ΩԸƽˮʹ罭ϣ
et revelabitur quasi aqua iudicium et iustitia quasi torrens fortis

ɵķʼԼ

תйѧ


1 ɵķ
1

ףձܷ21˵ĽָضĶˣȻ˻ˣضĹͬĿγɳĽϣ֯˼γɵ塣[1]ڳġ֯ĶδԳΪǰľһ뼯졣Ŀϲεġõġڽ̵ġѧġġ罻ĵȵȣΪ϶Ľ硣ڽ̽͹ֱ2028رĹ涨ǣ涨ĽΪȨĽ磬28ּв졣
ңĻܿԹΪٹʶ㣬ڸɵǿ󣬢ơΪԹȨĻã۱⹫ȨĹظԸĹʣ룬ͨزҳϵİһ棬ľ޴󻯡ŻʹͬʱΪ˲ɵԴȪԪ۵ıҪƻܵӢٺ͢ڵĻܵĹȨļලǿִҽɵıϼ⣬Ӧڴ໥ìܵаա
2ɵı ףνϽ˵йظˢǷ壬Ƿ壬Աı֡˲ܹȨĸ档浱Ȼ򲻺ϷְΪͬʱҲʹǺϷְΪΪѡΪʽȴضԱ֮׼[2]ĽڷڼȨ۵µȻĽ[3] ϽɣڶγΪ˼Ϊʵ˼ֻԱ֮ⲿԱĽԱĽ̻εĻȣɣɡ
43131¼Ժ²191=241ΪϽ
ɵΪȨԭϲܽѹ˽˵ĽΪ˼γΪȨѹƼΪʵǰѹƽΪԼ½ĽɢΪ

зϣйع淨˲壨34йӪ˲׼壨3552Ȼڵòɻ򷨶Ҫֵ²ȡ÷ʸ񣬵dzڽ׵İȫȿDzѵĹ涨ΪҲζŷʸķ񶨼ķ񶨣ΪɵΥܸ档[4]ڽ̷ˣرڽ̷˷Ȼ涨Ҫй̶Ĺ£±Ͻ֤412-15˵Ĺ涨ʹڽ屣ʩƲά֮⣬ҲӪΪ˴ﵽһĿĵҵҵ1񣩣òֻ֤DzѣΪڽ֤ҪҲղƲȡϡĿģνӦù涨޶޹ڽԻڽԵ[йڽ̷Ե][12],˵ûΪԽɵֺ

йع̶ְҵȻֱӡӵع涨˽ǿƣǿǿƼ루ʦר˷˰ʿ˾˷طݵԱȣЩְҵи߶ȵרҵԡԣΪΪάȷרҵˮ׼ԵһִʩҪֻҪĿļΧϸ޶ΪȷҵߵְҵıȡҵĸƽδسƵǶԽɵֺ[5]ǣִʩ׳ΪʹලȨȨֶΣȻҪעӪʵ̬ڳʹͽȨڵǿͳȨijϣʦЭᣩϸĻ׼빫ijDzǷȱġ[6]ߣڹᣬᷨԭȻǿŽᣨǿ֯һ㱻϶չᷨ7٣[7]˵Ҳȫ[8]
ңбҪʵֶλشٽĻᣬҲضȨȡ[9]ǣֳϣһֺĽɣڶرΡ˼롤ѧϸҪԮԣڽ̽ӦرܷϹ涨2089Ĵڡų˼ִңȻڹϵıҪᡤߵĹ᳹ΪضĽ縳ȨʵľԮõձijϣע빫IJȷӦܷȨͰ澺ԮȨָߵļлԼڵIJͨȨƻΣա
йǷϽ˽associational privacyȻڲͬ۵㣬ΪɵʵȻӦΪܷϵı϶ˣֻҪϲѵıҪԲܱͲȨǿʾйؽԱ߼״ϡԸûǿʾĽ磬ɶԸ˽ɵֺҲӵسΪԽ籾˽ֺ
NAACP v. Alabama(357 U.S.449[1958])ϡڽе˽֮ҪϵΪ˽IJַԣܶೡϣرΪ˵ijϣԱȫ˵Dzȱٵġat 462ʵϣڹ߷ԺڽǷƻIJûйϵijϣڴ˵һֱDzԽԱǿʾģ֮⣬Gibson v.Florida Legislative Investigation Committee,372 U.S.539[1963]Shelton v.Tucker(364 U.S.479[1960])жÿû©¼Ĺȥ5ھ֯ijΪѧУܹʽԮѧУӶΪİɫݷΥܡ

3ɵԼ ҲڹʵϹ̶ڡʵԼȣԽܷ϶ԸΪԴΪĿĵĽֹܹģκܷ12492ܷ181ȾԲΥ·ΪϽɣΣԱƻܷĻΪĿĵĽֹɷ⣬Ȼܲؿ϶92涨ֹΥܷЭ˼塱[18漰212]ܷ182涨ֹܽ缰ʵ֯ǼӵıĿĵĽ硱ʵĹϵƵľ巽ӦעƷпƻܷΣա
µĽ編1964꣩ɽֹݵϼ
󳼣ͽΥԼܷЭ˼ΥԣΥԣȷϺͽɢ֯ƻһнĽֹֹԭϰƲĿѺûգӦ涨[10]ҹΪûйڽְԵķɣ˵ԽзΪĿĵĽ类ֹзϣԽ֯һ㷨ɷΧɵĻȾָֻ׷ÿ·ϵΡƷij⣬Χһɴڵ彫⣬ԷǷĿ˾ִҵְԱȼΥ̷Ϊijϣܹ˾ɢ5894˷DZ漰Χ
⣬ɣѾٰʾԵԱ˵ȨΪĿĵĸԼҪںƽľУʱ뿼ǽĿġܡ籾ڵصȨࡤʡԹϵ߶ûиӷԵĴֶΡûйڵβŵľҪأͳһĽѵġУӪΪĿĵĽ磬νҵĹԼĿǴڵġңʹίеĻܻصĻض£رӦΪܷƵġ
