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һѧ𲽰ʮͺͶʮͳ˼Ӱ

ѧ"ִԷ"ϢϢأѾѧṩҪо⡣19ͺ20ͳڵŷ޻ȴǿҵӰͼִᷢչ켣һ;"ŵ"γʱĻ֧á19ѧ֪ʶչĹؼʱڡȻǶѧ֪ʽ׷ݵʱڣȡ÷dzͻijɾȴҪ20ͨ͡20͵Ĵ󲿷ʷѧһֱγɵĿܷչġ

ȻҲֽ֧̽еһ֡ʮѧйչһй۵ΪִеĻǾ-----ΪĸԱԴƶȵӦ仯ʱŻ˵ҵӵĽʹ"ִ᾿жԶ"ĻΪѧгõһۡһЩۣ˼˼ʵ϶ִԵͬʱ塣ʱҵȫŵƣΪʱƶΪִʷķչṩ˶ͬЩ۵˵ҵȫʱһ졣ʱʱڹҵԴҵʱ׷󻯵һֽһ棬Щҵ忴ִƶʵߵߵλãǶԣڹҵᣨڳΪ"ҵ"ʱǸ蹤ҵһԽ϶̵·

ⳡ۵ں̶ܴϾͬ˼άǶ19˼ӡⳡۼһ϶ۡDzܼ򵥵ֻʱ͹ҵ壬ݹҵʱ壬ӦʶִķչֶӰ졣ΪҪҪԾüԼۣܺ꾡ַܰѧδչ϶ʶִԱκһԤĹ۵㶼ҪӵĶࡣʱ͹ҵӰ⣬DZҪӰִԵҪأ[1]һǸ£Foucaultܺ÷"Ȩ"[2]ģѧָƵ""ָҡȨţϢԴִҪ֮һִԼϵһ֯Ϣľ޴ͨΪֻ20ĩŽϢʱִʱѾ"Ϣ"ˡ

Ϊִֵľսڴͳѧ˼жδἰ(ΪҲԴ19)Զ׼ִҵγɹʵսصġЩͨΪѧ˼о岿֣ʹϵ⣬ҲѧȤ20͵ѧȻά˼뷢չ⡣19͵˼Ҷԣʱҵ彫ʱľᣬˣһʼΪ봫ͳִϵִԵľñڱǰúƽġҲ˵¾ûľý׽ȡȥľᡣȻȴ֤ijЩ棬Ҳδִᱣһ¡ˣҪ˶ʶװִԴںҪλáһԼܽ᣺ͳִӰµ߽ⲻʱҵĽҲִԴеĽЭʹþսĸִֶεĽ

ִԵĻάȡʣĻγȻΪӡӱϿѧĻάȵķѾܾˡѧҶ֪ѧͰ׻ɵı²ģִԵĻһαΪʱҵӳ˼ΤMax WeberҲΪ""еʱĶãDzεִĻڷӳá[3]ǰѾ"ִ"ǩۻԱ߽ĴͳĻһսˡЩȷرǰĻģʽڸȱݵġ

19˼Ŀѳζij̶ֳҪһֱ˼˼ҪͻĹЩѧעĺġijϽЩҲǵԴִĸơʽ˼嶼һڷȻֳʢѧǰ;Ǿ˼˼оƵһϵиϢϢء֤ˣôͨѧЧִԵķΧҪСöࡣ

ƶѧ۶ǽµۺ

ͳһѧԵ뷨֮һ벻ѧķչȻѧڲԴӲͬȻѧ˸Ըϵͳһ뷨ֱȻΪԤǰᡣ˵׵£ComteĿѧࣨѧ߼Σ19ıô20ͣȻӢ磩Ӱijɭ˹Talcott Parsonsɭ˹жΨ־۵г̶Σ۵ȷϵͳزȻ͹ѽϣ۹Ȼɭ˹ѧѧͼͳһĸԡŵĽ˿׵µУҲ类ɭ˹öΪר̽ѧָϡ

