ΩԸƽˮʹ罭ϣ
et revelabitur quasi aqua iudicium et iustitia quasi torrens fortis

 

ϣĿеѧһѧ˼
ϣƽѧѧϵ

һйΪʲôҪ˽ϣѧ

йĻǧƾʷŻԻͲõģḻ˼ĻŲǵĻԼĵ̺ʹͳԼص߼׼ͼֵȡ򡣷򡢼̳СչԼͳĻѾһʮּޡƴĹΪʲôй˻Ҫȥ˽ѧϰرǹϣѧأǽֱ⡣

ݲȡ㲩šӦԿǿй˼ĻҪй˼ĻϣǾܲƷǧ֮ķʽ˼ϵʵʷϣչˮƽϸߵĻǴִġ෢չʷϵij׶ΣֻӽѪԵͳǵĻǴִģĻֻ˵ijΣ㲻ϵĻĻǡǡʼڲͨԭʼͳںϡйĻּݲȡ㲩šӦԿԣǡǡϣĻij֮ˡ ڸڽϣѧʱ˵ϣ˴ϸǡǡȡڽ̡Ļ֯ʵʣǰЩԴɷִˣظıˣӹˡתˣһֶЩĶԼĶ[1]ľҲʹںĻĻͬϣĻ֮ͬڡı䡢ӹ졢תĻ5000ֱ꣬գϹڹūǼĻչͻʻȸĻĻӡĻӹ˹ĻĻϣĻǺĻطչı֡ѧڵĻϣĻūǼҡӡȡ˹ĻһѾΪĻлɲ֡ ǹٷףDZ鿯Ҳ˽̳ǹֱ磬ǵ˼ͱⲿʽں̶ܴʽġDzٴУˣ˸ӦȽǶȿ⣬ǽǰʵԣʵԣתΪʵصȡʹõĻƵ߼ʽģǹϣ˵˼άʽֻһҲ֪ϣ˵ĸͼʿµĸ磬һѾָǺĻĸûʶԴ߼Ϊ֤һ㣬Ҳһ༭ġʴʵ䡷[2]Ϊṩ˺ܺõIJϡʵ¼˸ԴкܴһֺԴӢǾﴫйֲйĻУ൱һѳΪ˼ճͽĻʻ㡣ǰһЩ۸ժ¼ڱ֮󣬹ҲοЩ൱һֱֻӻӵԹϣ

ԣѧϰоϣѧһȻdz˽ĻҪ֮⣬ҪĿй˽ԼĵĻҪǷ˼й˵˼άʽ˼йԼѧԴ֮ҪҪойĴͳĻͱоӡȷѧһҪойĻͱоϣڵѧ

ѧڵеĺ

ѧڵеĺʮָӡϣһԭ򡢷˼ͬ¹ǣϱ̸ѧ¹ѧڵIJͳˣ÷ԽԽձ飬ƺеҵԼѧ˽ʱװƵѧ˽ѧ˽ŵѧͨС˵Լ˵ѧ˵ θһ㣬һ˵ԭҲԳѧǿӢ1995Collins Cobuild English Dictionary ҵ䣺The best philosophy is to change your food habits to a low-sugar, high-fibre diet; Annie's work reflects her philosophy that life is full of mysteries. ѧһĴʹѧԺĽǵIJʵ÷Ҳǵʵݣ붯֮һǶԼ⣬֪ꡢ꣬ʮĿꣻ˽һһܶյľƻ˽Լʽ壬֪Լµְҵλ͹ܡд㣬Ӵ˺п̬ȣЩ۴㡢̬ȾӦøǻ۵Ľ˭䰮ԼĶ˼˭ԼΧĿأԭϵϺҲΪάԶԵĺͺĿࣻѧѧҲΪ˱ԼԿϵ۲ɿ˼顣ɼ˶ƫԼǻۣԼóĽԣ˶ǰǻ۵ģΪ˶ѧԾǰǻۣԣǶ˼̸Ŀѭ׼򣬶˵ǻ۵Ӧúǻ۱ǻ۵֣ǶΪӰģԣdzǵİΪ̬ȣԽѧΪʲôأ

