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et revelabitur quasi aqua iudicium et iustitia quasi torrens fortis

 



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Ҫİ󲿷֣⹹60ĵ1968״ڰ跢⹹۵Ϸư˹(differance)Ӱ죻Ү³ѧɱޡΪ׵Ү³ѧɼص㣻1987걣ޡܵк͵¶򣬽⹹ķĻй21Ļ塣

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⹹Եݼһ"ṹ"ġ1968İʱѧ˶ˡij̶ֳȴDZijУнڰ裬ⷨķԴءңԶĺ⽦µһŻ𻨣ȴĻΧзչһƷ֣⹹塣伤ĸ屳۵ۣԶԪԿֻ϶ԪȨģΪһ˶ֹݵĽṹ--⹹--ع-ٴɣǵ"ִ"(presence)ãһ""(being)""""(absence)ġ֮תΪ"д"(writing in general)˶֮ϵ�"Ϸư˹"(di-fferance)˶ִ֮Ϊټ(trace)䱾Σ֮"Ĩ"(erase)죬𡣽⹹˵ǿ"""""޲"֮"ṹ"޲ʱҽ⹹⹹κ֮־߻дʹӿ֮áԪ֮ṹ⹹໥Ӱ죬ǹ֮˶˲ۡ޶⡢ʱ䲻ֹռ䲻Σ̶ı޶⣬""ΪһУ"Ȩ"Ϊ""ֻһֽṹĹܡ۷һнζѧһԪۡԪԿͳһϣּڽ㲻Ȩģյͳһ־

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Ϸư˹۵ĵҮ³ѧɡ

1968J.ڷѧѧᣨ裩һƪġ"differ-ance"ۡ⹹Ӵ70仧һ�"ṹ"˺80Ϊߵѧеۣ͸ʷܸҮ³ѧΪƴѧʽӰѧ˶սʢе""ǵһλʱѧ߱ޡ(Paul de Man)˵198312ǰ"ѧĽ"ȫߵĹʣǵ˷Ϊ"ʥޡ"ȤǰΪһ⹹(differance)ijУҮ³ȴǵһʷѧ紫⹹͵ѧ˵ĴѧͬºͽǰJ.H.(J.H.Miller)B.Լѷ(Barbara Johnson)L.(Louis Mackey)G.(Geoffrey Hartman)ȡ

1987귢һʹܴ£һλѼȫʱڱʱսڼ䱻ɴӹܵıֽϷֵ20ʱдļƪ̫ѧѺõ£Ϊ̫ѧѧײڵʱɴ̵Ĵ󱳾£侮Ͷʯھ֮Ĵ1987121աʱԶͷţ"Ү³ѧߵ¿ɴⱨֽ"һʱۻȻʼһĶԵĴУڲμеý岢⹹˵Уۣı޶֮ѧ˵ĵ춯Ϊʷⳡڽѧ֮ˮ90ʧȥͷ꼰㣬Ϊ̫ȴҲ⵽""Ķ֮ڻýŴѧѧλĹܵýĸšܽ20ĵĴ׿Խ۹

90°˼ǡеΡϡ۵㡭̸¼J.еġһӽ⹹塷Ҫ鼮س˹ڽ⹹һЩӹʹúͺͿʶʾһعŵıͼʿ£ּǵϵп벻в֣һн⹹DZڵڲìܣǿӵġ⹹ѧӦоŵҲӴѧΪⳡ粨ýijһЩûкܺõĶѧ˺ܻáͬʱ⹹ѧ˵ķĻģĻģһЩѧߺͶ߲Ըܵģǿҵļ飬ϬĹ۵㣬кͻʹѧijЩѧ߲Щ̫ʷк׶ѧйصġʱѧǰڰǡͥһڰΪֳ֮ǰƾӰص̫ͥĸºѹָС;ҲֳֳܷƿЩպǿҵķȨ۵йءȻһĻ˼ңζѧ˼ϵļȴصزͬ1968ļɵĽ׼йԵķ߸˹ĵij޺ͶԺ¸ʽĵ۵ϲע¸롶¾¡ʹڼ˼ѧĿгΪһȱѧߣT.ٳЦΪн׼ȴתԲСͬʱɵѧּЦĽ⹹ͬԷ˵ҪԼ񨩣֦ҲԴĶ˵⹹˼άijǰʡȥѣڵļɬķ֮⣬ķŷĻĵĶ˼άʹһ̽ѧĶߣķŹ̶ֶͬȵʹ߾һĶĥѡ