"ͳʶ"(ɭ˹ʽôӵʽ)߽Ϊָɵۿ˵·ЩǰҲᵽ˵ϴ󲿷˼ǿΪ۷棬ǷԿƶȶָжֹ۵ձġΪʹǰAlthusserٶּʽҲֽܷṹѧҹȥĻ฻оԵ۹۵㶼ǷԲ߼ѧ۵ġ

һֱ˰ѻͳһѧۿܵѧıҪҲˣʱǰ۵ߣϲִ֧µ۹۵㡣Ȼѧѧ棬ǷܵҮ£Feyerabend˼ֱӰ죬ǶΪʵǶģҲӦöġۺϵġ[4]ѧձͳһ۹۵㣬ôζųⲻͬ۵ĶáΪʵͬ۵ֻڼȨߵͳ֮²пܡһֹ۵ʽᣬѧԼѧڱҲؽǶġ

һֹԴΪһͨѧ۽ı֮·ʹȻѧһҵ۹ʶֹ۵һ⣻һֹ۵ѧ۵Ľ鹦ѧȻ幹߽⡣ѧӦҲѧ-----Ϊ-----۽͵оɡȻѧֻ"(single hermeneutic)"ʹܶ۵ļʹǸıͿ磬ѧҽҲֻǹڼۡѧһ"˫(double hermeneutic)"оΪƶȵ˫ԡѧ۲÷רҵĸ׼ȷ̣жΪڰѧۺ͸õжϣDZڵظıΪѧ۴˲ȶԣʹ֮ԶȻѧе"ͬ巴"ģ͡ԶžжжȺ֮飨й۷ͻձġѧij־ϵɱҪЩǿҵ(shape)ѧ۲ԤЩ۹۵㣨ⲻȱ͹Ե⣩۵ľ֤пǵƺ͸ƵĴͳѣһԻͳһרѧͼʽIJɡ

ǣDz˾۳Ψһѡ۹۵ķֻоijɹ׼ȷǿͬۿܣij̶ֳϻݾоõĹ۲ۡ۴ͳʵͳʶ˥һֱ֣佫һּ˵ʽԶΪѧǰᵽģ߳ڵǸչ׶ΡָɸΪݣյʱѾȥµۺϽֻбʱˣڶ͵ҪȻִܴijֶ۵""ڱձϿɺͬԿۺϵ̬ˡڱȻĹУѧһִĽѧожIJͨ͡оó۸꾡ľ۲֤ʵĸԭϿԱ֯µۺϽʽĽͣζΪڱϣѧеľΪģԭĽͬʱµۺϽȻƶԼԼɸжЩıѧҸо(self-perception)Ϊ³ֵĹ۵㽫ǿѧĹϵԴѧۼ۲γɳ֪ʶϵ

ѧҪ󽫱̷˼

ͳϽѧҳѧע⿴Ƕ""оʵ""һģĴһϵ"ύ""ụ"Ҳһضϵľȷ綨Ȼѧʱģԣԭǵȥעʱ""ǵͷнġʱ""ǴӹǶϵͳĽ綨DzڶԲͬڲɵĶ壬ڲͬɻ͵ѧо֮С

""ΪѧҪкܶຬ塣ȣʹǨģʽĹעڴˣҪָǶڲǨ˵ô˵һ߼ֵĽṹDZijЩ·Сֹ۵صľԡƶȵĸͣСĿĻũٵִ򣬶ϵͳУЩϵͳǸԵ᱾ʺͷչ켣ҪӰáΣΪѧоȷɼ""ⲢһҪǰִĿĻũԣ仰˵һҪΪֹʷռݽϳʱᱣԡͨΪũǾи߶Ȼڵ(segmental)ͬʵġŲͬģ߽ᣬ˱߽磨frontiersִϵĹ磨bordersڴĿĻ--ѧͳΪǾȷΧĵطͬᣬǣȴѾȷ϶һĻԪںεսᣬһĻԪںεس֡

˵ģѧἰ""ִָᡣȷĹ֮ӦľȷͳϽΧĹͳλΪһƶȣǻپձĻٽĹҡܴϵ᳣ѧоص㣬ǣѧĻdiscourseУһϻۻġΪ˼""ιɺ͵ṹҪͬҪڲʲôһҪϵеIJ̶ȡⲿԭѧƵĻ֣ѧлƣʹϵרоҵڻѧҷʱ޷Ӹϰչء