Ȼѧָijʶ̬رڴͳڽ˥ʱ򡣱磬ڸѧڽ̣Ϊ˼Ϊķ׼Գɹʵʩڸѧһֹٷʶ̬ѧΪٷʶ̬Ϊͳʶ̬ڽ̵ĴijЩѧĽ۵ΪʵΪ淶Լ淶һƽΪԽȶʱỹᣬѧʵ壬ӢĹӡ˼ѧҲһѧ׷ϵЧԣҪǰָԭȥ˴ȥָҵˣǻֱӻ߼ӵͬηϸҲֱӳΪΪηĹߡйĻУΪ޲׼רѧѧĵ͡ǵʱΨһڵѧ̬ѧ̬˵Ⱥ˶ļˣйĹȺбһָٹ̵ĿַεѧѧΨһ̬ƫȻʮеĿѧֿȫԣ˵ֿƫֻΪƫȫȫѧͬΪηģΪռͳελĽ׼ײĹٷġʶ̬ѧѧƬ濴ҪԾġҪָ̬ѧõijѧϵ߽ۡ

̬ѧͬѧоĹϵԲǡڹ̼ԭͬѧǰعĹϵǰǶԺߵijЩɹ۵ӦãߵĹԵ⣬ǵȥظȥĶDzϵĻɼ鱻ΪĶԽδ⡣еƫǿѧΣͬйϸֻֻѧ̬еһֶѣҲϵѧͬʱҲӦ÷ѧ̬ڵĺԺͱҪԡһʵüֵѧѧĴDZҪģΪҪij˼룬ŽΪһ壬һɣһʵ壬ûڽ̻ߴͳʶ̬ʹõ£Ϊʲôѧİأ

ѧרҵЩ÷ָƶijЩѧƵۻо磬ѧѧѧѧʷѧѧڽѧȡѧҲָijѧ˼룬ijܸѧɵоѧոѧѧȡ

ᵽָרҵ÷ѧѧģҲԴϵ÷ָרŴ»оԴ˼ﱾʵ˼Լ˼Կѧ֪ʶԵ˼ıʵ˼ȵȡ˵ѧҲdz˵ģζѧ˼ѧӽϣرŵ˵ѧĺ塣

ĹҪΪѧƫ˵Ϊֻ÷ȷģġἰûἰĶѧ÷ǺȷġҪָѧ÷УԴģϵ÷ָƵʲôΪǡǡһϵʹóǺӣΪǡ

ǻ̸ۡ

ĴͳĻжŷdzḻ̵ѧݡǣЩͬĻɷַһѧƣȴǹϣеĴ졣

Ժ󣬽ܹϣĻ鼮IJࡣĻԼԺԺһʱ䣬ijXǿհס80ǰ½ٰĸǰķϣ伮ˡϣѧʷһ90ʷʫжһĹϣҲ߼档ⷽרΪĵҲԽԽࡣϺӢѧ߻еСӡϣˡáƤΤϵġϣ˼ԴݴѧĿ·Ѷµġ˶ŷĵġŵ˼롷ȶ˽ϣĻĺܺõ顣ӳƿҹƺĵشһơոˡͷ磬ʮ⡣

ᵽĻеСԹϣĵʮһƬɽأɽȣϸĺ壬ٺຣζ䣬ֵƽԭͺɽݺύƽԭС֣ɽضƶ񤡣½ũҵȴͳֱأֻСڣغɽס˸ðվˮֺˡɽѸطγ廨ŵʽʽĻ̬˵ֵȻ޹ءʹǵԷ㡣ִַйȴʮһ魣ߴࡢ魣һζʱһѾƣһһķĻʳʱˣһƬ࣬ڶƬࡣǵճʳסʮּ򵥵ʳԾĻ໥䣬һ塣

