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ӰִҪ˼֮һҲһּ临ӵʷ˶ͨĽ˼룬Խʾڽйķչ켰ԹִԼ

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Դŷޡ18ŷ޵˼ռλǽ֮ϵ壬ʷһ"˼ʱ"DzDzƲȼΪ"˾"ֹ"һĿ�"ӷĽʹĿ뻯Ϊۣصʤŷ"ǿҵİ"1ݡ忪ʼΪһԵĽ˼˼Ӱ£ѸҪ棺һڽָ˼עعҹעضѧаǿҵڶĿ궨λǹҵǿϾ׷뼯Ȩǿ򣬱ڽϾǹҶڽչĸԤԽԽ2ݣ̻ڽĹϵšҽƲϲʳͳɽ̻ƵĽڳˡ

ŷԽӰйǼʾġй˼ȷ20ͳꡣΪ"֪֮֮ʶԽʼ"3ݣΪӦȷ룬˵ʩ"˲֪֮ϵ򰮹֮ĺɶ4"ҲΪ"ּ֮ɹ"5ݡѧܼලɸȷָּ֮"֮ͨ"ʹȫй"֪Ϊй֮񣬽дʳ壬ָ֮ͬ˼룬˿ɾ岻ȱ֮"ָ"19͸ùų""ҽ֮ѧУɲôΪҲ"6ݡ˵ۿǾ˼ҪأDzδ""ޣ߼ȱΪһ壬Ҳ̺֮˼룬ؼߵΪұλǰߣȨλΪߡϵĻұ˼IJ졣l9039¡ѧࡷĽӸݿȰ壬ҲĻ7ݡ

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Ϊ˼һּʽ˼20żȻģȷӳһԵĽƣҲӳ˵ʱй֪ʶӵ̬仯һս"սʤǿȨ"һȸ߳ƣͻʵʹ֪ʶӺܿʶǸжϵԭ򣬶ͺƽ岻ֽϻйǿʢҪĿ꣬ʵΪdzҪֶ֮Σͳһ˼־

ԹΪĸּǹɵĹʶ

ɵ֮һҾΪ֮""֮֮Ӣ֮ƽȲ֮ڷְ֮Ǵ־񣬵й"ǧ֮ɶ֮𺳣dzѧ˵֮ݲж�"10ݣȻʧ໥ҷŻңǽĸ11ݡҾճŭǿһʼͽìͷ׼"dzѧ˵"ʵָ˹ĸĻ˼ѧ˵žĻںΪҪȡĹ۵㣬رʾ˹ɵĻλǣҾղû˵ʲôйעδЩʹ˼Ļҵѧ˵š˵ֵ"ڽ̣Ļȶ"֮ʱ"ʹ֮гͣʹ֮ͳʵΪһʱ�"12ݳȻ˼ĻĴӿij˼ĻңҪĻϣЩ˼Ҳ󼤷й˼ĻĻйǨҸ˼֮䱾ҪһģЩìͻΪ˼봴ɿһ㣬ؽԼͳһ˼ĻΪĻҪѧУͳǵĹע㡣ҾΪӦ"춨"""""13ݡϿҾյĩ˵˼һԨԴϵȴһܲͬij㣬˵۵Ķűȴǯ˼ͼ

ɷϣĽҲһЩءΪ֮Ҫʵ"Ľ"ɣһ"ֿĻ"Ķ˸뾫񣻶Ƕ"ȫйŽ"14ݡ⿡ڽ˼ϿǶͽƺΪһĹĴߡΪĽӦ""""""ԭе˼ʹԼ˵Ĺ屣ij־裬ýƽֹӹңӸԣ15ݡڹһλǿҲϵͳ˵ڹĽĹĴһλΪ"һλȳϵĹ"ϵͳ˹Ľѧ16ݡΪĽּ"ɹʶﱾĻٽҵĶͳһ"17ݡ˵ҽּһҪ""ڶҪ""Ҫ"ԹΪǰ֮"18ݡȻdz˼ݡ첻׫д˴Ľţһġл硷־Լʿʮλ׫дר£�"Ľר"19ݡ

ּʱֵע⡣һ׵Ļ塣ڸУ¹˼ҷϣһֵ֣20ݣŶйһӰġϣص˼1806Үսۺ˸Եı仯սǰһߣս˼ĻɫǿնĻƶȡϰߺԵʥԣǿն˵ʹУ21ݡȻйĹߴSȡУĽּʱҲĴйͳĻʥԣʷ봫ͳĻйصĿĿܵ߶ӡΪľѵ"ǿʷ֪ʶԹͨУʵ־ϵͳһ"22ݣеּΪ"ұ""㩣ȡ"23ݳһеִϢ⣬ǰԵڴͳ˼뷶롣߲طͳ˼ԴͳĻйĻֻһԷţһĻͶԣDzûijЩ͵ĻϸµزͳĻľ΢ˣǵĻDz׵ģкǿIJ塣