ǰȣʹںܶ෽ͳһģҪֵĸеĶһֱѧעһص㣬ѧҴһֱкֵԵ磬ڹҵֲ׼ṹԼ֯ϵĵֱʶһ㡣⣬ִͨϵĽ綨Ҳ϶ԹͳһΪݣĻṹΪݡʵִϵȿԽ˹ҵĵṹĻϵִٽڲĶʹϵоߣ̸ִ"ǹҵжߣnonstate actor""֯intergovernmental organizations"ʱͬһ㣻ȻڴѧķУȴ赭дˡ

һиıѧӦ˼ķʽѧҶ֯ǨģʽȤǽӰЩģʽĵԵαøСǰҺϵо״ȣ۷ԽԽѧĺĵλҽǽòעִڲϵΪܵĵطԼЩط֯һĸֿԽ֯ʽᡣ

ģѧǰκʱӶϵо

ϵУĻǶ(embeddedness)ܱѧʶҪΪҪȣToynbee޴BraudelʷѧƺǿϵȵҪԣdz򵥵÷ΧᣨѧעĽСĵλ[5]ִվ໥ϵ봫ͳǽȻͬģΪͳϵijЩ֧á񣬹ҼϵȫԵȻЩ̸ǶģʽĹעԼѧʹϵѧ֮ϸѧ֣Щ仯ں̶ܴһֱûѧע⡣

ѧijЩͳ(dz˼)һֱǿģʽĻģʽЩͳǿǷijЩʱǿŴٳɵġʹ˶ԣ˼˼ûѧǿΪѧҪעᣨ̬ʵϣһϵоɹܵ޴˼ǿӰ죬ȴԴ˼ЩоɹϵΪҪĹע㣬⼯˹̹Wallerstein׷ߵС[6]

˹̹оɹȷʵҪΪѧձڵĶ""ڲĹעźǣǹؽ"ϵо"ͬоݡһ̫˸˵Ľʹϵѧѧע֮е³ˡǣ˹̹ڲ"ϵ"һͿչо˲֮ڷԱǨԴԹϳ෴ķߵ̫ԶˡʹǵϵԴͷϵᷨѧҿͼʽһ£ҶԳһġ˹̹оʼսضҵķչϵʱ帹صķչҲϵ⣬оʼռ˶ִԵĽͣһڿӦһȱݡΪһ緶ΧʱϵϢϢأ仮ΪġϵҲһ־Ȩˣͳѧһ˹̹ûоΪʲôڲ̬ͬԼɢֵĽ͡

δѧעһҪϵĹɡϵһ˹̹УҸΪձѧбƵһ׻IJ֣еÿijЩ໥Ȼ"ϵ"Ϊ""ܸΪȷΪϵУ"ϵ"ζų׵໥ԡʹһϵȷһϵ໥ֲֶ֯ϵΪܡʣ죬ἰϵĴеģ൱ʷԴֻǣΪϵҪػӦðЩزִصάȡ

Ҫоϵά¼һ渴ӵĹͶֹ徭õĶԣرӰ쵽˴תеȫΧڼӹƷ塣ʱгԼ˾Ϊٽ˹ͶֹĸԡҲܵȫ򾭼аȨλǿӰ졣ڹóܻԲһ£ܹڶսԺһֱ侭ðȨλ[7]ЩǹпȷǹͶֹȫȨ֮һӵ㡣ϵĵڶȫͰȫͬ塣ܾȻҪͬ÷չˮƽϵ߾ȫӦġ