Ϸʹϣ˺ڼաDz󱱷ѡźȿͷ롣ǰѴ󲿷Ͼڻ⣬XûʲôҾߣҲΪú̼ɳȻʹпһĴ󲿷ʱгϡȼ䡢糡ϲμ̸졢ۡᡢ˵ϷʷʫУڽʽϵijƪۣǴ˾󲿷ֻ¶еģճҪгκι񲻷ƶԲ롣[3]ԣϣˣرŵijоһϰߣ춼Ҫгȥһתһתͳǰ٩һ٩˽һʲôʶʲô顣ϣгAgoraϣΪгճһרŵĶʣAgoraeinггϣ̸ѡšɹֱ̫翪AgoraeinʵķִAgorazontaרָָǹгʱ·ƣ˫ֱڱĿĵأĵգһյǰȥ٩һһٳ⼸٩䡣Ǿֱ峯ǰȥķϣˣ˻ߣϣǰгϵǸе治⣺гĵ·ϣҡҡλδͷ䵽ͷȻֹÿ߼ͣΧ˴̸һӣǰ߼̸һӡ·˻ΪһʲôرĽջر֮࣬ʵˡͼ쳵ƪһͷһζԻ˵

ոףװ쳵ȥ

쳵Ҵӿ˷޵Ķʲ˹ȥɢΪҾһֱ˺ܾáǹͬѣҲڳȰ·ߣ˵˶ԺҪˬЩ

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쳵ҿ˵㲻æĻԶһ㡣

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쳵ô,һ߰ɡ

ոףͿʼ̸ɡ

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ոױ̸̸߱ݷ87ҳ֮5ԣλӳIJŵ˵ճִ̡˵Ĺ۵㿴ֺУܲܺóԣȴǹг̸磬壬ʲôƣʲô¸ҡ

Ǵ̸⾭ʲôʵõĶʷѧƲ⣬ʱŵʽˣȹ񣬼кūжʮҲ˵ƽÿ10ūһŵ乫ΪǰĹǵͶгϹ٩ɽǶǹūҪָǣʱūūռгɰǧūŵǰĹһ㶼мūũĹҲһʮһūͬеλελűʵIJ֮ͬĹϵûгһ˿ɳܵķΧͨԢū˵׽ŪԼʿ[5]жļūİţ֮ʵʹϵСķͬ˵ĹϵƣȻⲻָǵϵϵIJūڼ㣬˹ϵǢ˵ʶУڻ֮ǰDZϾˣǿġҲǵĵλͬйʱڷ˼ūѾߵĵλơ ֮ϣǰĹΪģǶʳҪ򵥣֪Ϊֹľ̸logos[6]й˵ѵǾ¶ԣګԣϣǡǡ෴п̸ʿʺͷ緶ΪDzsophiaǻۣĻֳп̸֮ǡǡѧ´ǻ̸ۡеٮٮߣ㱻ΪsophosߣsophistesߣΪϣѧߵһ˵̩ʿǵʱʿ֮һ[7]Щ߶вҵˣΪƲġϾ̸Ĺɣ˵ıԣԤԳǰδ۳ǰǻۣһߣұ֮ʹΪʵʩѧʷпո֮ǰνϣѧңǵʱ˳ΪѧңѧҵͷǺ˷ģͬǽѿӽгѧһ ̩ʿǸʱϣûгphilo-sophosѧңʡѧʷоϣѧʼ̩ʿʵѧһȴǵ˰ͼʱγɵġǵѧҰԼhistorieĻеʷhistoryһʣǴġڹϣhistorieǡо˼ӴѧյIJϿڰͼʱ֮ǰϣеѧphilosophiaһʡ

֪ѧphilosophiaɡphiloǰ˼philoһֶ󣬾͹һ´ʣָƶԸȺûþƣphiloposiaóԣphilotrophiaѧ(philo-mathia)òƣphilo-plousiaphilo-timiaֹʷϣʮֳġԣͼʱ´ʣphilo-sophiaǺȻġ

sophiaһʣڰͼʱָƶijּɵգij˽⡣ת壬˴оϡʵ顢ϵȺ塣ڣphilosopheonݴʣһʣûн壬ֻ˵ij

ѧphilosophiaʽһǰϣƳֵֶġƳԺ󣬹ȥֻйӵܲܵʱеĽAreteĽͨɾAreteˡAreteԭָ˵¸ҵƷΪϣ˰¸ҿ˵ĵ˸Ҳ֮¡֮ƵĺģԺ˵ơ֮¾ΪAreteƱϳƽ֮йĺӶܵʹڹнзԲμӱ۵ΪAreteˡǻ۵˵Ĺsoph-istߡ

