ΩԸƽˮʹ罭ϣ
et revelabitur quasi aqua iudicium et iustitia quasi torrens fortis

ԹͨĿ


ת˼
̨ѧѧϵڡԭڡ֪ʶ۴ԡһڡ

ֵֵ̽Ŀ֮һ"ԹͨĿ"򵥵˵Ǿٶһƽȹ񻥶ɵĿռ䣬ҪĻʽ빵ͨȻIJͬҲʹDzԿԿȻԵ󡣿ǴϽִɫԼֵԪΪһԪֵĹУֲֵͬʶ̬ܷԹͨȴʡҪǣǵʵʾвֵּͬм෴߽йͨʵϻԼݡƵ̬ȹ֡Էʹκ۵Ŀռ䶼ѹй½ν"ɵս"Լ̨"ͳս"೬ԹͨΧ֣ЮԹЩƺ˵еԹͨ׾ܴɵ顣

ԹͨĿ*
(ԭڡ֪ʶ۴ԡһڣ
ǰ
ʮ""֪ʶӵĸ߶ӡйδչˣ˽ִĹβԼйβܽһͬȻĹᡣҹעĽγɹʷִ͡άϵɳԼĻܵȵȡЩڹۣȻ˼ԵĹ⡣ǹϾȫͬڹ򣬶֪ʶĵĹҲʵϵĿֵýһ̽֡
ֵֵ̽Ŀ֮һ"ԹͨĿ"򵥵˵Ǿٶһƽȹ񻥶ɵĿռ䣬ҪĻʽ빵ͨȻIJͬҲʹDzԿԿȻԵ󡣿ǴϽִɫԼֵԪΪһԪֵĹУֲֵͬʶ̬ܷԹͨȴʡҪǣǵʵʾвֵּͬм෴߽йͨʵϻԼݡƵ̬ȹ֡Էʹκ۵Ŀռ䶼ѹй½ν"ɵս"Լ̨"ͳս"೬ԹͨΧ֣ЮԹЩƺ˵еԹͨ׾ܴɵ顣
ΪϻʵϣܹԹͨĿԴʣDzбҪ뷴ʡ⡣ؽDZ弸⣺һԹͨ빫ǷбȻڱǷΪһ֧ԻԤΪ򣿣ǰһĴǿ϶ģΪʲôĻ߾ֲԻܾͨΣΪʲôʹԹͨҲȻùʶǾӦοʼ޷ϻɹʶôԴڡԳΪ""Ļʲô
ĵУԺȡ Hannah Arendt˹Jrgen HabermasΪݣִԡԼԹͨݵĽɫţǽԲ֣Isaiah BerlinףJohn GrayΪ˵ֵԪضԹͨɵսֵעǣӢԪ˼ҵֵԪ岢񶨿͹ֵձԣĵᄈУֵԪ弸Ȼ塢廮ϵȺšʹ˽ԹͨսԼĶԪ˼룬º͵ĶԪ塣ڽн˵߱ЩܳΪй֪ʶ໥ͨ໥Ͼij

