ΩԸƽˮʹ罭ϣ
et revelabitur quasi aqua iudicium et iustitia quasi torrens fortis

ҵѧ˼

ʱ 䣺00һ¶ʮգڶʱʱ

㣺̨ѧ˼ݹʻ

ˣҫ

1937꣬տսʱҶ꣬ںݡҵСѧսжɹģʤȥϺնвãйϺ1949游ĸ̨ˡĶʼǵ̨֮󡣵̨ʱսδŵսζǷdzŵģǸһϿһһѧ1949Ժй˵\\ ˵ֳݣ1949ڴ½ĻҽͲл̸ĿˣҪҲһȫһĹ¡

ҳІdzɹѧҾóɹѧҺܶණԼһЩȤֵۻǸʱγɵġʱɹʦʷdzߣһЩʦȥй½ڴѧ̹飬екͻһλʦһֱҵĹij̶ȺܺãӾɽɽҵϧΪʲôҲѧʫйִʫռҪλļڳɹѧ·⡣·ʦֵֹۡףʦ޹֮£ҲдʫҲѧԺѧʼնкǿĵ

ɹѧҵҽ̨ԽйĴѧλΪ̨һĴѧ̨ʱ򣬸˹УȥãDZģ쵼̨ʱ̨̣ܶ൱Ӱ죬ʹ̨һɡŵĶط̨҆Ƿϵʱвٴ½̨ѧĽڣ ÷Эٿȡ̨꣬˶˼ϰߣʱͼжɹģ̨ҵδѧоתΡΪʱĽġ塢Ѧĺһʱѧߣ꣬ҴѧоȤּ̨һ꼶ʱѿȡߵȿԣбҵȡտҪΪø׸ˣǺӹҵԵģ̨Ķ׶Σɡѧרҵѧʱڣһֱ˼һ⣬˵Ϊһ࣬Ǿйǰ;⡣̨Ǹʱڣ˵ȴʮּԴ½һεǻΪʱͳʱµ֪ʶӣٲȥ˼ǰ;رйĻǰ⡣ʵЩĻ\\й֪ʶӵĿ⡣֪Ļ \\ڼ䣬й˼һҶоʱ̨ҲһνĻ֣ڵʱƵĻȦ͸ԳʸУ̹׽ʱ̨ûܳʱˮƽдһƪֵ£һСʨӺ𡷵¿ϣҵһЩٻͷܿԿҵʱ飬ƪҶйĻij·һЩ˼Ȼ쿴е^ǺܲϽġ˺йĻһֱΪѧоҪ

1964Թʸƥȱѧ飬ƥȱѧִѧòҷdz̵ӡĽǴΡ꣬ʮߣΪѧ֮Ĵָ֮ߣһġƥȱѧ֯η棬һʼĵѧǵʱѧҰ˼ T Parsonsչִִۡ۶˼йĻṩһѧϵļ㡣ҵһεȷеܴĻ𺳣Ҳʹϵ̨ҪִǰһΡ󡱣Ľѧֻһ꣬һǷ֪ٸҹҶڡѧ֮ټͼ￴飬һֱҹ˾

飬ӡݼα༭ʼϵͳġ¿Ϸйִ̨֡ͬѧ½ȥݽҲֹ⣬˷ܣΪҼϣԼĿܸѧǸʱʶ󺣹ʱӦÿд꡶йĻչҵ֮رг¹Ӧƽλӡ¥ȥҺȿȡĿѧ͵ģϧ˺ȡʱDZģܶ˶ҡȥûн̹ң̨ʱѧѧϵĽڣʦҶУо⡣θʱҡ¿Աд˺֣ܶ˵ôЩ뷨أ˶ŵõκȿȵĶ̸̸Уҷڹ°֮ǫ飬ѧʼһȼյҶкĻ

һݽ֮ҽἯһСӴͳִ顣дⱾʱҷԼһѧߣһ֪ʶӣ֮ġ֮йִһȻԾʵȻ롸ӦȻIJΣֺЭйִΪִ̨ӦҲΨһij·ҶùŵѧҲīʮΰʫ˹Octavio Pazīǰ;֣Ϊīǡִīΰִ⵽𻵣ִī߲ɵһ·ҵʱй̨壩뷨йִʱʶ\\ѧĹʶıйĻսʽĿշⱾ鷢֮󣬲˺ܴĻ죬ҿĸ߸λⱾȷΪҴһʿɹ۵İ˰ȻҸеοǵʱ˼ԵĴѧٲⱾġ