ͬѧߣsophistһҲʮֹϵĸԭְָԱ룬ϳŵ쳪ߣߡʫˡּңȵȡͬͼʱ˵ߣרŽѧɺ֪ʶˣDzͬġ߸ҲڰͼǸʱγɵġֵ߳Ĺ¡

ģ

Ԫǰͣ׸ĸʱڣһаAntiphonŵˣijԭֻõ˹ı·һʼ↑һֽСοҵƣԴʵ赼еʹࡣԺֶԽµıֶΡʱֵϣʱڡʱϣķ֮ͥʱ˴ϻ绤ԭ滹DZ棬ÿ˶ΪԼ绤ԣ˭ҪǿڲǷѣֻϵùɷרҵͨɡΪԸϵľȷжϣʵϣǵľܵ˫۱˵ֱӰ죬ʵ֤ݡǽƻƱ֪ߣ׾ܷڶͨƽп޴ߣԩ޳ꡣῴһ㣬ͻ룬ΪЩƽԴʵպдͥ绤ʣԴΪıֶΡҵһţ˿ӯšãԡ³ʦȫϣ뵺ʱũ벻ʶĶ֡ԣΪд״绤֮⣬ýDZдõ£ʵǽ˽˵ļɣ޴ѧγ̵ĿˣǺδͣ٣δδδδ󣬺δСδӷЦδñʹΡȻһշѵġҵʹ˿ɿķ롣ǣʶĶֵsophist֪ʶӣ׷Ч£εȻɷ硣Щ˾ͱΪlogoropherд߼˹ߡγ֮ڴҵ£ͥòЩд߼˹ѵֱӳͥΪ˱绤˳ͥΪ绤ŷԽԽƵǰò޸ķ棬Էɵʽֱ绤ʽΪٴҵ˼sophistDZߣsophistרָЩ˵˴ΪʶĶߣһṩ֪ʶȡӶ֪ʶӡʱߣsophistһƺҲκα塣ֻ˵Щһרҵ֪ʶˣռknow howdzǵknow howΪǻ۵ˡ

ãǵҵΧһ󡣲˾ƽЩ˾Ҳ̽дʣμдϵ˵ǣרѧϰݵ˻ǮѺ͵ѧϰ˵ѧʡΪܷڹ񼯻ŷţܷܷڰıְλĹؼμҵܷڹ̶ܴͨҲȡμҵ˵ǷɹԣúӴļҳͺӵǽ̺˵޴ һƪ˵ʣкõĴDzġ纽зḻ֪ʶ˽⡣һԺһ֪ˣǾдһƪõĹں۱˵ʣҲں¾׵۱ȡʤԣӦöĸĿרңӮøиҵĹ˿ͶΣŻίһ棬ߵĵڰ绤˶Ϊ˿ͱ⣬ѵ˵˵Ҫѵ˵˵ѵ˵Ĵ˵С̸μ˵ַҲǽμԼɺԼ޵֪ʶ˵˵DZȻѿ˵ʵԣ˵еĿ˵˵ȵȡϿЩߵΪ޷ҡ࣬ڰ׵ߵôŪʵ֮ϡЩҵʱҲȷʵһԼ֪һԼ԰κλ˵ĻǵʱڷʱƺͷƵҪ £ȫֱӲΣʱȡڣȡڵΣ֧Լţ̳ϸɫģҲλĺݡԣߵijӦ˶Ӧ֮˶