һǿѧΪʹʱе㣬ڽһԪԪ֮Ҳƽȡȫ˷˵Ĵðտ֮ǰζʵĹζת͹ɵľκˣ80ڣȫ綼ֵ·˵ѡ񣬶Ľ⹹˼Ҳʷʱ͹ѧһǰޡĹ²һߣʹ˼е뼤飬֧뷴ԣӿֳ档ⳡΧŵĴУ¶⣺ָ˳ݵĴ⹹˼άķѧʷأѧ淴̬ԼǧζѧѹƣĻȨĿͳӡѵȡΪһй֪ʶӣⳡ̫ƽ˰׼ĻеһЩδʼ洦

80ڵĶԽ⹹з籩֮ƺڳ˼һ⣬⹹ηչʡ˵һ衣1970-1986ѧ֮⹹ܶΪӱĽǶȡԤһʱݰ٣ıѧ﷨Ĵ˳µ룬ִı""ijʹܶĵںת﷨˶ʧáҮ³ɵȻ͵۲ͬ˵ֻеʱԲĵ˼·Ү³ɵʵܹ棬ν޴ʹãǵûдµʱգһʳзӡ󡣵�""дĴ˶Լ"ټ"IJɼѸٱʱҮ³ۼȴ׷һıеĺûķŻ﷨ǽֵһֻʣ±ѧʬ걾ȻκıӦжԪĽ޶ģⲻȻΪ˵߸ıĺггʵĴڣԪõĴڣְȥͺͷḻѧȨһõг飬ֻΪоĻѧɷ֣ѧ޽Ƶ㻯ҵȤζΥѧıʵġαѧ׷ǵijЩѧ۵ʱУѧ۵һä㡣20͵Ŀѧ߷Ȼȷʵ˶Լ˽⡣ġġ""õ̵档ѧȣƼֺרѧʱѧ̷˹ۼԵijǶŮѪסЩν⹹ۼȷʵԴѧƷġһλҽһʱὫԼǰİҵͼѨλͼôһλۼҼһ޵һĻɯʿǵϷʱΪһ�""ѧĸ٣ΪһҽһۼңͶרҵĿأѡǰߣֻһзḻ""ԵۼҲһʤεߡֽѧۿij۵ij֤ۼη

̸⹹塡

"һλձѵ"˵

"˵⹹Ӧijֿɲijͷʽһֹ߻ҲӦһ⹹""(event)ǹ󣬿һһǻӦȷ⹹һΪһβ"עϷư˹ۡξµȱ࣬1985ѧ磬P.3صűӣ

ǼʵģΪһЩѧߺͶߺ˽⹹壬ŪĻۣ"""д""ı""ټ""Ĩ"ֻۣһζĺҽ⹹壬׷̼ʹﵽԼ׷ĵ߸ǵΪʵĽ⹹޹ء1980-1990йα⹹ձѧ׷ʱд̼ijЩ˳м䡣"⹹"һʳΪӹ׵Ŀͷڸıķ棬˵йѧҪ塣"⹹"һǽ俴ɴۡһΪֻ⼺ϲĶ󡣶Ϊ⹹ֻеһߣǰáͬһҲָ"⹹ˣһ¼(ev-ent)ۡ˼ʶ֯"עϷư˹ۡξµȱ࣬1985ѧ磬P.4ҽ⹹Ҳҽ⹹ͲΪijȨڻصζѧĹдЩʱҲ"⹹"֮岻˶ԣԶʧ档"⹹"ʱԡ֮ʧìܣǵΪ֮յʵ׵"Ϸư˹"֮⹹ʱŴʲIJͣΪ⹹֮"""""Ȩ""Ρ"ȱʣʹֻ᲻ԴʽĽⷸ˴ɣҲķѶעϷư˹ۡξµȱ࣬1985ѧ磬P.71Ϊѿ˷""""֮ìܶпաΪй߶ʱȻϵúׯӵҲʱ̸֮Ρ䣬ȴֻԼӵ""֮""Ͳϸ˵ˡɼƴ뺺ԷIJ࣬ɵĿպׯ硣ĻԵڹɴ˿ɼһ㡣⹹˼άζϴͳһŵľ磬ȴʹմζ߸˹ĵټƴԣѴ֪Ҳ˵еļٲԭӦڱԱϵìܡ