棬彫͸˵ȨĽޡν磨ƻƵ

2 ˵ȨĽ
1ɻ˾Ľ ףΪɵıŽλɣйسԱѡڲɵⲻȨĽ루˾Ľ룩ԭδ
35524¼Ժ²1151145ڶֶᵱɵķ򱣳ԼĴڣΪԼĿĶġᡱΪȻҲӹȨҵķͳϣȲڲϸ΢ֶȫƵģҲǶԲжĺ͸ġҶԲᷨɹƵij̶ȫߣֻҪΥΥסܹεķԼжңεķ淶ʵֺеķDZ뾭ԺȨؽֻҪչرڷԺȨޣͱ뿼ڲδһоԴȻ˵ԼһΪҶԲᷨƵij̶ȫߡһ˵ģоĽӦ˵ǴڸԪ۱ܷɵĹ۵óܷϵĹᡣо߼ڡĶԪԡۣҲڸᣬ繫淨ˡ˾ѧУ罻塢ȣӵиԵķ򡱣ʹ˸еɽ¼о󣩾28116߷Ժ7112УٵĹΪʹЩķ롰ҷһķ򡱵ġΪ̶ֳȵĶǹҴӹӦþϵ⡱ҰΪĹԱķ򣬲ԺѰȼãֻҧĻһ֮ڽ洦ֲ֧ضIJƽ벻ȷУٵΪ淶ġķ򡱵ķ֮ĸݣʵأûĹ涨ijʱҲҪ˾Ľ룬ͬʱĹ涨ӽɵĹ۵ҲʱܳΪ⣩Ӧ˵ҰٵǷȱԽɵĹػĹڸĶ϶

ңϵ˵ȨԼij˵ۣ뿼DZʱ𺦵ĸ˻򹫹༰ij̶ȡĿġܡռȨԵޡǷȨȨ޵ȣ趨˾뼰ðľҸĻ׼ѵġǣΪһһܣԿǶɴʩģAʵƺͣBƣڣAſԷΪ(a)ͣb˽ֿ[11]Ϊ(a)ݣ磬ٲܻ䱾ΥijһɻҪԱΥΪ֮涨ԳԱԳȵIJӦ˵˵ģΪ䱾Υ[12]ڲл֤岻֤Իᳫͨ巴ԵķΪɵij֮ࣨкܵΪںܶೡϱΪDz[13]УʹڲܳΪкΪijϣֹԱרְҵ涨ڶԹڶԸϢҪԣӦΪ[14]ڵԭ׵ԱʡңλΪҪĿĵҪԱϵҳϣӦ˵ԿԳԱͶƱ漰λƲãʹDzλΪҪĿĵ壬еijҲΪζŶҪĿشIJҳλԵʲȡƲôʩ루bĹϵϣȻʩӰɵƲãһȽ΢бҪ̽֡ȣ1ķԺʸ׷ʣ磬ijЩΪɵĽΪжϣΪԺͲ飩أ2ֱԡشԼϵôʩķ֮Ϊ⣨ڲɵĻ׼硰ΪְҵԱжֱѵڴְҵָ˴ش𺦵ijϣΪԺӦĸݡݸ38516[15] һΪڹλλԱƲôְԭϲΪ˾ĶһΪƲôʹ߿͹IJӱȫȨ˾Ĭӳ̶ȵ˾ȨķΧڱжΪ˾ȨΧʱ򣬣3뿼Ŀ֮ȷԼڸĿ֮ʩʵԡʱ϶һĿıΪ⣬һĿIJܴʱ򣬱Ŀ֮ҪĿ֮;иĿĵijϴ磬ĿķԵ⣩ϵ⡣Уᵽݸ38516ȻӦ˵Ϊά֯򣬲ǷĵĹ¡³̣ڷ嵱ȻȨغΪӣҲҪʹʾĹȫ֪԰ֲӦ˵ʹûĹҲԼϼ˵ΪɳûĹȴԲΪɳ
Ϊ(B)ijƵ⣬ȨּȤԺӦôʩǷƶij涨ִˣʱҪ̶ֳȵij޶ȳΪ⡣еΪ൱̶ȣsubstantialɣΧš൱̶ȡɱķ磬ƺҪϸص϶ࣩ涨ڻڷԺֵ£ݺָҪֳеΪϵȨȫĹ£رΧڽ̷ѧֵķݴԪĽۡйڽijϻ[16]ӦΪһΪйطһȻķ淶ҪͳһĹд֮ڵûй֤벻԰ԱȨеֱȻ壩֪ͨṩĻӦ˵ǻӦṩʲôݡʽ֤Ӧ˵Զ죨ĸСģɵij򼴿ɣһ棬ʦЭ־зɱ֤֯ǿƵ壬Ҫ빫Ȩ൱ϸ[17]ֻҪԺҪ޶ȵĹ򣬾ӦΪ϶ʵһǿƶЧֻҪ϶ûԣȻֳҲԸʹ׼仯ΪԺžӦ϶
У漰ȻԱĹϵʹ˵Ĺϵ类ܾжռȨԵֳϣʦЭľܾǼǣҲ⣬Ͼ̽[18]
ܷȨϹ涨˽˼Ч⣬Ҫ˽˽ĹϵвȨҲӦֱӦ˽֮䣬˵ֱܷӹ淶й¹¼߷Ժо[19]ʾѡɵֱá嵱ȻۣʹʹίеȨܻصĻʱҲӦΪʱΪܷ淶ΪһϿӣȻܹٳʦЭ[20]ڰ򹤻һΧһ򣩡ԿȨʹ˵ͬ˵ԽܷƵйش˵ϸø飨«ϲࡤܷȨ1[1978]ע12£2-44
ΪϾۼ壬½򵥵شȨصġ
΢϶ڽ빤ᡣ
2ڽ ףٰʾڽ̽磬Ž̷ԭر΢⡣˷˵ڽ֮̽ڡҼ̵ġǽڡκ˿𡱣غΪӣĻ[21]Ҳ˾Ľ붼Ϊǽڵǣտ͹۵ġ׼򱣻׵ȨŽɵķ˵ʱDZҪġ˵ʵϸ̷ԭڲƲ֧̻Ľʱ˾ĽDzɱġ[22]ʵϣйزƲŵijϻῴ˾Ľ˵˵㡣ҹܷڽ̵ķϵĿģ˽Ⱦ⣬Ϊ˾ԺϽ֮[23]áҪ˽Ȩϼסʵ֮ʱ𽥳Ϊ˾Ȩ[24]Ƿǻϸ̷۵ĽԭìܵľܷǸʣʵΪסֵΪ󳼼ලΪȨĶ[25]12ʾڽ̷˷ܷϸ̷ԭ¹ᴩֻ淨Է棬ڽԻڽԵԭ