ƵԭһǹȨḷ̌նԭԭд˵£ǷԣƵУӦðΪԭԭʵʶۻ漰ѧʮ֪ʶʶ⣬Ӧר̸DzʵϣУμеIJȨ֮óſ߶¶ԵѷμҵǰЩſµѷڹ˵ΨһȷΨһеķҪĻͨݡ˵ţΨһȻĶҲݡԣ£μҴһʼʶԼڱںΪеֻʹҲôһķʽе˵һڵĶѡΪҲƽ͵طԼȥеһμһһƽ̿ɹ᳹Ḷ́ôλμһ˳ơǵİ취޷ǻ߷Ļᣬʹ÷εֶֹƣʵ߸ɴ߸άƶȡǷֹúרƵƶȡʶϵ⣬ʵϵ⣬Ȩ⣬һʵ塱⡣һûѵʶоͲγʶμҲҲóԼеֶνλ÷ڶԭȡ᳹ԭ򣬾ʵʵõĹԭҲʵǵԭȥȡġٵĻαġʶԭûԭת䣬ƶʵоDzƣȶɻΪʵٵƶȡ[8]ԣְҵʦΪƶȷְҵ֪ʶӣְҵʦ

ܵʦʦǵμҵߣǵΪӦơʦӦΪп˵ṩ绤μӦðԼΪı˵޴ֶαӦΪ·ġǣʲôһγɷΪʱ֣Ȼӣݬ롣֮ҲһһЩʵµΪṩijԣһζŪߵڰ֮ӷµıҪ޴ֶУݽвԾʹõȱݵļɣ͵߼ȣרŷԼһ֮ŪƭǮڡͼڶԻ¼ߵо

DDֻѵŮĸ

DDȻǡ

DDֻѵ

DDȻҵġ

DDȻģǸףôĸףЩСֵˡ[9]

ȻһŪ߼ҵ۶ϡͼۣ֤ͨԼΪκλĵṩ֤ߵĻƻе󣬼ӵƣƵ֪ʶӣͼҲ֮һƫͶڮ٣ʹڰͼʱڵϣ米˶˹ߵĴʡڰͼĶԻ¼洦ɼߵĵ٩͹Щ³򣬵ڰͼĻľ޴Ӱ죬ߵĿƫ2000˶ߵĶۡڶսԺȫʶĽһߣѧߴʶ˼ʷͽʷ֮ȷṦΰΪ߷ѳǰᵽĿ·Ѷ¡˶һɷIJ[10]

Ϊһְҵ֪ʶΪṩ绤ΪıֶΣʵУгֵʷԣĻķչΰĹףǣǶԴĻǶʵεʱĵ̬ȣΪ߼˼Ķ֪ʶӵĿģϸ˵ߵľʽΪ֪ʶȡͼߵĿģǷڻо׷ʵáʵݣԿʹĶԴԴѧеĻ̬ȣᳫϱ볹ף뼫ˣۿۣΪκ˵κڸࡣͼߣҪᳫһΪģִ̹ʽΪ߷϶˵ʽĺԣڳж˵ĿģΪˣе˶ƽȡⲢĨɱʵ֣֮֮ʽ̬Ҳй֮顣ΪͬͷŪ֮ȣΪո׵̬ȾǸ߹Ķࡣ ѧԺĶŮʿƼһƪ£֪ʶ롰Ƥëָۡϵ֪ʶӾǸƤϵëƤĶ˲ϵ֪ʶӡ˲ѹʦҽʦְԱ֪ʶӣǿϹѧвʿѧλͳҲΪ֪ʶӡԭǸƤϵëǵľǷڵĿĵġΪͼߵṩһȷҰͼҪʵǡǡǣ߶ԴڹǺӦΪо̽ȷߵ̬ǷӦΪĶ˵̬ȣ