һЩѧߺͶ߹�"⹹"Ҳڸúۡ"⹹"(deconstruction)һںܶжҵȫӦִʣָ"رᄈУѾϷdzͬĺ弰﷨仯͸ļֵ"⹹һжּʲôṹҪṹ󣬸ԲĨؽ"⹹ȷǷҲ"ʵԶ""Ǹؽֻе"de-"Ϊ""ĺ塣

"⹹""Ϸư˹"ͶеķʸΪճѳɫɫĶ"⹹"ӹãijС͵ǽиʾ£"С͵⹹"עʱ֮šP.1άţٳ磬1991ʽ⹹ѧŨԡѧڶսΪ̾ݣıϵʷʵѳɻϰѧΪʷ֮㱾壬˵Ү³ѧչһ֧ǿ۶ʱԱӡǽıϰߵֻѧϰץִʲţ׷ִı֮壬Ե߸ı̶֮塣ǴѧѧӶó⹹ۡ׷⹹ȴıԼ䶵ȦӣֶѧŵۼҺ˼άΪĹϵԽԿ̸壬Ľ⹹ۼ뽺ԣ̸һˡö֮ԼҲڴִʵӽǡ1984ڶѧһ̸ϴ˹(David Gross)⹹Ӧֱ뾭ᡢ֯ԻB.Լѷ̸Ὺʼ⹹˼Яֹ⣬ҪսΡʷȷ棬Ѿսıֽ߳⹹Ը˵Ү³⹹Ǹо߳ʽ֮ҪʵʷҪ⹹˼άĵĴ߲20мʷĴ䶯ѧѧۡȻǴı룬ԷĻȻĿԽ⹹ζѧΪյĿģΪ"ı""д"˵ʹε֮"ı"֮"д"Խ⹹򡣵ѧ⹹ʷʵᣬȴһ¡ЩȾϰṹѧõҮ³⹹Ƕ̽;ʧִ֮Ԩвܷأޡ֮һ⹹ԭΪıʹͨ˴ԹȨ֮ȴǾڷ֮Է߾ȫʧı֮ζδԽ⹹ѧĵش⣬Ϸı޶ı޽⣬ѧ壬Ӷǵûзḻ˼ѧḻѧںʹѧʧȥ⣬ֵ

Ľ⹹ҪּǹζѧǼǧ˼άĽͬѧȻ뱾ѧķйأǶΪ˵˼ʶڹ뷢"Եת"Ϊоṩµ㡣ѧּڿ˶˼䡢Ȼȹϵʶ߳ո˶γɵۡۡȻĶԿ۵㣬ζϵȨݵȵȺ⡣ѧ⹹J.H.˵µĹ۵㣺˵⹹ǽһѧģʽлΡȷ塣ڽ⹹ԹϵĿΪѧĻΪѧԭƸߵ㣨ע޴ʽ⹹Ү³R.C.Davis࣬1986,P87˵ڵһı֮άע޴ʽ⹹Ү³R.C.Davis࣬1986,P88ķпԿҮ³ɵѧۼҲʶѧȣֻϧϵ̫жһĽ⹹񡣡

ܵ˵ԱޡΪ׵Ү³ɽ⹹ѧѧıĵ߸ΪԽ⹹ѧȽϺӡȻκƷû""۵Ĺ˶ʹκƷܱһȨ¢ϡı޶DZȻģ˶ߺҶıĽǻеġı"޴"(rhetor-ic)﷨ì꾡֤ìܻοתɶı͵ķḻȴƺû漰ڷչѧĵӰҮ³ѧ۵ȡ