ָѧҽòԽԽעϵ֮ʱѧҪռʹϵоˣҪ綨ѧѧƵҪעԼеѧ򡣶ѧҶԣҪעϵӰضͷչ켣һЩؼ·ȫǡġңۻԼоҪЩӰѱѣΪѧҽҪðȫƻ˼ЧԵķա

壺ѧеѧƻֽԽԽģ

ٴἰǣѧĹער򺭸˹㷺ѧ⣬ǣѧѧйѧƽߵϣʾ֪ʶṹ(intellectual structure)ʵʹע(substantive concerns)һЩ൱Ҫı仯ĿǰеѧƻҪԴ19ͣdzڴѧγõı׼ѧķչܴ󲿷ǵһЩξУаάȺ;άȡάȵĿΪƶһЩƶȻϵͳɣЩ۵㿴Щϵͳɵıʽʹѧͬ뾭ѧصǣͨʾΪгϵԤΪһ㷺ƶȻԽṹѧΪһѧƲŵγɡȻѧʶԨ˼峣Դɣȴѧо󱻽綨Ϊγϵһƶȴ(a cluster of institution)Ϊѧоĵ""ں̶ܴϱΪ""

ѧʷѧѧѧ֮ĹϵԽԽˣһڱ仯֮СйѧʷѧѧڲҲһЩôģһй۵Ϊѧעձ⣬ʷѧעԵ⣻ͬʱѧоڣʷѧоȥִҶʶĻʵdzԣѧȻ巴ϸʷѧʱˡͳʶռλʱڣѧʵʷѧ׵ȫ롣ijЩУѧŽܵĹϵ磬ڷƾõʷоУʷѧұչһѧʷѧsociological historyͨڽ۵֧£ѧһ̶ҲǹעȥġԽ۵ϿɲһƵʷ꾡оҲһƵʷżȻԵۡ׷ѧչһձԿѧĿں£ѧͻ˽۵Ĺ۵㡣ңκ֮£ʷѧҵĹûܵйע

ѧȣѧѧһЩҺʹͳŸΪֱӵϵҲ˻ԷΪͿ(Durkheim)ѧѧһֱŸгɹͳԵĽڷȻά-ʩ˹Lvi-StraussһЩѧҵĹΪĿѧڷûӢһΪһѧƶõ߶ȷչԶ׼ִѧѧеķ룬ֳйأӢΪӢ۹ĺֳأΪڲϡȻѧѧķٽһƵķչ-----ѧע"(us)"ˣѧע"(them)"ɫ֣Ƕûֱ˵塣ѧΪһʧĶԪĻ磬ʾһѧʵڵĶ֮ʮҪ塣

һѧƻȷΪͬѧȷݸѵܣֻԽữ൱Ӱ죬ӶʹЩѧƽ˵˼ЩܵԼƣʹѧƵĽеѡˣDzܵ͹ԽĿǰѧƻֻıѧڲĽṹ״ѡȻԿ϶ǣǰἰһЩ֪ʶķչʵֵĻѧ֮Ĺϵᷢת䣬ӶƽǰƵķչ

ѧйһ֪ʶ(an intellectual case)ǴѧзģôҲڡΪѧвŵĻҲܳһʱ䣬ʹЩ˼źϲֺϲҲһģѧᷢչΪһĻʷѧ(cultural history)ĹעȻѧͬΪû˭Ϊ"Ļʷѧ"ѧƺϲѧƵơô˵Դ"ѧ"ȡ˶緢оȨͺеԸԴˡȻڶƶȵоֵ"ѧ"е·"ѧ"ȴŴԴϵĴԿ϶߶ֻ˼ͷͳϵںвܱ˴档ά-ʩ˹˵ӦһЩСͿĻоĸģͣԽԽЩӦԸ͵ġ׼ֻ(ִ)оˣеIJھֱӷϸ󣬽øʡ[8]

ʣѧʷѧ֮䲻ȫںϡ˵ǻΪȥôǾͲܽΪѧǹעڣʷѧǹעȥġѧdzԽʱģʷѧҲֻоһЩȥĶ"ֹȥ"ΪʷѧҵҪ񣬰ŶԹȥĸˣЩͨDzѧоΧ֮ڵġѧҪעڵһЩ£ȥ̽ǵͶ֪ʶֹκ¶ܴﵽȷij̶ȣζѧʷѧ֮κ߼ϻ˵ǷϵʷѧҷʷѧѧΪζŰѧͳʶɵ뵽ʷѧо֮С[9]ȻʷѧѧʱʷѧѧƵַԲǿ͹۹γŵĻʷѧ"ƶ"ʽ""ʽinstitutional and narrative versionsǴзģѧĹʷѧУӰ콫޷õǡںⳡеһЩѧӰʷѧӰһڰѧȻ壨naturalism͹(functionalism)ĸУЩ⽫ǡؽʾ˿

