ΩԸƽˮʹ罭ϣ
et revelabitur quasi aqua iudicium et iustitia quasi torrens fortis

 

˸乲ͬ塪
(Otto von Gierke)ġȻۣ1500-1800


1783꣬ҮذԡȻסԱһյأһһǷȨԡ1789꣬DzİѡȨ빫ȨԡԱߣͲö֪ˡ϶ǣͨԡѷʵһ磬Ҳ18¾ɴ½ϣԡ˶Ȼ츳ȨҴ˸Ϣ⹹18Ļ衣
һʱdzʶĶһʱΪ۶ѡͬ䵽ˡԡͷϡ19ͣԡʾЩҲЩĴŸŵйӲдڷɺͱɲԼͬػصȥҪŪٵģΪʲôʧȴdzɹģΪʲôܳɹȴʧܵġ18151848֮д͵ÿһʷڻ򰵵رΪЩṩ𰸵IJȻʷʷУǽѰ󵱴˵ȨԼָ˵塣ǣ19ͶԸԭǿķԵ¹. ִʷȨĹ19ʷѧҵػ˿ĽDZĸԡϸ涨ŵģÿ嶼ƾصĸΪͬĽҵԼĹףÿһʷ·ʱڵĵ¹ʷΪ˵µձʷǣʷϵ۵ĴֻܷҪԱǵطʷ編ͥ18ϣȻѰձ˺ձȨ19ϣʷ
ͨͽӵӰǹ㷺ԶģֵʷѧʷȨԼģҲǴˡάƾЩʷѧɡڷ18͵ȻȨѡʷѧһ, Ҳһ, Ϊͷչ绤, Գʷ, ƶܰ, ÷徫еʷɳ, ǿ˸ڸ˸Ժ͸Դԡ18͵෴˵άʷѧɵ֣ôѧɵĵ߷塣һλľġȻۣ15001800꡷
19͵ĵ¹, ͵¹ѧ֮ĻַչΪķ硣ڵ¹˶, 15ͳ, Ӱ¹ƶȵʱԺֳĸ, ¹Ϊ乲ͬ龫񡣵¹ķḻʽǵ¹ע, ͬʹԵ, ֹע˸(group person) ľ͹ͬĸ巨Ƿȱġնͳ, 徫Ȼķֻ" 徫" ȻȻγɵ, ɴ˲ķɺĻǺϷġ־, ſγ" " , Ϊ, Ϊġʶƶ1500굽1800ʱɾĺʱڣͨ͵Ŀͷмба֮ã˲еѧǷ18ȻȨ۵Ҫ˼Ҳֹ־һҪ˼
˽ΪڽΪ" " ֵ˶еһѧ, ˵ڵ¹һʷк潹ǸеϱΪԵ" " ¹˽֮ĶЩͼִֹʱ˳άṹиȨģʽֵҪ۾ݡ봴һµġŹͬ徫ٿˣģʽṹ෴ķѧһӳǰλνṹһʶصIJ¹еԹͬ徫Ʊʹijܱòʱ, ֳ, 嵳̫ͨ˼άıǩ, ʵƷյĹʵ
ҪָǣζŶԻ˺ⱾСʵǻۺǻDzͨԼġ18͵е̬ڳĶӦֻϸ΢ơֻޡݵijɹ԰Ȿ鿴ṩ𰸵һֳԡλļǣܹԼµĹӦ˵ŵ乫ʹǷߣҲǾ߱ûжϵˡζŹ߱ijЩܺ͵ԡҲǵ¹ѧضäĿĪ񣬵κιҶԶ˽ŸӡԼṩĽվֻDzֵĺʱġʿµѧεĺû͵ĺûÿһڲûIJͬʽϡóǰĿǡӦõõҸǰĺû̶ʵˡδʵһĿġʿ²ͷijһ£ձãӶעҪһָ߼ʽ
෴ִõ18ʶ̬ǿʶ̬츳ġɰȻȨΪƱܴٳõӶĺԭϣرʽڷǹŵģרƲִġ˹˵仰ȴ෴ʷʵڻۺʵ֤Ľ죬Ȼ֮ԸȨ֮ȻʵĵıҡԵʴӡǣƽȡȨԼĸȨȻԭ϶δʧʵҲǣɡͣ·ȿɵãһ׮šͳͻι̣δʾ꣬Ҳ̣ҲҲǺõġڡȻ֮ṩˡʷάȣʷʵ֤άȵIJϳͻսεĴ۾ǡͻս뱻εĶǡֱִָijЩ֣ƽԴͬIJߣʹ߳ΪϲġɡйνɡųƣˡпάԵ귨ġΡڣ֮ϵijѧεĵжҸͬʱʧϵ˼ǻ˵ϣڣҲⱾļֵڡ


Otto von Gierke, Natural Law and the Theory of Society, 1500-1800,
Trans. by Ernest Barker,Cambridge At the University Press, 1934