壮ѧߵ

ѾָΪѧͿͻгϹ˼֮ܣһһŪ֮ԱԼ֤κλԡߵоܻߵѧ֮ʿͱͷԸʵƵĹǵķСȳ׷ߵľǵһλϵѧոסո׵˼ѧʷĽ̿нܡġϣѧڶܵĸʵDzظҪ˵ǣոԭҲߣҲƱ磬Ҳ꣬Ϊʲôߣǵһλϵѧأ ͨͼĶԻ[11]ǿ֪һо޴о֪ʶΪǮڣıĿġո״̽ĿģΪѧʱԴΪҲѧǮ ʦμҵǹ֣ΪͻġҵϣڿͻҪ󣬰ͻͼ¡ڷͥУطͥĹأŷɹ涨ijȦ·ΪͻѰĿܣӭųԱǿζ̸⣬ǵ˼Լɵģ԰ͼ˵ͬū޼ոײΪ˴˾ҲΪ˵ǹ֣һζȥ̽ʲôʲôǮҲΪṩ񣬸ȥȡţ߹Ա޾ڵκδܹɽʣǷ涮Ͼͨļѧʡոײȡˣǵȥ¶ˣˣڴ֮£ѵߣʶԼ֪ʶԣʹЩɽΣ²̨ԣո¹˿Գϵ˲֪Ϊ˲֪Ϊǰ¶ǵòȻ࣬ձòȻijǰΪ ڷͥϻڹڴϣߵĽʱϻ϶ܵơDzڷͥϱתĿ뱾޹ص⡣Ҳޱ߼ʵ޳ʱ֤ȥͻͥʱææµµߵʽոȻгԣʱ䣬ϾscholeԲκĿҿԲŲæյؽȥϵۣоʲôʲô⣬ƫ⣬ҲʱơϾѧʽһԣǰѴ»огʱɵؽо˽scholarΪѧߣѺͬʦһ޾½ѧĻijschoolΪѧУscholar schoolʶȡscholeϾǴscholeĻܻġ

ո״ѧʵķоķʽѧֹʽͷɡDzǮϾDzȡˣǵ̣ʵͬһ־ı֣ɡϣֻаɵľȥ˲űѧҡʽԴ̬ȡоķ棬ѧҶߵĶ

ͼߵĹūʽĹѧҵĹ˵ĹͼȷѧҲκ壬ıͷص罻˽⵱ǰĸۺƫԱ˵ķҲŲʡŵ䣬ȴ̫档˽ٳĹأҲ֪˵˽ԣڱ˸Ϸ֮ͥʱ֪룻ӸλͲƸӡΪ档ij߶ȿ⣬ԣõλȨ߹ٻǮƸʲôֵø֮ãŵҲʮֿЦΪ֪ʲô׷ݶٴһм˵ҲΪؤͼ̩ʿ˵ѧҵֻ죬о棬ӵµĶʧ侮⵽򹤵µŮ͵ijЦΪ̫ʵʣֲΪʱʶĶ⡣԰ͼ˵κѧˣȻν˳Ķ[12]

Ҳ˵ûɾûѧûԼʱԼϾûѧΪ˷IJѧеǿߡɹߣϵ֣ͬѧһƺԵ

ģԼ֪ԴͻѧԼӰ졣ոȴԼ֪⡰ոˡһΪͷõѰ𰸡Լ֪ġΪʲô˵ȱһĿ죬ǰ̸ҵ˴𰸣ЩԼ֪ʶʵʲ֪Ȼ֪֪Լ֪ǡǡһųƴ˴һЩҲ˵ѧҲԼ֪dzԼ֪̬ȥ׷֪ȥ⣬ео⣬ѧҵĹ

˵ѧõдá˵ȻеǣĴκһѧԼһ˶ܲġѧҵĹˣһ˶ʵüֵ

ֻдȫĹſԿѧ֮ãͼȥ󼸰꣬°ͼɽ̸ѧľԴͻ̵ߣֹһǧ꣬ոʱڣ°ͼĶѧİãıѧʽִţԵһھоѧʿǴٳ˹ŵѧĵ

ǣѧұ˺洦ոͼΪʵԼȥСĸ˰·гϵūȥʿҲӱŵ䷴ͨˡѿΪֹȺĴܡ˹ŵɯΪѧɷ̻ѧźְĥƬıֱζһ಻ң񾭷ѡ˹Ҳ͸жһʹ֮С¸ѧ磬ʹɴ⵳20꣬УѾȥ60֣꣬뵽ɴӣرѧʷϣ˿ѧҵҹŴ൱һִѧʼı˸߹ٺ»