ѧѧ;ѧijɹһִӻʽѧڿԣǾõģϵͳṹоѧӶķųվסŵġȣʹҸеʵǣѧעҪôһǺܴ󲿷ҲܵͼİšᱻԵѧϵĵ򻮷綨ǵھܵȨӰ죬˵ȨΣ˴ܵ19ĴͳӰѧ֮⣬ÿ˶ҺƶһӰ죬ЩƶȶҲͬӰ졣Ҫ̽Ҵν"û"ӰаԵĶԣִ˼ؽһĵ·ǡǡǶôҪǰĽ˼

ѧҲ⣬ֳɣһΪѧҪעӦǶȽϵcomparative systems of governmentоо۽ͣһΪоͳѧй۽չУͰƷ"Ϊѧ"ΪЩ۵׼ͼڼСɵĹ۵졣ѧѧ֡Dzܺ϶ΪһҲΪζΪһ˵ҪǼʹҪĵطҲȷעļСѧƻֵĵʱڣѧҶѧᱧһֵ۹̬ȡΪȨִƶȷ൱ԵҪãѧҵĵ۹ʽ̬Ƚܻʵ䷴

ѧ뾭ѧ֮ĹϵҲѧڲѧƲӵˣ¹ŵ䣨neo-classical۷棬ִѧִѧѾǶһˡѧģھѧеĹ㷺Ӧʹѧе󲿷ѧԵIJͬһѧҲûпסΪھѧԣѧԾѧģش׵ǿûбҪġ¹ŵ侭ѧҶйؾѧ۶ϣǽʱ徭гһƶȻĻ֮ϡȷе˵ǽһָ߸ۻ֮ϣҲƷԴƫòࣨmargins of the preferencesϵõЧķԱ߼ƫûߵķܹ㷺غǵԴǾΪ

ȻҲͼֹ۵չѧȥھѧеԽʹѧѧ˵Ÿĸѧ˵ѧܽԱֶãں̶ܴϱΪȡڹڶ¹ŵ۵Ͽɡǰ۵Ļ״ǣĿǰھѧҲƵΡܿ϶Ƿ񽫻ƷѧԼͳʶˣôԿ϶Ǿѧܻ˻صһƶȻķչûԴԵתؽѧ뾭ѧ˼徭ѧ֮⣩ĿԽѧеθСڿʵԵǣڲԶĽѧ;ѧ֮µĶʽ᲻ϵر

ѧҽһֶԳڵĴģת͹̵Ĺػ

ЩѧһֱԼоصת꾡ľоϾ״ΪǸ໥֮ìԵ͵һַӦȻڶĻϣͬ۹۵֮Դһ£Ϊʲôֲ۵ķչľоأѧһֱһֱȽԵء׶˹C.Wright MillsʳΪ"ûͷԵģmindless"ǣʹ(ر)ĿǰľоȻֳ̬ơ[10]

ҲΪҪĬ٣Merton--۽Ҫѧмǿ"в(middle range)"һ㻯о[11]ھѧʼ߹IJйת͵ĺۣһ⵽˺˵ձ鷴ԣĬ֮۽ҪԴڴˡء׶˹һĬѧ˼£ͼоۺǣ鹤ĿԺ˼ܽϻܵ˼ôǵȷҪһķЩ˼˼άҶۺ۱ȽϸȤˣڹڳʷѧվⷽ࣬ǵ˼ھʵԺűá

ʣһҲһ壬οĬٵһѧҡȻˡðѧЩϣҸԸ⿴ԤᷢʲôʹĬٶѧֵþ壬ĶԺ̵ۡоȻһʷѧйһȱݡΪ"ʷѧ"ʱζһ뾭оѽڵʽĽΪЩνв۸ױҲһ뵱ȻϽ"в"ʽľϵЩ̽ƺױѧܡſѧѧķչ֪ "ɼ"ҪͨʶĸΪӡ"ɼ"Ϊһ壨׶˹ԸôʵĶȣǸǴӼѧ⣩Ӱ޶һΧڵһ

