쳸󣬣꣩ķģʽƶԵĶԪɣSee Gunther Teubner, Substantive and Reflexive Elements in Modern Law, Law & Society Review Vol.17 No.2 (1983).

[34] E.g., Frank Sander, Varieties of Dispute Processing, Federal Rules Decisions Vol.70 (1976).

[35] Dworkin, Laws Empire, op.cit., pp.196, 198ff.

[36] Ibid., p.88.

[37] ҷ˼ֽ۵ԣcf. R. P. Peerenboom, Confucian Justice: Achieve a Humane Society, International Philosophical Quarterly Vol.30 No.1 (1990) pp.17-32.

[38] ׾塰ɽ͵ШDD̽ʵ÷ѧĵ·ڡⷨѧڣڡڣڣļĽйѧ磬꣩ [39] Dworkin, Laws Empire, op.cit., pp.7-8.

[40] Ibid., p.8.

[41] Philip Soper, Dworkins Domain, Harvard Law Review Vol.100 p.1168 n.12.

[42] See Dworkin, Laws Empire, op.cit., pp.154-156, 160-161.

[43] Ibid., p.160.

[44] Cf. ibid., pp.167ff.

[45] ׾塰йĿԨDD۶ĻͳĽͷ˼սڣڡ

[46] Ķɱ߶ɡṹ͡ǰҳ

[47] ͬϣҳ

[48] ̽áĵ۹עҳ

[49] Dworkin, Laws Empire, op.cit., p.180.


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