ңΪܷȣڽ̷˵Ĵ¡ԱĵλȷΪ˾жϵĶ󣬶йءڽϵĵλڹ涨Ϊ˾жϵĶ󣨲44710[26]й̨ڽĽΪȡڻԱʸȷ21Ĵ35524[27]ΪֱӵȨ޹ص̨ڲ֯⡱ϣڱ̵ıɡߣߵĵλȷ󣬴40712[28]Ϊ˼ʹڶڽ̷˵֯ӪҪϵĵλҲԴڽϡĴڡ³ϼȻûΪ˻˼Ĺ涨ͲϷϵϡô³Ĺ涨ͺϷйΪټijԺ˻صסֵλȷ󣬴4148[29]ΪҪȷϴڴ¡Աĵλ͹ˣûбҪҲûҪȷסֵһλԲϷΪ44710ҲΪҪȷڽϵĵλ˵ҪȷϷϵȨϵ[30]ͬʱΪ¡Աλȷıϸڸڽ̷ˣԣΪĴ3667[31]ΪûСһ˽˳ϵַͬͬԴĸݡڻԱĵλȡһ෴У36324[32]Ϊڹܳܳĵλȷ֮ߺϷбעݵ51416[33]йڽ̷ʥIJ̻񸦳ЧĵλȷΪΪ޵ߵλӦλڡߡǰ׼ʽдҵȣ棨ס񸦹ᣬܸ棩ԭ˵ǡشķϵ桱óΪԺж϶󡣵߼ڽϵĵλΪ˾жϵĶʹԺڽ̽ķ֮Dzǵ̷ԭ򱳵۵ĽأΪֻҪŲƲΪ˾жϵĶһǿģǿע[34]⣬ᵽ߷ԺоСڰȨ籨ȨԺʹȨȣϣֻҪȨϵȷر𡱵һЩʣͬһоҪӦΪ˾Ľֻڹ淨˻صĵλпһ[35]
йԴѧްñΪĿĵľԱαƷΪķ¼¼ͬ˵ΪƲǰڽ⣨ܵ˵ԭΪҪҲΪDZļ֮ıʾǷڣDZʾǷʵ50106[36]ڽϵķΪ硰йڽڲְԱĵλ֮ʵϲǵĶԵڽ֮ġΧƽĶڽ֮ĿȨߣ൱ڴˣԲأǶ51330[37]ȴΪ˽ǰʱȨҲΪּ뷨ǣ̷ּǺ̬ڹȨԤαΧƽ;֮һ㡣Ϊǰ⣬ϵȷթǿȵijϣӦΪΪ˾Ķ[38]
3 Χƹλ άִٽԱĹ۵λģչᷨ2ŹϵԱÿ˼λѡ˵ɵ⡣һԭʼ棩˵ȷض˼ضֵ֧Ĺû⣨ᷨ52ûᵽ˼롤˵ԳĹᣩδʽһҵһְΪ̬״£⣬ҪǴӹضѡֵ֧ľЧԢԹԱΥ־ΪʹͳȨǷǣڻ־ӹ֧ʽľЧԣʽվЧĹ۵׷ʵġۼٺۡ͢
ȣֻڹ湤Ա漰Ϊ彻Ĺʱһ
ξΥĹԱΪʱܹΪͳƴֵĶ󣬲Ӧ˵ڴ˲ſ֧ܽضѡ˵ľ飬ǣΪѡ˱Ӧǹϵͳļֵ˼ϵߣ鲻ڷϾÿ˼롤ɵĹԱ˲ܳΪͳƴֵĸ[39]һ۴ҲԴ1Ļ谭Ϊ۵Ĺ۵㵼һ߷Ժ1¹¼оԼҵ¼о[40]ΪȰ˵֧ضѡ˵ĹΪѡˣΪѡ˵λȻԳΪʵΧͳȨʹΪ޶Υͳƶ֡ǣ෴ݲ²ûƲȨ֤ġͳȨΪΥ۲òΪͳȨľġӰԱĸġԼйضԶɬ֧¼ؾ4936[41]ֻ֮ڡȰ塱ϳϷЧΪͳȨƺ෴ģֻڡȰ˵һзЧûӦöԹԱȰ˵ķУӰ칤ԱʵϵġԽԽ󣬽ӰожķͬʱŵأӦزЩʡϣ¼[42]ΪӦ׵[43]һֻС鵱ʱԱָ֧ѡһʵȷϡ塣
йػضѡ֧־ʽվ¼оУһΪԭЧܹΥĹԱͳƴ֣ͬʱΪܾر[44]ӹԱ˼롤ɻ򹤻ĿΪԹԱûзɾ[45] ӲضԶΪǰĹĻԼڱϵĹԱ˼롤ľܹܾ߽ͳƴֵЧ[46]ǣ˵ܻȫû壬ڻľеĽɣֻҪûرͿʵΪ[47]

3 ν磨
1Ϊ ףν磬ر˵ι̵ʵ֧Ӫ淶ͳܷӦзҪڣܷ涨ͳιʵʡڲ졢ΧμֵIJࡢԹÿճ͸Ȼ֧ȵȶ磬ûܿȨ⣬ͬʱܷϱϸɵϵҲǿ󵽶ÿ˵ճ֧ȹʣ֮ʱڻձܷȴûֱԼĵطǣⲢζŷܷϵƣ׽¼о[48]˵ִᣬΪγɹ˼ý顱ҲΪ֧˳ӪĴڣӦΪܷȻԤĴڡڴĻֱֻܷӵĸݹ涨21ϵġ硱֡硱ϻµĶˣܵԣһػƶȻǽζŶγɻѡ֯γɣ[49]ʹرơֹһĽһĽɡɵɡ롤ɡԱijѵɡλɵõϡ
У21֮14144Ҳϵɣһ棬ԱȫԵ431йԱȨ51йعԱԵ152˵зĺ塣ΪλʷǨ˵triepelνӡӡϼƻܷıĽ׶˵[50]ãʷչ̶ҪգʵЩҪصѻ[51]עĿܷ[52]ԴΪķƶȣォһĽֱ涨ڡȨһ¹涨ǰڡݡһ¹涨ʾѾĽ׶ΣҲ381ֹίĹ涨ĴںжųȨĸ棬һΪܷԺĹϽйһĽ13һ涨뵳ĹƼΥĽֹԣ˵ձܷκܷͬʣ벨족[53]ƶȷΪ˼γЭߵĵλȡٽĴʩΪ䱣׳ΪﲻһĹϵҲȳȨʵϵĹһػԭƶܷϴ⡣˳֮йѺ22ʡطְѺ29ĸĽѡƶȵίԱݵͬѺ31ƶijԣδʵ[54]
ң ձܷıΪɵĽ磬ڡáάĿƣָΪĴĹҡ[55]һϣڽǶصĴڣӦеĴڷʽܿͳλԸ񡣵ǣ˱Ϊһ˽˽粻ͬΪɵĹƶģĿ𡤾ԼҪԣ23Уȷйķ淶ʱĶǸ⣬ֻܳ˵ɡһĺ㳣Թ⣬˵Ȼĵ򡤸⣬й̶Ļ֯塱[56]ĿؾݿԲͬзϻʽͬϵ塤ʵʩߵƽ֧֡Իضѡ˵Ƽ֧֡ԡΪĿĵ塱3?ڣԼ塤ʵʩߵƽȻضѡ˵ƼȻΪҪ֯е塱ۣͬΪ塱ΪУԺԱѡٻԺԱͨѡеȷԼЩȷĹԱ5壨3򣩡ʽ50ΪƽλλĿģӦıȷĽ[57]