Ȿ24֮Ҳ1990̨꣬廪ѧĸΪдһƪ£̨˼ʷеһʷתۿȨȡתͣ󺣹⡶йĻչɵҫӴͳִҵġӴͳִһǷ縵˵̨˼תȡȨλãԼ˵ҵйִ۵ȷΪܡ 1994Сһλоִԡгɼѧߣڡʮһ͡дһƪҫġִۡʶ¡ԡӴͳִк̵ȷܿд־Ȥ˵Ӻ˼ѧ꾭ִ۵ѧЧǣѧ֪ʶѧԭ˴ͳѧѧʷѧѧĻѧ˼ʷЧʽѹѧ壬ѧں֪ʶȷɢʽĸۣ֮ʵʴٳ˺˼ѧ·ת򡣡

ҵġӴͳִ1966ģҲй½Ļոձʱ򣬵ʱ̨Ļʶʮ̨ȻһȨʽͳΣDz½һȨʽͳΡ½ĸ˵ʷҵ¼֮һĸǡִģĸйѧĻĴݻٿ˵ԸӣIJ˵ͶйĴѧij˵һѣʹô½Ĵѧ˶ϲڹȥ20У½ĴѧƶȲʼ渴й½1978˰̨֮ſʼСšĸȥʮ䣬й˵᣺½̨ۣͬĻǷչչĻʲôأִ

ҵѧ˵1970Ҫһ꣬һҴ۵Ĵѧִ̡֮۽һżȻĻԵҵĴѧȫΪйѧ?Լ?һλܳѧҡʱƥȱѧ飬д飬Chinese Family, Chinese Village Religion in Chinese Society йڽ̣رǡйڽ̡Ȿ飬ΪMax Weber Religion of China֮ѧнйڽõһڵĴѧ׿У֮ر룬۰Ĵѧչѧ?ƥȱѧû̹ңҵ飬ϣܵд飬رǽѧϵĿΡҵۡҴ ?һ꣬û뵽һ??ʮ꣬ʮ֮䣬鲢Ĵѧijɳ뷢չҲһֳصijбһԵĴ󶼻ᡣ

1977ӢŴѧоһ꣬صĴѧʱĴѧڽиĸԺҪѡһλԺԺǮƾ㡢ا죬ԺǸҰ֮أ⼸λѧһͬѧۣܵӡ1963ڶѧͰԺѧԺԺϳΪĴѧ´ѧڣ˺ܶ⣬ѧԺ֮Ȩϵĥͻܿ͹۵˵ʱԺһְһرϲĹ׿Уij\\Ȱ˵ͬµͬⵣԺԺΡԺһ˰꣬һ˺ܶѪҲ˵¡ɽĶ٣ﲻ˵ˡ˵ʵǰԺģģһDzԸΣ1985ﵽ¹±ѧηʽڰꡣ벻ǣ¹ۺ󣬹һʱգֲУ�ڵĺ⣬УĹҪر˵һ㣬ĴѧԺԺѧУǼְҵҪǽڣԣһֱû顢оУ˽⣬ǺġΪǽڣ˴ѧҪѧоʱһҲҪ飬˵ûѹڻûм֮ǰоģȥʵص飬ʮһྩѧֵ֧ġоʱ¿ٵһҵҸоǹСƶԼνṹоУҺڿ˵صԣ㶫ΪҪµĻصԣ޷롣СоΪdz˼ѧܶණҲʹ˽⵽СۣһṤҵаݵɫ

ʮҶƶȵоIڹۡҶ۵ˡΡ (The Administrative Absorption of Politics)Ĺ۵㣬ƪ۴ѧٿһѧֻзһʼܴķӦΪҰεĸ˳ʱ۽׳һλӢֳа֮һ磬ͬҵķΪѣķһλѧҡƪ֮BerkeleyAsian Survey棬Ļ죬Ҳо۱ĵƪġãӢȨġй(China Quarterly)ҵθÿʱ༭ίԱıίһʮꡣƪҪһ⣬һٶΪʲôû̸ηչȴгڵİأҵĴΡĻơѧĴ (E. Vogel) ڸƪΪо۵Ľ̲ġ