ġ""Ļijͻ

ѧԷ߼ΪζѧĽﵽһеķζϵĿءΪ˵ﱻM.H.ķΪѧ""עʱ֮šP.30άţٳ磬1991ȴΪͬ⡣ۼڽֶѧ˫صĻϰѧϰоϹʵ֤νѧַ߼ʵ֤岢ܣһЩȫԴԶǿֱǺٿǡصģǶΡԶغ"Ϸư˹"ռҪIJɼ"ټ"ϷҲƺֻıɼIJ£ε"д""ı"ҲֻܲʣʹǵĶܻе㷢۵ıԡԵIJ͡ʾۼҵȴԶԶûʾۼҵǻۡŴ̸⹹һֻۣʵȴڲ͵ĻãḻıĶԪǰ㲻ǰν߸ıĿӦǻԡԵģڽ⹹ıһԪͬʱҲɱıԺڵ߸ıǵĵڶĻϰǽΡԵȳԽʵضڽ̵ݣ�"""ѧ"(negative theology)ȻйĺĻͳȴѧڽ̣ؽԶ˼άΡԵľ""ڽ̡˵"Ϸư˹"Ҳһֻֿ᲻Դֽһ"ϵ"һΪΰݣ""֮ԴΪ˼вһƵִʡ˼׷Ϊ˽ܵġӿ¿ʼ˼ʶ֮һԽĽߣҪ׷"ڽ̵"һֳԵ˼ڽ̣ڲȴȻ߼﷨ܡ߼ԼǿƴijԵѧԵʶݵìйŵѧׯѧ˵DzڵġΪ˲Զ߼ͽȴΪǶòΪ׷ѰʲôԶ˼Ϊ˵߸ıԭҪţʹ֮ʶԪ״̬ıѾһʹۡ

һʹһ޷ܵķԭ̫ľɴ½ַͽжֻһϷһЩ֮Ҳߺܴѹϲ"ǿ"(violence)ΪĸΪ۲ڰѧ˶ԭ֮գDZ̵Ļ˼ŷ޵1968ꡣʱ̥ڽ͵ġһڽ⹹Ĵݻǿܶ࣬ͬʱ"ؽ"ȴԸۼһҵ̬Ҳ60ӡʵһϵеĻɽ³ɵĽУûһṹĴȥʼĵһ졣ͯ׶Σִı䶯Ϊ죬ֱİ׶ҵĴԼʹֻǴӽ⹹⹹־ͲнĵȻࡣϸжľ󣬻ᷢ""ԶԶǵһĽ⹹Ϊ""Ϊ(differ)(defer)ϵͳھ̬(static)(genet-ic)Ĺܷͬṹʷݱȡ֮Ҳ˵""תмάƻȽṹֽ⹹ʵdifferanceһϵеĽ⹹--ٽṹ--ٽ⹹˶Уע"differance"1968127ڷѧѧϷԡһά˶˶ܳӰ죬ijһ״V.(Vincent Leitch)˵һܡͬʱе˶ʹ෴һʵУ̫ͼ౧ؼӯ棬Щ۵й˽֮ѧʵġΪǿƳͳ֮""ͻ˽⹹֮""ĹܣԵƫġҪʱʱƫ򣬲ʶ͸κòƶԿĶԪʵǻġ߲Ҫ֮ʣ""֮IJķԼƵʣһЩ˵Ĺ󵼡Щŵ㣬ԷչַҲĿԣƿŵ䴫ͳΪ˱ۺ͸˵ֻô""۵崹ܣƵ(defour)ĶѶȡͬʱ뿼ǵõĺյԶIJгķ˹Ϊ"ѧ"ԭǼЦȴ漰ʵʡѧеǵһ漰(anti-matter)""(nothingness)""(absence)ټ(trace)־ܾڽءĻĻԳ֪ԡԣԣԱ""Ȼ֣ӡׯԼ࣬޾Ϊŵ人ŵԣڱﳬʵΡʱνӦ֡ʹѧ֮ΪG.(G.Hartman)Ƶѧ˵Ϊ""(Derridadaism)˵úƤϽ⹹ķչ˼ǡ롶еΡԵر㣺һĽ⹹۲תΡᡢ봫ͳŵѧ⹹߳Ү³ѧı߸صӦػĹıԼжϺԤ