ڶּʱֻǵǿԹҵְ񣬺ǿҶΣֻǿԹҵľԷӣû漰νһִġĹҡˣΪһֹ壬ijʵרĴʡ

˼dzԸ塢ƽġԹԡԸڸԣڶ˸֮Ϊǰǿ̫˸ԣ˹ԺȺԣӦȻٹҾա諵ȶܹDzųƽ壬ΪҸڸˣΪҷ"ʵΪ˷չ֮Ҫ;"24ݡ壬ǵ棺һƽй˵ݳƷйǿʸ壬׸Ķһ""ĹĹ۵25ݡ

ڽϣɹͳһһн

˼һµǣйĹڽҲɹҼͳһⷽԳ࣬Լһʣ"ͳһȨ"˵ָȫ룬˴һˡһطһ׼ĽǶ룬ͬʱһֹҵ˽ҵҲǵطҵȻǽ̻ҵ͹ҵ26ݡͳһȨʵϰ棺һǰѽȨӵط˽ջ룬ɹͳһ滮ǽȨСӴʿջعҡֻʵˣͳһȨʵ֡

֮ɹͳһȨҪΪǹҵĹߣ"ԽΪʵֹĿĹ"ԣ񣬾Ϊĸ27ݡ۵㲢dz±˵Ĵ죬ϿҪDz»Ŀ»˵"ʵʽҶ֪ΪչԵĹ""ǴٽĻĹ""ǸҵĹߣʹСĹңΪǿĹ"28ݡȻҪĹãôȻӦɹաôţΪɹͳһгȽʷǴйĺִ˵ʶȼеȷΪҵִҵṩǿĶԴڣйһͳϸ߶ȼȨĹңپĿţͳȳֵط˽˼İѧԣҪ֤ڽչͳ滮ϲ³ֻҺʹʧ󣬵½Դ˷ѡһ临ӵ⣬ԶǼͳһܽ˵ġ쵱ȻûпǹͳһȨIJ⣬ֻǵĶǾļ⡣Ϊȷ�""ķΧά־ѣڹѧƽʦԼĿͬʱǿƶֽı׼뿼ԵķΪʱйĹ˽ң29ݡΪʹҽ죬ϸȡ˽ѧУȻҲ̻ѧУʹЩѭҽּͱ׼ΪijĿѧУһͣ졣ھ½νý߽߽ʦ⣬Ҳָ¡ҪǼǿҶԽҵļලǰڵйߵĹʶ

ͳһȨʱʹͳһйĽԭ·ͻߺٿǡԪԪൣνܳ壨ʱƽ壩Ľ˼ڽ൱Ӱ죬ǣڹ߿ƺصģֻҪҰѽȨȥˣһԿӭж⡣

й෽ϣѧϲϰһĴԹΪλ˷ȷ"Ȩ"˼룬ǽıںˣӳڽϾǽȫΪҵĹߣ˽ҪҪIJǾִ˸Ҿ߱ҹĹ񣬶ֻ֪֪Ȩ˳񡣹岻׷ҽȨĶ׷ҽĸ߶ͳһͼǯ˼ɣԱ֤ʶ̬ͳһй˻䡣йΪĶֵġ

й֮Ի⻴Ϊ׵ľ棬Ҫ棺һйڴӴͳҵתȱ㹻˼ƶ׼ƶڴͳй̻Ǿ±£⣬ѱȷһͳҪߡΪͳҪݣĿΪŻϸ�"Ʒ"ִͳĽ׷ͳһĽdzĿǼϵġ˹ܹ˳ʹôͳĻͳһʶ֮ΪͬĶʹ˼ҲܹһʱεΪ󳱡ǣĸĿǽһֱÿԱɡȨĹͬ塣ͬǹң˼ʯ�"Ȩ"˼룬ǹҵ壬ҵȨ裬ȴĩáйٵĹϷֶʵΣĻٵϾսʹѰҸԴΣΪάϵͳһϵҪȻ߶ӣһУ׶ĿݱΪռĿ꣬ȫӡڷ˸˱ĿΪһִĹԽɫ󣬲ִ޷ɣҹεִҲ⵽Ťй׷ĽִҵĿԽԽңԶˡ עͣ
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16Cyrus HPeakeNationalism and Education in ModernChinaNew YorkColumbia University Press 1932pp124-126
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ժԣʷѧ2001.7.


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