֮ҲֹĴ½Ҷй½ı仯ʼѧϵоͬʱҲ֪ʶӵݷԵ£ҵĵһƪ̨Ͻʱ򷢱ģʱ۵ġ¿Ϊ̨ۡ塢½Ǵһ΢ǹϵ̨ϽҲܵˡ¿ŸҪҴ𸲡һҹ֮д˰ǧֻظ̨ġйʱҲͬʱ롶¿ƪµ˳ҵıʴУҵķָ̨岻֮ϽӰ淢չ֮ƪ֮½ڵд˲йصۣرǹ̨ηչ֣ɡй˵Ρйķ˼顣

Ϊһѧѧߣ޷⣬Ҳй֪ʶӵĴͳΪ֪ʶѧߵĽɫȷнŹϵ֪ʶѧдʱ^﷽ʽв֪ͬʶдⲻȡѧд¾ͱҪ䡱ҶԴ½Ļ֪ʶѧ߶ݣдһЩ֡ĸ﷢ѧߣеǺзѧߣΪë󶫷ĸѾѰҵһй뷢չĵ·ڶʧУ˶ë˼ͬĻɫʡҿĸڡʵʲΡǷdzпѣڡΡȷзdzĶǿǿƽ壬ǿԡ˼ĽţʱĸġǷ塣ִ֪һ֯ᣬҪ̬֯Τ (Weber) ĿƲ֯ (Bureaucracy) ΤΪƻ֯ЧʣҲЧܵ֯ΤĿƲǷ̬֯أʵϣѧѧԿƲ֯окܶķ˼رѧ֯ѹԵһ档ҿëɵ˼빤ߣ˳ɰǧ£ȻЩ³ʶ̬ȱԣ׷һ̬֯ҶΤĿƲ֯оⲻֻһ֯⣬ǹغִԡܸһҶë˼빤߳Ĵͬ˽⡹ŬDZԣҲ޵ԡڽŴѧоʱӦѧ̳֮ѧ棬дһƪThe Voluntarist Model of Organizationġѧߵ̳һʮʿȴʮҰĵطһ޳һ̳ÿһ˶ҪĹǣ֮ǰǸжεѧѧ᳤ڣһ꣬ľͱǴҷ緶һδķˣҲһλѧңòɿǴξ飬ҾͲҵģ㹤е벻ҵȴõҵͬ뻶ӭһۻᡣ֮ҽļĵӢȨ The British Journal of Sociology Ҳܿˡ˺һӢѧ̿飬̲ܡ

ұ̸ҵѧ˼ʱҾҵѧ˼̺ƽûʲôر̸ģǿʼع֮󣬷Щ飬˼ҲԸλ꽣ŵľ飬ԺμӲͬѧ鶼Ӱ졣λѧߣҲȻٵƵ龰ҪѧϰԼαǸ̳ġĻδغãйѧһҪγһƶȺĻˣҪָй˵ĴѧĻѸıܶˡʦѧƶһĴѧҸǣĴѧǰѾѧԽʦƣȻǶӦеģ˵ڰǰǮУʱ˵ҪʦҿЩʦһŰ߳ȥйͳĹУǡؾʦʦĵλǺεȳʥӦýʦҵѧԸʦ˵ģִĴѧУʦɫиԵı仯֪ѧʵĶҲȥͬڡо¹ʵǽ˽ĴѧǴģй̫ѧӼ˲յĴѧͬѧΪһйĴѧʵ򣬱ѧԪвͻԳִѧԸ񡣲ԴѧΪоѧʡĻĹӵ¹ġйִĴѧǺֲģ̳ġ

ִѧʦҪ֪ʶͬʱҲҪ֪ʶѧһҲһѧоĵλѧʻȫ򻯵Ľ죬ѧʣ֪ʶΪһйѧߣͻ⣬ӦӢĻأӢǹģҵ¹ʽڣõľӢģΪһйѧߣܲأ̵ִĴѧдʦԸ͸⡣ʵĴѧһʼ˫ԡ˫ĻΪ룬ʦĻӢڿΣѧдĻԾҲӢĻġĴѧָӢģָͨ㶫Ӣ1997Ȩתǰˣ1997ˡһѧԣӢķ½׵õϿɣΪӢĵѧͨϸƣĵijﳣʲβ룬Ϊ鷽ûƵĻơдһʦһѧʱӢġĶá˵дҸиСʢţѧ磬ȻйгҲʼ飬1992һγ飬һҵġйĻ½屾顣ΪţѧľԶġ