2ҪԼ ף ĹܵȷӦðն˵־Ӫ׷󣬽ΪһֹᡣҪǰߵĹ۵ܷҪڲӦʺԭҪӺߵĹ۵ʹݶĸԤ[58]ǣһ˼ЭѺ۵ı£нΪѡٵװõͬͬʱҲȱܷ涨ҹȨΪѵʾ涨ҰʲôǿʽԤ˼γɼ䷽ְѡ˵ѡµѡΡļɵȵ[59]˾ĽҲӦΪ׼22ڽԭϲ[60]
ʽĹҲǹϵֵҪܷĹ涨ĹҲƶȣҹ޶ʽ൱ǿ˹ƣṩѡٹίԱᣨԳơѡܡδ󳼲Ӧ֧ļdzϸ磬ʽ䳬1Ԫ䳬100Ԫľߵסְҵȡ12һƶرѡṩϢֹι̵ĸֹĹ۵㱻ͬʱ涨һƶȵķɵġ©״̬һܵУͬʱλɼλ͵Ŀ⣬ӦڷɵײνΰΣաڹ߷ԺھߵʾƣʾС֤˱ַȨĺĸȻԵijпų[61]һֵע⡣
ң˵ġԴƽȻ ΪɱĶ֧һ׷ҲΪa˵Լ(b)ԴƽȻҪԹƵɼתһɱΪ䣨a˵ԴƽȻ˼룬ҹԱΪԼɵҪӦñ롱ĶҹԱ102طԱ36ȣҲӦڴijɷ֡ȻҲŹԱıԼص⡣Ϊ(b)ӦĿԾٳʽľƣơʵơɣְѡٷѡ˶֧ƵȣֳҲžλɣΪΪЧ۲ȱٵֶε壩ԼйʽáʹõԺ˶ɵ͵Ŀ⡣˳֮ڹ߷ԺΪƲֱֺѡ˵ۡȨΪڱȫѡٹ̵ֻǺܵģѡ˶ѵǶԺѡߡ񡤽ϵıʵֱӵƣΥܵ[62]
3Υܷ ɴκܷı³ɳʹྭ飬ڲӦɵķɵ˼루νսơ£ĿĻԱΪΥɵĻ򡱵ΪΥܣжΪܷԺֹ21[63]ʹǷȱֹ涨ձܷ֮£Ҳѧ˵A˵Ųȡ÷ԽɢΪ޶ȵͬƴʩҲӦһĽͬ͵ձܷӦؽͣB˵A˵ָֻǣȫ뷨ǷΥΪѧǰԭԵԼɵĿԵǰ£ҲǷܹʵǣĿıΪɲȡɢƴʩΪܷϵľȨ֧˼롤ĵɻݣң˵ġɵĻҲΪǷȷԹȨȨȨءƽȷܣû̫𣩣һʱȨõΣռ
(4)塤ѹ ףʽ塱ҲΪƶͬ걨걨ı䶯걨ɢȵ걨ʵĵܳΪ677֮3Ҷδ󳼼ѡٹίԱᣬĻ7֮2걨ȸǰϸĿġơҪڵءҪ򡢴ߡߵȵסȣԼ͵걨걨ʱ涨ʵʽȨʵʵȨ[64]ͬȻû̷ֱǿ걨걨£Ϊλѡ˶νܻ֧ֹ8ΥĸҪְԱԱ23Уδ󳼻򶼵ѡٹίԱᰴͬ涨걨ϡȱΪʽϲزʱ涨Ҫ˵31ܾ˵˵αΪĶ24ӹ˵ġȷλĹ빫ԴıεĽȫչּȤʽ1ʹйҲһƣƴʩȻƽɣӦֹС޶ȣ䲻ܲʵ塱ķΧر313ŵ޶ķʽ⡣ұ⣺᲻ڡ塱УϻԼϻҲڶ֮⣩бҪעⲻҪΪѹνֶΡ
ңڵιУνѹԼԺ⼯ŻߵĻҪ壬ȷλĹ빫̵Ĺ۵ܳΪһ⡣ҹȻûΪһƶķɣرԾͳΪشĹĶɶij֮1946ٱɷвһԵԺȻԺҵĵ¼Լ֧Ϊ񣬵ڹ߷ԺڱĿΪֹһڱȫιһ޶ͨ͡ԱֱӽӴӰΪҪĿļǮˣġԼȨĹ۵֧[65]һоУ˹ٵķҲϵȻ˵ûȨҪʾ繫һ̸۵Ա˹ΪֵɡɡԸȨȲֱԺڶΪ˲漰ӰΪĿĵļȵۻҷֹԹ㷺ΪƶƴӦΪԶе޶Ϊܷϵ޶ȣбҪȷġ

4 ΧƻƵ
1ƻ뷨ɿƵ ףƻ϶ɱ ΪķȻò׿ϲȫ֯ƶȴش𺦵Ľ磬һľòɱ漰жἰƶƻΣյĴԼΣյԸ񡤳̶ȣȷӦΣյʵĶԸԤ⣬ش⡣жijЩضĽǷƻԵĻ᲻ͬͬͬҲʱͬģĽδΪƻԵĿ˵ûС167͵ڽսĽ̻ۡ189ΪͨϹıöĹ۵ֵܹ͡Խῴʱ仯ҲʱʶػʱƹнظıʡƻԵģҲ䲻ǿģвῴΣյģ෴ָش𺦣ƻƶ֮ƻʲűʶɴ⵳
ϣƻԵ϶ǷdzѲΣյĹΪɱȷ˼롤ζƻķɿҪעⲻҪ漰˼롤
ңɿƵ ӱȽϷĽǶƻķɿȻָйΪơָֹйؽʵΪƻɵȣͼǿڽĹġѹ缰Աĵ¼ǿƵڴࡣ2ֿƽ缰ԱһΪΪƲõĶڸ缰ԱкϷĻһ3ֿ𡣶ԽĿ˰ȨԼԾÿ۳ľܾԱеơܾΪԱáѡƵڴࡣ3ֿΪףͼѹƱ϶ΪƻĽڱԳΪijԱйصƲãһϽγһԺĻ״Ͻɢһʩڴࡣ
1͹ϵرǽ˽ԼܾԼȨȣ1͵ĿƲΪɱҲϵۡ桢ᡢеɵȣ3͵ĿֱΪɵֺΪ⡣Ͼϸ潫ҹƻֹΪĽп졣