""public sphere"ռ"public spaceۣԺȡ ˹ΪҪȪԴ֮һĹԡ ԶΪݣ˵ЩԣһԹ˹"˵龳"ideal speech situationΪԹͨ߱ʲô"Ի"
Ĺ˳Ϊ"ŵ͵Ĺ"ΪԮԴԹϣξ顣˵""the public"˽"the private໥һ"˽"ԪڹϣijǰϣӳǰpolisΪɹ򣬶ͥhouseholdһȻѪԵϵΪ֮ijЩIJ졣ȣ"νε ˵ڳǰ֮ DZʾκ鶼Ӧ͸˵"ñǿ"ǰ"prepolitical Ĵʽֻô壬ϣϿɵʽ෴أͥҪгԱҪϣһСΪѱūԹߣƾ豩ͳʹԼıΩһ;ˣ򣨳ǰĻԭɣ˽֧䡣
Σֳǰ֮DZ˴ƽȣͥǼƽȵҲߵһʵԱ˳ǰһԱȶģΪ""˱ʾȲ֧֧䣬ͬʱҲȥ֧ˡֻڳǰԹԴпʵ֣֮ڼͥɲڣΪ˱ͳūȻ˾ūƶȵIJƽȲŵԽǰĹƽȽɣڼͥDzɵġ
ΪǰɹƽȻɵһֵ͵""Ƕ""˽ⲻֹ"Աƽ"Ҫʡ뱾ϵеж1"ж͸չҡЭж"2"һȡ"ǷֱԼ˵
ڶ򲢲һ̶䡢ֿɼʵ壬һǵлɵijڹ㳡̨ͷǾۼijϡǰѼ֮˽һĹػʼ˾ͱ˴˹ͬеȻɴ˶֮DzٹйͬתרעһȤڣ滭ĶͶƣ򹫹ʧˣһ͸Pжspeech and act, or speech-actչңЭact in concert
Ϊ͸̸жǿ԰Լ˸ȫչ¶һ棬лʹһ˵ԼȫʶõƵסķʽ¶ˡ棬Ҳ԰һʶȥ˹ͨʹ֮Ļͬһռ䣬ʵ""ԭʼͬʱҲɹĺ塣"ʾһ"ʾ"""ʲô"what I am"˭"who I amΪߵһһ֮У¶ԼеʣIJܡȱݡԼֻĶ˶Դ˿ԿΨ޷֪Լչֳ"˭"ȻˣҪðȥչԼ˭
"ƽ˹ͨ"һеԤΪԸ˵ƽȵĿ ʽı־ˡΪĿɹΪ߱˴ԸԷ˵ʾȨλ˽ж̸ֻͨΪεijһ磬ΪıҲΪһԵΪΣͨʹùάֲ׹Dzʶ̸⣬תӼ£ôͻ伣
во˼ѧϲǿж۴໥ìܵģʽһ"ʤģʽ"agonistic mode"Эж"cooperative modeΪ֮The Human ConditionһжƳϣӢ۾ʤʽжж칫֮ļ϶ʹͬܡ֮ڡ۸On RevolutionУƳƺһȫͬʵжǿͱ˴¾ͬΰιҵ ʵ˶ԭ⣬ΪĴ"ΪʾһԻŻ˶Կ"Ķʽжڡ֮У׵˵"̸жʾʣֻDZ˴˹ͬദǿ̻Կ֮ʱŻȫչ¶" ˣĹжȻһ"ʾ"жȴԲǾܾܾͨж
ΣǸղ˵ĹҲһ"ȡ"ȽϸӣǶ˽⹫Գ̶ȹϵش󡣻ϣ൱԰ͼѧΪͼѧյΪʩͼǿ֮ϡǶΪѧķ룬ѧ׷ΪģзʽԲȡͼӵı֤dialecticλһµĻûоԵǷǶԴֻ˵persuasionȡ֧֣ԴжĹʶѧԾǿ֮ϣֻһ򡢷뵹ı硣˵"ѧҰij˼ύǰϾͱڶ֮еһپʲôԣΪûκοɼı־Էֱ"
ڹУÿһֻһֿûκԣԱɵ˲ƵһǶƺǹֻ֮ûǣһǶҲ˵ÿһʡ˺¸Heidegger""Ķʶ˵"doxaҳֵķʽ磬ˣ۵Ļ뼰ij־Զĺ׼Ķ뷨ļÿλãÿչֲͬò'ͬһ'the sameness'ͬ'commonness'͹'objectivityʵDZ˴б졢ͬչֵͬһ穤'ұϾ'" 仰˵ǹͬסһ֮ϣǸһ۲쵽ķʽ磨񣩣ΪͬÿһȷǾҲֱʾ˲ǴȻĶǿԴﲿĶɣЩ뽻ͨDzܶԹͬбȽ˽⣬Ҳڸ֮͵ÿ˵ԡ͸ʽѹ֡ԹͨԼͬһԽ۵⹱ס ԹͨԤ