ԴˣذҪ߳ĸʵȥǰһ19˼봫ͳнų˶Ϊʱ˶ʿ׼ȷ˵Ϊ׷Ŀ绤ڿٱ仯Уֱ֮仯ڼٶУⲻòʹ"ϵ"硣ֻעϸ΢֮ȥƶôܹȥЩ仯ıʺͺأ

߼ϽвۻۣҶ"۽(theory building)"Լѧ۵ҪעӦһ㽨Ĺ۵ౣ"۽"о˼ļɷ֣뾭۲ۻءóĽڶ̶ȷĺֵǻɣʹȻѧҲˣֻѧйϵɵġⲿԭڶԸֱӰصĿơԹ۲ĿظԵȴͳİաҪԭѧķŷ˼ԹϵЩڶԹȥӦо⣬һ㻯оѧ۲ߣȷʵȤ, пܱ"רҵж"lay actor˽⣬ܻıΧĻߣĴԤⲢҪ۲Ϊ˽ȥʲô֪ʶͨͨ뵱ȻĹʽԤ⣬жӦõԼΪȥѧ£conceptual innovation뾭о飩д۽һҪΪָĴ¿˿άȣⲻ"רҵж"ڹ۲ʱܹõģܽʾһ׼ȶƶδɹķ棬DZڡ

Dzȥѯʺ̽Ӧѵؽ綨ִԣִԴʲôӰʷչ켣УǰҪõתЩѧ̫֪ʶսΪ֪ԲҪоЩѶȲɣоóĽԾ㼯شй۽Ĺ۵ȱݵģǾͲ϶ܵвоߵĽȥȡΪԻ͵ijɾ͡

СΧоΧо֮ĹϵһۡĬٵв۸΢ѧодڵһûֱϵͨЩȫͬ۵֮䡣ֱо˾֯仯ʵԱʾɣ෴Щоƶ׿ѧҾ鹤ǣѧرѧѧӰ£ڶÿһֶ۵ȱʶոһյԶǿͲ׻ڳڵƶȵеġͬʱƶȵĺ۽ṹҲǸֲھֲġdzżȻͶݵύеġ溬ิӵۺ;дһоǣԿ϶ǣЩĽҪ漰ķ[12]

ߣѧһǿ߻ĸʵо

ΪѧƺܺܺõΪƶṩָôóжأǣ浽һϵжڿǺһ׸Ϊӵ⣨֮˵ǶڵģڵǰһЩȦʢһľѧгܵĹ۵֮ϵľѧֻҪгʹԴõھΪԺڵΪķ䣬оѧ˼зӵþͻᱻζŶԹĹ沢Դ˶Ǩʽô""ͻһгݵ޹ء

ҲгܣҺֹ۵߻ᱻ֤ܹȥ޴˵ƫȻߵֹʧⲢζŰѧߵĹϵ򵥻ػع鵽ǰΪǶѧʵ⣬仯ֹϵҪ·˼

ΪϵͳоͨһֱӵķʽٳһָΪ򣨴˼ĸ뵽ΪͳѧĸԸԴ˽йֹ۵ӰڶսѧչԼѧҪԭ֮һѧչְܵתأְܵתԸҷΧչ͹ҶԲҵԽԽĸΪ־ģڷ˼Уѧѧ;ѧЧоܴٳмصľߣԴ˶ƶ;÷١оߵĹϵΪһԹԵĹϵǰһֶΣؽʵЧʽ֯Ǩʵ

ں̶ܴϣʵϲصЩͨû׶˹Mills"ûͷԵľ"ϵоϣӭ֪ܵԼĿꡣʵĽǶоĿֻǷ߸õ˽磬ӶøɿķʽӰ硣оγɾߵĽвûзҪãΪﵽȶĿṩЧֶΡ

ʣѧоʵжҪá֮ͬʱоĿĽ³һֹ㷺ľѣ־Ѳǰᵽ"гģʽ"ij֡Щϣѧоҵжָϵȴܵõȷƺ˾ռߵ顣ѧҲԼоЩҪע֯ʵԺӡˣһϵͼѧʵĿϵо˾ɥĸۡоΪΤ˹WeissİеóֻۣоۿΪʵжṩϢͷ㡣һλ۲˵"ѧʱܷӦߵ֪ʶĽ󣬼ʹӦַӦҲdzٵġֻDzصģʹЩΪãҲͨû⵽"[13]