塢⹹ڽ졡

1994102άŵߴѧΪһµѧʿѧλ㣬Ͼһ̸Բᡣεİѧ˵Ľ۵㡣һѧӦпáѧӦǿѧƶָ߶רҵġĴ߿нԲῪĻг˽⹹Ļԣ翪͵ѧֽ֧ķչȣԻش𷴶Խ⹹߲ʵ֮ءǿӸ⹹Էѧͳƻ֯90ʮ۽⹹鼮˵⹹岢һЩ˳ߺͲ˵"ʱ"ھһ籩ءȷΪʵԼĿ߹Ҫһ̡

ѧ"ʱ"֮˵ֻβܼʱӳԵʵж֮⡣й"⹹Ľ"ģġɵġδģӹ׵ȴصģΪй˵ĶľᾪȵҵһЩԼʷϬжϡԴʹǷʡԼ͵㼣⹹ɫʣΪܽ˹ŵζϵѧڽ̵˼άĽҶԵľҲĹ۲죬ԷʡֹۿţԶԪ硢̶дʶǼɹģѵõķĻĵ˼һʱѡ20ͳǶԼȥĻҲһЩĻĵ̬Լͳѧѧѧѵǽִйʱûʲôա̳еļֵԵ¸ԺĻӵΪѵ˷Լʱ˵ʮڣƣ˿ڶԼʷĻ֪٣֪ԼܴԼԵû˹IJͣһĽкֲܲĻֳľ𣿽Ӧ""кѧϰ"ϴ"֮ͣ侲˼һǷѧϰͬʱҲŬΪĻṩǿ"ѧ"ҲٽѧͶԹĻӦְɡһֻʲƷԼȥ壬ǺܿɱߵʷٶĵңδʼеΣϣ߳Ļĵƫִ̬ж⹹ԼеѰijЩȱٵľ񣬶ڵľ;ȴǹŵĻӵеģرǶԴȻķǹ˺һĵۡӦΪ˿ѧȻһҪ׷ʴ̼ԻֵۣοΪ˴ٽᳫѣֽܴ;ҵڹĨȥԼ֣˷ѿɳܵʽгùۣΪ˽ķǰ˷ѵȻƸϾһ˿ѸͶȻԴƶóã˵δͲһֹ۵ǰ;ڽ羭õһ廯ʹǿ߶ȻԴĿɡʹԶԶҽ硣""Ϊ""ͬʣ""Ϊ󣬲ܲǿʳԼľ

ֶΪǰбĹʾ⡣ɡƽڽЩܻһḻں1999ס3µľҵĸǽ50"Լ"Ϊ۵ĺ˷ѱĬΪ̼ѵһֶΡʳҪ˷ѣƽʱҩҪѰҸº㵹ս׷󾭼÷ٵıһ˫ڲһ̸˵ϣҽءӶԪͳΪȨҪԡĻ塢˵ȵĶԪһ֮Ϊҵǰᣨעһӽ⹹塷J.УP.15Щ˼Ƕ˵ѳΣĻܲ˼ಽǵִԼĴͳɻȱĴѾ׼ǵҶ⹹۹""ʱе𶯺Ͳһ档

乹˼ӣۣĻںԪԷɣкִܵʣÿһӽǣǨһʱգᷢµں�""Ϊʹʮ飬ҲԸԼ©֮ȱȽǣֻǵ۱ɽ֮һǡ90߳ѧѧĽ򣬶ĴΡڽ෽棬ϣʵ봫ͳӣǽǷdzȤһ⡣Ϊ˲صijЩ⹹ۼҵƫġ׷ʱеѧ磬ϣĺͼ֣ͷ䣬˼̣֮ǵĴͳȽϡһѧѧ۸õ߳͵ˮƽһЩ¾ɵһЩ룬ǽĻ뷢չڹȥһй̫ǻͣ٣Ӧ߳ЩӰӭʷ˶ĹĻս׸˹׷׺Ļͱ׵Ŀл԰ѵŰĻ޷׷ΣǧʷĺĻںѾ˥̵ףǵĻǰʲôԸDZֳĻҪΪһŰ̾Ϣ ֿδעͣ

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