12߷ԺȻΪ˽õϣƻֹίԱὫڹ϶Ϊ塱´¼ǷCommunist Party v. Subversive Activities Control Board(367 U.S.1[1961])УһۣһǿƻֹڰȫϷһ֣ĵ¼Ҫֻ֧Ϊƽ繲˶֮Ŀĵ֯ڵ¼ҪҪĹҪԼֹ汣˵Ե¼Ҫʵһϣǰȵ¼ԼԱǿƹΪΥܵThomas v. Collins,323 U.S.516[1945],NAACP v.Alabama,357 U.S.449[1958],Shelton v.Tucker, 364 U.S.479[1960]ȣͬΪΥ1漰ľܾԼȨʱAlbertson v.Subversive Activities Control Board(382 U.S. 70[1965])һУоÿԱĵ¼ַȨ[66]
ҹķƶУΪ2עĿΪԱǷȱʸܹٳձܷʵʩԺ󣬽Աƻձܷ³壬Ҽߡһ㣨ҹԱ38ݣطԱ16ݣӷ38ܣѧУ9ܵȣǣ˭ķ϶Ƿ൱壬ƶϲȷҲΪÿȨ϶ʱȻȫͳһΪ⣬ҲпܰƷΪơɢ屻壬ҲпܱΪᡣԵ϶׼ͬʱ϶ĹԵȻΪ⣨йƷûʵ֤ͽ϶ӦΪΥҪ󣩣Ӧ˵ʹͳΪǷȱҲʧ·йأUnited States v.Robel,389 U.S. 258 [1967] оѽܵ¼Ĺ֯Ա·ʩڵĹΪƷĹ涨ʧַȨ

2ƻֹ ףƷռƶȵ涨˽ֹܵġġ˹ġԼĽɡָֹ˴Ϊָܲɢְͺֹƶġ˵ڰȫϷΪ͵[67]ݱݵĹϵ߲Ϊ˵¼Ϊο[68]ƶʱʷ״ܷϵDZҪĿƹ򹲲塣
1950ڰȫϷƷʱнɣƷѹΪ塱͡Χ塱˾ٵ¼ǰȥ12ȫԱһ¼ĴʼȱҪйıʾԱְֹܵȸֲ˳֮AlbertsonRobelоĽʹʵϳΪִе״̬[漰ʵʩƻֹίԱԤ1973걻]ͬʱʱнһҲûжù1940˵¼Ա߸ƻڹıҪԵȣгȻɢгļΪ߸ƻ֯Լ֪ĿĶΪԱΪΪΰҹġҰȫϷԼȵȻʹ뵽ڰȫϷеƷȷʵЩѾྶͥ
ңƷĿڢƶΪ˱ƻıҪƴʩͬʱڡڱƻ̷涨Ӷڹȫȷ1ΪƻĶ壬ٳΪ4񣩡a̷涨ҡҵԤıҵȵİ⻼¡⻼Ԯ⻼¡⻼Ԯδ졤ԤıΪĽʵҡ⻼¡⻼ԮΪĿĵɿʵҡ⻼¡⻼ԮΪΪĿĽеʵеԻҪԵļͼӡˢšȻʾΪbƽ֧ϵʵʩ߻򷴶֮ΪĿġеɧšݻ𡢼ѡɱ˵ȣΪԤıʵΪĿĵɿΪΪٵƴʩʩίԱΪ˱ƻ壬гΪԵĿܼ򷴸Ϊбƻʱ墡.涨ܳ6µڼ䡤򣬽ֹʵмʾ˶Сᣬ.涨ܳ6µڼ䣬ֹ־ijӡˢţ.涨ܳ6µڼ䣬ȡʩֹƻйصҪְԱԱΪ˸еΪ5񣩣涨ڶ϶ЩЧʱָܹĽɢ7Ϊڵ̷ĵЩƻĸԼΥΪ
ֽṹΪǻڶսǰΰرΰάַķʡΪ˼ΪĵĽĿΪĶɣɲֶζ˼뱾ĽӦýȡ޶ڱľĻΪĽ[69]ȷΰάַĿõ÷dzɢƷûй涨ĿҲûн֯ΪԼΪԱΪĶ󣬻ڰȫϷԽ缰Աĵ¼ӦۡDzɷ񶨴żشѵ㡣
˵¼Dennis v. United States (341 U.S.494[1951])ΪܣYates v. United States (354 U.S.298[1957])У𡰳۵ᳫ롰жᳫ˵¼кܽͣΪݹɲΪɱķ֤ݲֵͬʱоͬν֯ζִ֯Ϊںڹǣ׷ͬġԱΥScales v . United States (367 U.S.203[1961])У߷ԺȻϡоͼкϷǺϷĿߵͬһɽֹĻֺαֻʵΣաΪڡ1ڡжᳫᳫñ߸ң2ˢ롰ġġǻĻ򴿼ԵġԱġġԱ֪ΥҢСֻҪ״Ѹ١߸ضͼij˵¼ãϺڹɵίԱ

ȣڱƻĹҪĹ涨ġȷΰά̷ַͬΪΪ֮вܷijɷ֣ΪﹹҪġ[]ҡ412ŵġϵʵʩߡҪҲڹ㷺Ҳȷڶڲý˵ͬʱֽɿҲ˶ķΪijδҪߵʵΪɿʹ˲ʵоıҪҲûУΪѹֲʽʹܵʧȥжϴ̼Ϊ42֮ܵʹ˲ʵСΪľʹڲľƵĴ̼[غΪ]˵㣬ѹΪʵеԻҪԵļͼӡˢȣ4٥ˣͬΪ۱ܷϼʵġйش˵ڣ3
ΣأܱΪƶġ塱˼δȷ43жϡضĹͬĿġ˼ˡķΧġ˼൱΢ģŶԽ˵൱̵ĽɢƴʩһִһģǴжΰ״ѸپӦʵʩõӦ״̬Ĺ۵ǽһεжȨسеDzѵ飬ȴûй涨䣨Ȩشֺԣ˾ֵʣӦĹӦ˵شȱݡҲ˵ƴʩڹٵɹίԱʱ屻ĻᣬƵĹͨʦ֤ݼ֤˶Ȩ涨ְԱҪ鲻Ҫ֤ݣڹίԱijУûи赱֤ĻᡣңƵľԡΣաΪǿܵġھڷԺִ;ǿŵģĹ淢Ч25ڣڰȫϷڷԺִijϣԺоδȷֵЧ