1977ҿʼԺԺ֮ҵѧУһѧһԭΪֻҪ֮һʱѧʵϣʱ֮һʱ䶼áȻҲܲرע⡰ʱĴ(time management)ˡӦ˵һ˵ǣҼ֮󣬻ʶʵصоתԵооĿҪйִȻоУر⡸ѧй⣬һϵдй˵顢ϵӵģⷽĽĽԵĹ

ҵоȤ̽йִ̽йִ⡣Ҽǵʮ̨ݽʱ̸ִԡʱΪ̸ִԡ⣬ǽִԡ (modernity)Ҳ˵ѡִԡ modernity ʵġҿһϵͳؽִԡġҵʱִԵܸ̽dz\\ʵѧʢ̸ִԡҲǰʮ¡ΪйʮҪִ⣬ִԵ⡣ȻִִDzȫֿġҵĿǣȥһͣͣйչǡƶִϵ⣬Ҫչƶȵ⣻Ҫ÷չ漰ƶȵ⣻Ҫ׷ΣǷƶȵ⣬ȥйһִĿƶִ⡣˵ףйҪִҪﵽйִԣʵҪһйִйҪµִĵĹڽµƶȡѧǽµĽƶȡµѧоƶȡ

ڽȫ򻯵ĹУҿԷֲ۵ķɻ࣬Ƶ궼ࡣڣطStarbucks͡ϵ»λѧ߰ѡͻȫ򻯵ⲻûеDzDZʾڡһͬԡأǰĴѧĽڸѧѧ Watson оޣ̨ۡǣͣȻ͵ĿʳĻռȫ磬ϸ۲һ£ָᷢصδضһ̨ͣкܶѧȥϰΡ̸졢ۻᣬ;ûԸȥ͵ˣԡռ C ʱ䡹Ĺ۵Ͳһ֮ͻܾ͵ͬȫ򻯡

һġִԡһִ֡ԡľ顣˵˼ִԡΪѧϵȵ㣬ں̶ܴܡִġȻ˵ִԡǷѾDZȫִԣͺֵ̫̽֡ӣ˵壬Ҫһ򵥵Ĵ𰸣ҵĻشǣȫ粻һһִԣҲһһ塣ǰ꣬Samuel P. Huntington дһThe clash of civilizations: and the Remaking of world orderΪȫ߰˸ѱһһκһŷҪԼļֵǿӵϣͻijͻĿܡҷѧԺඡٵIJͬĽ³ҽֳϯһԪִԡ(Multiple Modernities)ֻᡣ֪ඡҲᡣִҽһֱܹĵĿ⡣

ҵѧģҲܲѧҵѧļҵĴѧġҵоҵĽѧҵԺѧУѧйءˣҶԡʲôǴѧʲôǴѧĽɫ빦ܣЩһЩԾ˼˵ȤҴӆѧоڴѧ飬ѧйأͬʱҲʹܶѧڴѧʲôȴûкȥ˼һֱʮУŵʱҲΪ̫ҶԽŴѧŨȤʼȥ˽⽣ŴѧʷͬʱҲȥ׷մѧԴͷ뷢չȤҳΪоһݡԺԺʱر˼ԺӦζλԼηԺĹܣҵθУʱ򣬸뿼ǵѧʹ뷢չIJԵ⡣ԡѧ⣬ҵǰݴѧУ˶ (C. Kerr) ˶ѧңΪǵԡѧ˽ĵһˡĴѧ𣬼дУijԱУdzҹȥһʱճܽλǰѧˡ

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ʣƿܽڣܻӭҫԺʿصĸУݽղԺʿȫ򻯵Ḷ́ѧ⣬ҸҲпŹֱڵоԺԺʱ˵ӦҪӢķǶѧ˵ѶȱѧѺüҶڷӢҵѧߺ֪ʶҾúܲƽβܿ˷⣬ʣDzٸһЩָ̡

ŹֱһĵġΪϣоԺоɹܵõѧӡ޿ɷϣӢĿǰĹѧġӢķΪѧӣйͨһЩСԡ ѧƣѧѧŶӢģѧеһЩѧƣ񾭼ѧѧϣﵽĻԻҲܲӢģЩѧƣйʷйѧȣΪǿҵġĻԡдͺܺҲбҪȻӢҲԡ彲Ӧ˫ģҪĵѧõӦеӡȾͱ뽨ѧƶȣЩѣտʼҪ˷֪оԺоѧѾ̨ҲԼƶȵķĶȻҲһõӡ

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