Ȼij̶ֳֻ״ǾֲġڿǵʹоʵҪƥϣҪרŵһ׹(߷)ҪǴ๤Ϊڽ͹УоԵõһЩ͹""ѵǣңжĻǾ̬ģʵʩԱΪһձģʽʶоʵĿ֮ĹϵһֹԹϵôЩǿDZҪģԶνѧʵ""һ"Ի"ģʽ(dialogical model)ôͻһֲͬĹ˵ᵽ۵תо̣ңǰĹ۵ȣ·˶ΪҪʵá

"Ի"ģʽĹоγ֮ЧϵʽҲоߡߺоӰ˹㷺ĹγɵġģʽһͳΪضĿӦþоʵĿΪҪעӦǶĿIJ̣䷢ӵþһ̵ߵһһٱ仯УϵоͻͬʱΪѰνЩṩһοܡ

۵ķչ벻ϵǰᣬҲ˵"Ի"ģʽĻһоܽӦڼȶ⣬֯жУ˵жչ޸õ֪ʶʽĿйءֻǴҪģΪ߿ûЧȻӸϽΪҪԭжյ֪ʶ֣һоó֪ʶһǶԻƵоʵϵζǹ˹Habermas˵ȫ"뻰龳"ideal speech situation漰һַʵcounterfactualоʵĻھȡжʱģңʱֱӽгʱЭ̡

ڶĸ£ǿԿоʵ"Ļĵʣmediation of cultural settings"ٺ۸ĽͬҪĻĵָͨоһĻһĻ֮Ĺͨ״о"ѧ"ʵеӦܵӡоߡж(ΪܳΪо)һֶԻϵ£оʵߵγɾԾҪĹסȻԸܹͨĸһ"ܵ"øãǾͻ׹еҪԡд˼Ϊжδ֪򣬶ڴ֮ǰǼȲΪҲΪжIJ֪ġ

ӦӶʵӦõ˫͡ѧʵ˼ĵطڴһױйԿƵۣڰյĸ۲ϵ뵽Ҫ""ȥԹؽµ""ûʲôܱȶԻģʽҪˣΪֶֻͨԻģʽʹ֮뷴˼ԵĹע

ưˣ˶Լѧ

һΪִᳫͨ֯˶ַʽķ˼֪֯Ϣƽбϵͳռȡ˶ijЩиĶ͸ĸĸDZΪ˶ĿȡɾͺͷִDzԤԵδ״ףٿ˵ɱĻΪʹ˲ءˣǰᵽģ˶ĸԴѧ˶зңǿܾбƶжϵͳϣֲͬ˶رǹ˶˶ڽ˶ѧռзdzҪλáǣǰǿģٽѧ˼Ҫһԭ̬˶ƽ˶͸Ů˶һЩҪ˶ʹ˵һǵѧ˼ıҪأٿ˵ڵǰǵȷʮҪ

̬ƽ˶ܰǰѧ޲ߵִάȡھʱ廹ǹҵγִԭֱۣڶִϵƻӰ죬便кԶӰ֣̽ؿѧоΧᷢչģʽܷٳͻʱ䣿ԴͬʱִƶȽٷ˼ѧ"""ʧҵ"ıܵѧ͵Ӱ죬ȫƹȣȺ޳ͶʽҲרְгͶʽȻ̬˶ҲʹʶδȻ֮΢ϵЩ΢ϵǽòٴοл