Ļƶڸ6һڼΪ涨Էƾпܴ꣩Ҹ̲Źе⣬رǻ־ֽĻƴĽֹΥܵɵŨʵǻͬһı༭루ͬһԵжϴӿУԵǺߡʽϸĿʵͬһݵĶ6ֹӱܷƲõΪֹԺӡˢţҲܱͳ㣬ٴӽֹǾԵûб绤ء
ʵ϶ƶԷֹƻжأѵֻշ»ѲϵѶ𣿡ʹ˲ǡ
3Ʒйص ףûƷйص̷йձѺ27굱ʱĻ3822ŵǷDZ׷·򡤾᪸¼[70]ԼƽΪĿĵҪ˰ɱƻ39401ŵǷDZ׷ν¼[71]ǽ[72]ȻоûΪù涨Υܣ϶ֻ¼
ңȣ3822ţԡҲǾԵġʹһֺ棬ΥʱӦóܵơ¼1о߼¼о򵥵سϸù涨ĺԡֻǴӸݱҲпܵԼʶʹעĿ¼ĺܶо̸ִΣաԭ򡣲ԭȴһԸԭΪǰԱΪΣշĽֻ᪸¼1о¼2оȻ϶ۼԭ򣬵ҲԥؽﶨΪΣշһΣշ˵縷¼¼2оҲã᪸¼оԡִΣաԭ1оһ϶ƵΨһԵĻ׼ٹڶϣǷȱʵ֤ԡΪ2ļʵΪĿķŵΪΣȫĻȫΣҲֵóֱ
ӴѾ֪áִΣաԭijϲ˵ʹڲôԭijϣͳƵܷÿҲδȷĿΪĿĵĶصķʽҪɱ鴦塤ԤΪ֧ԭ[73]Σպܴһ϶ļʵҵԡҪԵģ·¼оΪļΪѡٵļ[74]ͬʱйʹʵеĿġ۵ͼҲ֮ʵʩĿԻȻΪΪʾйش˵Ŀǣ·¼1󡢵2оΪΣԵĹ۵ϰյģǣǷܹȷȡһ⣬ûһΪ⣬رǵ2оݳΣշ˵򵥵ؿ϶ŵĺǴʵġдһϵ޶δȷΪܷϵҪġһ㼴ʹйȷָáִΣաԭоҲǿ˵ģͬԭҲΪܷ21ȷĽ׼ջΪܷʵĶ֮[75] ң߷Ժԭ˵ʾйʵĿĵĽͣͬ2ķҪأΪĿĵĽܷɵıϲܽΪоܵƵ˼᪸¼ΪԭоּȤǼ۵ҪԼͬ2ķⱾŵӦΪ֮жΪ˵ʾνܷ[211213]Ľ͡¼Ҳս¼
¼Ǿƽ˰ʧҵսΪĿĽеƻƷ3940ߵ¼1󱻸һıоڵ2õ֧֡1оġƽ֧ϵʵʩ߻򷴶֮ĿġȻϡ涨ķڲ֮㣬еغܶࡱΪͨߵͼµĶʮֿܵġ˲жߵҳ̶ȵĿ͹ԡܷ21ĹϵϿ϶ִΣաԭ׵ԣΪĿĽɧšɱ벻Ŀĵ죬ǶṫشֺֻҪ涨ΪֻǹֺΣֱдڵĹ涨Ͳ˵ΥǰִΣաԭ򡱡ǣһּȤǷܴȷȡӦ˵ղͬ⣬ڴ˵㣬2оΪԭǽصķ桰õһġձԭĽҲȻΪǰᡪһͬ2ȷġ
⣬1оΪνϵ塱ζšʱ塢塢塢塢ҪʵֵıȽϻġ㳣ġһԭ򡱣νϵʵʩߡζšҪʵֵıȽϾġʱġķӦضʷġġõġĻķУνΡΪ˼γִеĻָֹ֯áΪ൱ڡϵʵʩߡ
߼飺Σ 1937ѧѧҵԭѧѧڣΪѧڡܴѧѧڣձ˾ƶȸĸ᳤СܷԺ1981ܷ˾Ȩձ磬1984ִ˾Ȩ쳸1988ȣԡᡤɡڢ֣«ϲࡶܷȨ1쳸197842£602-633ҳиڷűб䶯
ߣձѧѧʿְйѧԺѧо


[1] 1964½編Ķ壬类涨ΪʷʽΣȻ˻ϳڵĹͬĿĶϣ֯˼γɵ塱֣ڱճҰʵµ½編1-3ѧۼ186130ҳ7176ҳ8146ҳ1965µĽ編12о371019ҳ1135ҳ1966
[2] ն43131¼Ժ²191=241
[3] ָһģաComment:Freedom from Political Association:The Street and Lathrop Decisions,56 Northwestern University Law Review 777(1962)˳֮ȨԹ涨κ˲ʹijһ塱20򣩡
[4] ͬ۵㣺ԭɡɡھһ=ұࡤѧϰܷ323-4ҳ1972
[5] һ˵ڿΪһ㱻ˣűبܷ217ҳ[1976]ԭСʦ92ҳ[1976]ձܷȴǻɵģǰǿǿƼҽʦȱǿƽɢطݵԱ˾˷ҲûгǿƼơΪθı뷨ܶ෨ֱӡӹ涨ǿǿƼ롣ֽ涨ͽȨȴֻʦ⣬˰ʿ525941331߷Ժ[̼]203146򵥹Ϊͬǹƾ߱ͬҪķ˰ʿԱе˰ʿҵģԽûκơغΪӣǣֹʹ˲²⼴ʹְҵѡҲȫûнɵʶĴڡdzġ˳֮˵ԼݴǿƼķɽ壨ڴ˵㣬ӢӢ˾241ҳ[1973],ǷǿƼִΡ¼Уڹ߷ԺǿλǸһ֣Ƿ߷ɽĽġˮ׼һĿģ˵ǿƼ뵫޶15Ԫ̶֧ȣ϶ܣLathrop v. Donohue,367 U.S.820[1961]ǣԺȴз磬رǵ˹ٵķΪʦǿƼǿܵģôҽҽʿʦҩʦմ̡˵ȵijҲΪܵģǿǴǡregimentation(رζżȨҵġ֯)