ϵѧҶʷǻŵʱȺܴܳȫĸΪԼЩΪҸȴûаDZ˺ǵͬˡ

ѧĴǶԳ峬ȫԵĴáҰУӵµʵѧҵĻϵѧ˵֮ѧ

ʵĶ׸Ϊȫƣ־ݳްãȴ־һĻˮƽ

¼Դĵĺ

гЩøѡԡʴʵ䡷ǶֱԴԴӢĻġʴʵ䡷ÿиϸ˵ʱձѡøúַĹźݣ˵ͳͳȥֻôʵӢĻԴ

essence

Vorstellung ģ

ɷ֣ ingredient

motive

motive power

ã dictatorship

object

ʽ form, mode

analysis

ӣ numerator

ӣ molecule

negation

ϣ denial

summariseģ

outline

 concept, idea

revolution

ҵ industry

ͣ republic

̶ fixed

ϵ relation

۵㣬 viewpoint

 idea, concept

գۣ contemplation

ֱۣ intuition

ɣ transition

Ự conversation

̸ conversation

positive

ʣ stoma, substrate

ƻ plan

¼ record

ӣ indirect

ݣ lecture

course

ʦ instructor

exchange

ͨ traffic, communication

ű play-drama

education

׼ class

ǣ kiss

Լ saving, economy

ԣ absolute

ѧ science

壬 object

϶ affirmation

ռ䣬space

Ͷlabor

ͣtype

ۣtheory

idea

룬idea

ԣreason

˽⣬verstehen ()