ƽ˶ƺսҵ̵һ档ڰ̲ھ԰ʾǿڹʶʱʹʶѧҲٰѾΪִ֮һƽ˶ֵ֮оΪȻ;ƻشӰ졣ҪʵľĿ꣬ƽ˶кܳ·ҪߡڿԤĽƽάڳȶƽ⡣ЩѧȤ⣬෴ѧΪĵӰδҪ--ܷһ緶Χʱ

ȻŮ˶ᵽճ⻹ôעĿѧ˼Ӱ̵ġԶŮԵͳεȻִԵµģͳִҲijЩ֣ΪԱIJƽʷϻڸĻ϶ѾǸٹ̵ˣЩͼԱƽȵ뷨ܻܿǿĿ顣Ů˶ԱƽȡõʵԳɾʹ֮ѧ۵شǰзٴҪ˽һµоijּѧٵһϵ֪ʶս"Ůо"ѳΪѧĿһ֣ȻŮоͻ˴ͳѧ۵ʹ峬ԽЩĿѧ۹˼ԱԱ׼֮Ӧʲôϵ԰ȨоӰ쾿жЩԼƵҲûеõĻشȻϣЩĽѧδչҪ塣

Ҷ˶Ȥ˶ﰵŸֳͻͳijͻʽҲʧȻʹʵ˼ߣ˶Ҳ԰˼ƳʷߵĽɫԿ϶ǹ˶޴ĸıʱ巢չļģʽڹҵңҵͻ(industrial conflict)ԲƵ෴Ҳͬµ˶ʽȡΪֶεĹ˶οͳ͵˶ƺΪѧ˼ṩزġ׻ռ֧λѧ"˹̸"ķ൱Ԥϵġ

ƾţѧǰһȻһŸѧ

ָ㣺һǶѧԣDzۺо뻮һĽ͡ǴⲿŶѧͲͬߡڵһ㣬Ѿ˽͡(ڵڶ)ѧԶһ棬ϣΪ᣻һ棬ΪϣᡣѧҲرܻӭij̶ֳΪоʧ衣ָģΪܾáֵעǣӦùעѧֳòܻӭԭڽ¶࣬Ȩ۵ͻĹĿ磬ѧһŷչѵѧơ

עͣ
* Ǹݰᡤ˹1987װġִѧһ2µҪݱɵģ19864ŦԼٿĶѧѧϵݽ塣ʱ価Ѿȥ10꣬۵˵ȻѧעҪ⡣м˹˵ƺ͹۵Ѿõ֤ʵľġִѧGiddens, A.(2000)Social Theory and Modern Sociology, Cambridge: Polity Pressѧ׳档
* Ǹݰᡤ˹1987װġִѧһ2µҪݱɵģ19864ŦԼٿĶѧѧϵݽ塣ʱ価Ѿȥ10꣬۵˵ȻѧעҪ⡣м˹˵ƺ͹۵Ѿõ֤ʵľġִѧGiddens, A.(2000)Social Theory and Modern Sociology, Cambridge: Polity Pressѧ׳档
[1] Anthony Giddens: The Nation-State and Violence, Cambridge: Polity Press,1985,chpt.5.
[2] Ǹµġѵͷ(Discipline and Punish, London: Allen Lane,1977)
[3] Max Weber: The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism, London: Allen & Unwin,1976.
[4] Paul Feyerabend: Against Method, London: New Left Books,1975.
[5] Arnold Toynbee: The Present-Day Experiment in Western Civilization, Oxford: Oxford University Press,1962; Fernand Braudel: The Mediterranean and the Mediterranean World in the Age of Philip , London: Fontana,1973(2 vols).
[6] Immanuel Wallerstein: The Capitalist World Economy, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press,1979.
[7] Robert Keohane: After Hegemony, Princeton :Princeton University Press,1984.
[8] Claude Levi-Strauss: Structural Anthropology, London: Allen Lane, 1968
[9] תԣG.R.Elton: The Practice of History, London: Fontana,1967.
[10] C.Wright.Mills: The Sociological Imagination, Harmondsworth: Pelican,1970.
[11] R.K.Merton: Social Theory & Social Structure, Glencoe: Free Press,1963,Introducation.
[12] The constitution of society, Polity Press,1984,chapt.5 and passim.
[13] C.H.Weiss: Social Science Research and Decision-Making, New York: Columbia University Press, 1980, p.47.

 
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