[6] ʦΪ¼תʻ¼ľܾͽ֮һġпʦЭá1215ԼʦЭá5660ıغΪӣ벻ȷ̡֮⣬תʵľܾ¼ľܾҪʸᡱ᳤ʦ١ټѧʶ֮ίС52 󣩵ı1215񣩣תʵľܾܹձʦϻ鷨飨12󱻲ؾܾ¼ܾʱܹ򶫾ߵȷԺϣ16񣩡УйʦЭijͽ䴦Ҳܹ飨59ϻIJþͽܹ򶫾ߵȷԺϣ62
[7] ڹ߷ԺڻΪ彻ߵĹĻԱҪԸݡRailway Employes Department v.Hanson,351U.S.225[1956]
[8] ԹԱ޽Բչй൱һΪּͬʱӵģ˳ͬʧЧΪּĽ·43130Ͷϵ²19161ΪǡȻʵϷֹ˳ͼ¸ӵģȫ˵˳ɣȻȷ˳ɡ̶ֳȵ飬ΪŽȨݱϣ˵ŽȨãҲɶԽɵֺ
[9] R.A.Horn,Groups and the Constitution,pp.160-5(1956)
[10] ϸע1ס
[11] ڡDevelopments in the Law: Judicial Control of Actions of Private Associations,76 Harvard Review 983(1963)(ԳơJudicial Control)
[12] Nissen v.International Brotherhood of Teamsters,229 Iowa 1028,295 N.W.858(1941)Ϊ᲻ԾܾԷԺIJΪɽйԱȨֹͣ֡
[13] Gallaher v. American Legion,154 Misc.281,277 N.Y.Supp.81(Sup. Ct.)(1934)Ϊ罻ֲԹȻᳫֲͬԵķΪɿԱȻҲҪ罻ֲʡ
[14] Bernstein v.Alameda-Contra Costa Medical Association,139 Cal.App.2d 241,293 P.2 d 862 (Dist.Ct.App.1956)
Ϊҽʦֹ涨ȻΪֹ֤ͥʱЧ˽ȴЧJudicial ControlƺӦȫЧat 1008 n.21
[15] ߵȷԺ[]163195оԱȴ˺ססլɵľøͨϵĿͿֲݵ37327Ͷϵ²132239ֱӵΪ籾֮شΪ˾ĶйصطԱֹͣϯͷ351019߷Ժ14122633ΪȻϯֹͣӦñΪڲ⴦֡йԱɥʧشֻǵڲ⡱
[16] աJudicial Controlat 1027
[17] ΧŶʦͽ䴦ֵЧʱڣ42927߷Ժ2171955Ϊôǡһ֡йؾע6⣬йʦͽ䷨ϵ⣬յڶʦЭࡤʦεԭ62ҳ£1976
[18] ҽʦܾᣨطҽԺûлԱʸҽʦ׵¼УԺΪҽʦͨռȨѾ˽Ľ磬ΪиӦôٽҽѧר빫һ棬ӦԺϷķʹְܵĴڣڶԭش󾭼ʧΪҽʦĴʩFalcone v. Middlesex County Medical Society,34 N.J.582,170 A.2d 791[1961]
[19] 43124߷Ժ[̼]22131425
[20] ʦЭᡤձʦϻʵʩʸ顢ͽȣԿּȤţΪʦЭеȨãԿӦΪҾԤ㣨ԭСʦȨ⡷1663ҳ[1965]
[21] Everson v.Board of Education,330 U.S.1,18(1947).