캣territorial waters

գterritorial sky

territory

߼logic

democracy

⣬ proposition

Ŀģ aim , goal

Ŀ꣬ target

ݣ content

ڣ immanence

ܶ activity

ability

żȻ zufallģ

ƽ棬 plane

ۣ appraise

ҵ enterprise

գ mode

ʣ temperament, disposition

ǰᣬ premise

ַ invasion, violation

Ȩ authority

˸ personality

Ȩ rights of human, human right

壬humanism

ҵ commerce, trade

ᣬ society

ѧsociology

壬Sozialismus ģ

罻 social intercourse

ţ corporation, association

񾭣 nerve

񾭹hypersesthesia

˥neurasthemia

aesthetic appreciation

У adjudge

ʣ interrogate

֣ position, status

sublimation

production

ϵProduktions-

verhaeltnisseģ

Produktionskraft ģ

ʣֵMehrwertģ

ʩ construction

ʩУ enforce, perform

ʱ䣬 time

ʱ£ current events

ۣWeltauschaung ģ

±䣬 incident

̬ situation

ֹҵ manual industry

export

룬 import

ˮ׼ level

˰ income tax

index

Ȩ privilege

special service

٣ gymnastics

physical culture

condition

Ͷ speculation

Ӱ projection

Ͷʣ investment

Ψۣ spirtualism

Ψۣ materialism

¶ȣ temperature

Ļ culture

civilization

ѧ literature

̨ the stage

physics

ʣ matter

ԣ Verstand ģ

ϲ磬 comedy

ϵУ series, set

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ϸ cell

£ cash

ʵ actuality

phenomenon

ܷ constitution

ܱ military policeman

ԣ relatively

imagination

symbol

digest

negative

Ч effect

Э agreement

Эᣬ association, society

źţ signal

ã credit

̷ criminal low

ζѧ metaphysics

ܣ function

壬 nihilism

Ļ prologue, prelude

overture

propaganda

ѡ٣ election

ѧʿ bachelor

ѧλ academic degree

Ѷʣ question, interrogate

ݳrepresentation, presentation

˵address, public

ϰpractice, exercise

deduction

࣬perform, play

ɣdelivery

ãindex

ӡimpression

Ӫnourishment, nutrition

Ӱimage, shadow

leftwing

rightwing

Ԥۣreserve duty

Ԥ㣬 budget

Ԫʦ marshal

Ԫأ element

԰գ gardening

ԭ theory, principle

ԭ principle

ԭӣ atom

˶play ground

־ magazine

ѧ philosophy

֤ȯ bill bond

ߣ policy

political party

֪ʶ knowledge

ֱۣ intuition

ֱӣ direct

ֱ intuition

ֽͣ matrix

ָ꣬ index, characteristic

Ʋã sanction

Լ condition

mass

յ㣬 terminal

ٲã arbitration

ʣ chief editor

ۣ subject

˹hero

ʳ staple food

壬 subject

壬 principle

ע䣬 inject

ר monopoly

ʱ capital

ϣ material, data

ɣ autonomy

Ȼ̭natural selection

ɣ liberty, freedom

ۺϣ synthesis

ܶԱgeneral mobilization

£consul general

prime minister

form a cabinet

ϣ union

ϣ combination

֯ tissue

֯ organization

Ʒ works

ݹa most favored nation

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[1] ڸѧʷ¼һİ档꣬195612£158ҳ

[2] ʴʵ䡷Ϻ磬198412¡

[3]μСϣˡϺ磬19983642ҳ

[4] ͼնԻ¼ѧ磬199712±12ӡˢ90-91ҳ

[5] ʮף˽ŵʽҪַ£ժԵҰ¸ᡤݾ51116ڣ

Ҳƽ£в⣬ʿУAntipater [ŵִ١ע]Nicanor[ʿµļӡע]ӦΪһ˵ִߡֱNicanor֮ǰAristomenesTimarchusHipparchusDiotelesTheophrastusԸⲢܹĻչ˺ǺHerpyllis[ʿµĵڶӡע]ͲƲ

ҵŮԺӦ޸Nicanorǰ޺󣬵֮ǰв⣨ܲᣬһģôNicanorȨҶӵĺһԼǵйزƲNicanorʵжҵŮҵĶNicomachusǼǵĸǵֵһȢŮ֮ǰȢŮ֮󣬵֮ǰNicanorв⣨ܲᣩijְţİЧTheophrastusԸŮһʹNicanorˡԸ⣬ִӦͬAntipaterһ飬ΪõķʽŮͶӵ¡ҺHerpllisԼҵ΢ִǺNicanorӦһˣرǣټޣӦǵķʽޡǰѾõĶ֮⣬ǻӦӲƲзָһtalent[5]ŮԸ⣬еǸŮͣԼPyrrhaūԸChalcisռ԰еĿշStagiraռмͥķϣķִӦΪЩӹúʲʹHerpyllisļҾߺ

NicanorҲӦūMyrmexӦʹõӦĻرصȥӦеģķӦĶAmbracisӦñšŮˣ͸Ambracis 500 drachmae[5]еŮ͡Tirale˵õеŮͣǸΪŮ֮ͣ⣬Ӧõõ1000 drachmaeһŮ͡SimonȥūǮٸһūٸһūǮŮ޺TychoҲ,Philoh OlympiusĺҲһ̷ҵūóҪӶǣdzӦ֮󣬻Ӧõɡ

ִǻӦҹGryllion񣬴ɺþ׼NicanorProxenusNicanorĸ׵ĵ񡣾Ѿ˵ArimnestusĵһزһֱΪĸ׵ĵӦõNemeaMemeter˵ĵط

ִʱҪPythiaԸĹֳҵĺһNicanorһعӦʵΪµԸStagiraһһɸߵʯԾ˹Ůŵȡ

[6] ϣ߸˹logos̸㣬˼Ҳռ壬ǰһ˼ͬһԴ

[7] ߡƺǸôʣϣ˰Ѳͬ߸һͳΪ͡ѧߴҵͣȥظģһжʮλʵйҲƵϰߣҲͣӵ˵ [8] ¸ŮHannah ArendtѧжһоٵȤѿԿOrigins of TotalitarianismOn revolution ԼOn Violence

[9] μлŵʿ߼ѧ˵Ϻij磬19809£35ҳ

[10] ͨҵѧȸҲŵ֪飬ֵ˱ʾл

[11] ܰͼߵƫܿĹߵIJҪԴڰͼûаͼԻ¼ûаͼǵǶߵѧ˵㼸һ֪һ棬ͼڶԻУرкڶԻУΪ۸룬Ǽǿո׶öֵѧ˵߼Ըǿݸȫ档

[12] ͼ̩̩ƪ172176ҳ

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