[22] L.Pfeffer,Church,State,and Freedom,p.301(1967).߱ԷԺжϷǷġ
[23] 磬ɲйʩܴѡǷʵĴ32510Ժо¼5566סǷʵΪȾ뿪ԺζƽĴ33216Ժо¼6255ȡ
[24] 35331Ժо¼8382
[25] д6125Ժо¼232056
[26] ߷Ժ2381423
[27] ¼Ժ²1151145
[28] ߵȷԺ[]184364
[29] ʱ45224
[30] 51428ʱ82469ҲҪȷϽܶһԺסΪ˴µȾλΪסֵĵλµĵλǷֱģסֵĵλΪϹɵĶĵλϲϷ
[31] ¼Ժ²1261310
[32] ¼Ժ²123598
[33] ʱ337104й̻񸦽δЧĵλȷ󣬴52526ʱ86176ݵƵʽϷϵԡ
[34] 硰CommentJudicial Intervention in Disputes within Independent Church Bodies,54 Michigan Law Review 102,110(1955)Judicial Controlat 998-1001
[35] ͬһּסڽڵij뷨ϵԡʱ34088ҳ1977й١Ķлصľʱϵʵڽ̰ѡ61ҳȡɲͬĽ͡
[36] ʱ80292
[37] ʱ80927
[38] СֱˡڽķȨޡ21236ҳ1976ΪڽϵⱾȷΪĿĵļȷжϡ޳ɶУҲӦ籾⣨סע35 88-9ҳҲеġգáڽ̽ķ˾ȨĿ졷Ƿѧۼ2031ҳ[1977]⣬ֵעǺڹ߷ԺйشͳĸۣΧŽ̻ƲķһʵΪԺ̻ĸʲôǣǿжǷڴĽ൱̶ȵ룬ʹԺԴڽ̵ĺIJλΥܵġPresbyterian Church in the United States v. Mary Elizabeth Blue Hull Memorial Presbyterian Church , 393 U.S.440,449-50[1969]
[39] ˵˵ƺʯվáᡪ֯ͳơۺоͶ5209ҳ[1959]ȣƬԕԱѡ˵빤ͳȨĽޡѧ41669ҳ1969Ϊʹѡٻ᱾ĿһijϣԱΪܵһľҲ빤Ա˵ĻȨijͻijϡ
[40] 4442ͶѮ7084
[41] ͶѮ85865
[42] ޤǫһ֧ضѡ˵Ĺ˴ӹԱʽĹЧ18812-3ҳ1974УͬΪѺϷľ顤Ӧô֪ԱĹ¡³ϵ񣬽ָ֧ѡ˵ľ鰴չ¡³̵Ĺ涨֪Ա
[43] ·ؾ481217ʱ73342ʢԵؾ49319ͶѮ85853ʾ̬ȣ־ڷϾԱΥΪɵͳƴЧԾлҪ޶ڹлһڴ
[44] 41331ʱ44791
[45] 磬ݵ47331ʱ67595ؾ481217ʱ73339У501128ʱ330201
[46] ޤӡע4214ҳףɲաJudicial Controlat 1066-7⣬ΪͳƴҲܵ˵塶ķͶ53142ҳ1964
[47] 52531ʱ349146501128ͬʱ־ΪԹԱѡټλɵֺΪڷЧУԭ򱻸湤⽻֧ԮʽԼҪԭ湤ʿ۳Ҫ󣩣Ͽ˹ԱIJעĿ
[48] 45624߷Ժ246625
[49] աķƻܷѧ[2]730ҳ1975
[50] Triepel , Die Staatsverfassung und die politische Parteien(1928).
[51] رǿ˵Уٹķƻξ۴9239ҳ1959
[52] ⣬˹ϵܷеĿҲעĿйվСڷܷеѧԺѧ73=4243ҳ1977СҰƿܷĵλһѧۼ2711ҳͬ239ҳ1976ȡ
[53] ɽ140-1ҳ1976
[54] йЩ鰸ĸԲɽͬ148ҳ¡⣬ܷᡤܷõʵʵı顪ᡤڸ󡤲طΣܷᱨ鸽4[1964]ͬᡤڸ󡤲طεı飨ͬ9[1964]Ҳֵòա
[55] R.A.Horn,, Groups and the Constitution,p.99(1956).
[56] ɽע5319ҳ
[57] ǰָƽֻ֧򷴶ϵʵʩߣƼֻ֧򷴶ԹְѡΪĿĵ塱һ嵱ʱߣĶձĿǷ׵Ȼ⡣
[58] Horn,op.cit.,p.101˵ӦóԾʵǣݴȡ˾˭ں·չɵԱԱں³ļеȨغΪӣ
[59] Ԫһ«ϲ==ɼԭ̩۱ࡤϰܷѧϰϵ1973꣬Ժ磩503-4ҳ
[60] йΧԱʸOBrien v. Brown, 409 U.S.1(1972)ڰʾͬʱ桰ҲܷϵĽĸȨJ. G. Kester,Constitutional Restrictions on Political Parties,60 Virginia Law Review 735,778-9(1974)ҲΪйִԤѡٵijۣ󲿷ֳ1ļֵӦ֧ԵģԺؽ֯ĵ飬ҪӦ漰ĹƼ֮ڲľʱţ磬ΪΪְָѡ˵ԤѡٵһһƱƲʺϵѡѡ٣⣬Cousins v. Wigoda, 95 S.Ct.541(1975)ΪĴԱʸΪݷоݷԺֹڵⱻʸĴԱϯַν1ϵȨ
[61] Buckley v.Valeo,96 S.Ct.612,661(1976).
[62] ibid.at 653-4.
[63] ʵϣ1952۹SRP1956¹KPDΥܶȽɢйش˵㣬ۡ½ֹоʱ281182ҳ1956,ա¹Υоѧ2272ҳ1968ȡ
[64] ɽ䡤ʽ113ҳ1975
[65] United States v. Harris, 347 U.S. 612 (1954).
[66] о飬Ӣ򡶹ڹȡڹ߷Ժоѧ23232ҳ1961xС߷Ժоѧ12124ҳ1968ȡ
[67] СТڱɵ幬=ٹࡤܷ2173ҳ
[68] ֮=ٹ[]ƻֹ26ҳ1952⣬йصͬαչԣսΰٱʡѧ1229ҳ1952ȡ
[69] =١ע68 11-2ҳ
[70] ·29915ʱ363ϸ31330ʱ7421ȷƽ30228ʱ483ݸ371224ʱ3291042720ʱ49668߲ȷǾ311227ʱ112141421ʱ4561642922ʱ49676߲ȷ᪸34127ʱ1835ݸ39114ʱ39624391221ʱ39619߲ȷ
[71] 39530¼Ժ²65=66944265ʱ492204572߷Ժ[̼]247412
[72] ⻹УйΪٵĵĶԿʩǷ൱ڴ鰸33219ʱ1436Ԯ̷362̵ͬʱΪƷƻƼΪƵĵ飬ΪȷȫԻȨֻڱҪС޶ڽƲΥܷ
[73] ܲ䡶Ʒе߼״ʱ428ʱ186ҳ1970
[74] ·¼Ϊѡʱձձ㲥ļڽ¼ΪDZ뿪ʼװ׼жļ¼֮졷2ţ縷¼ɽ򵼡СӳΪ⡣
[75] ΪԭĸݣϸߵȷԺо˵ּܷǰּʾּڵ3й涨ּȤҲƷ23Ĺ涨طԺоָĸԭ򡱡