Ȼ湫һӡ̵ǹԹͨĹϵȻʮȷһΪ˵speechУspeech-actɣ˵ȻйϵҲܾѧҵľȡΪ׼ˣ򾿾ԤԣȻд̽ϣ˹ŵ"Ի"ṩһ˼㡣
˹ʵܶ˼Ӱ졣Ʃ˵˹ڵƷĽṹת͡ϼ̳˶Թϣʱ˽ֵоԼԽ""˽⣬Ҳ˶˼ʷܹͼʲ׼Ĺһʷѧʽķ Ʃ˵ڹ˹۶"Ȩ"УһƳչһԹͨΪȡȨcommunications concept of powerΤM. Weberɭ˼T. ParsonsĶȡҲȨֻעȨ⣬Ȩʹ뱣֣ӶխȨں ˹˵ڶ"ͨȨ"ʾ𽥷չһ׹"Ի"discourse ethics빵ͨԣcommunicative rationalityۡ
ڹ˹ʲ׼ĹҪɱһԵĹ򣬾ͱݶԻҪ󣬾"˵龳"ideal speech situationĸν"Ի"ϵΪƽȵĹճʵУӦøôԤ۱磬Ի˽Կɽܵľʶڹ˹ĶԻУԭڹؼλһΪUԭһΪDԭ
Uԭձ黯ԭprinciple of universalizationΪÿ˵ͬصij淶ĺ븱ãԱܵ淶Ӱܡ
Dԭ򣨶Իԭprinciple of discourse ethicsֻȫʵʶԻӰ˶ϿɵĹ淶ſΪЧĹ淶
˹Uԭǿ"ձ黯ԭ"ĸΪµձ黯ԭ̫ƫ־ԣжʽ֤ɫʣӦøijǿ"Ϊ"intersubjectivity֤ʽԡҶԽ"Ϊij¹淶Чı׼"ձЧ"ijɷȻڣǵΪ׼"Ƿ־""Ƿ˽" DԭǸԿǹ˹Իĺģ͹Եǣÿһ˵Ĺ۵㡢Ӧлƽȵأһųij˻ijһȺ˵Ч룬ô߶Ǹ˻Ⱥ˾ûоԡ
ֵעǣ˹ڽ׶ԻʱȫûκʵԵĵ±׼Ʃϵ۵ĽȻȨԭȵȡ෴أΪԻõһ"Խʵ"֤transcendental-pragmatic argument"Խ"ΪԻԳձ黯ķʽУٱתΪġضĹҪ"ʵ"ΪԻвԤκʵԵϹ淶ԭ򣬶Ҫй淶ƶŵ֮顣 ˹ŴӹͨԻĹУȻԳijЩʵԵԭЩԡʵԵ֤淶׷¹ʶ㣬"˵龳"Ľ͡
˹ΪʶĴɣԻ˶Ǿ߱жʵԡԵˡ֮⣬˹ٶǿԽһ˵龳аԭ򡣵һκξ˵ж˶ɲμӴһԻڶ˶ƽȵȨκ۵⣬Ա˵۵ɣԼ󡣵ÿһ˶ϱԼţȲƭˣҲڵȨʶ̬Ӱ졣ġԻĽֻ˭"Ϻõ֤"better argumentӦԵؽЩ˵֤καڿǡ˹֪Щʮ룬˵"̫ܵ"improbable conditionsΪκʵʽеĶԻȻ룩Ԥij˵龳ǸչԻˣЩȻ룬ȴշ׷¹ʶıҪҲͨԽĻ
˹"Ի""˵龳"˽⹫еĻͨпԤߵ롣Щ㣬ôеԹͨκϰҲȻҵʶԽǣǵȻ֪ʵԶˡʵе飨ǵ飩ԡضԷ½СôԹͨжЧأĵĶ̥Ϊ˹һǸӶֵ⣬նԱضһȷ𰸡˵"ֻҪ۵һϸµĵ⣬ǾͱٶնԣһԵĻϣؾ" ˹˵ȻԶԶǹûа취ԤôǿԻأǴӶԪߵĽǶʡ⣬ͻ֪鲢˼򵥡

ģֵԪԹͨս

˹ΪֻҪ빫Ի˶߱һԣôԻ龳УǾпܴɹʶʵΣȴ˻ɹ˹뷨Ƿֹۡԣ̥뷴̥뾭ÿWTO򷴶WTOо뷴ԻƼϳ뷴Էϳ̡⼮ȵȣЩﳣۣ߱ûΪ۶ùʶѧȺ塢ִ塢˹µͽɵ׷֮䣬ͬҲԹͨ˶Чֵּ硢ͻڹ˹ﲻҵͣڶԪѧĹ£ȴij̬ͬڹ˹ԪΪʹ빫Ի˶߱ԼϸҲҪ׷ʶͷȻֹᷢʶ޷ʶ޷ԭΪļֵڱڶԪ״̬˴֮޷ͨԼ
νԪѧָDz֣Isaiah BerlinȣJoseph RazףJohn GrayӢ˼½һѧۡǶʮͶԪ˼ҪԴͷڡۡFour Essays on Liberty֮У͸"һԪ"monismһִΣյ˼ΪļֵʵϲֻһЩֵ֮䣬δͬı׼ԱȽϣụͻԿ ֵĶάMachiavelliά£Vicoյ£Herder˼ҵо˵ά翴"̵ĵ""׵ĵ"ֲͬ߸ݣ޷ݡάյǵ˲ͬ塢ͬĻֵDZֵ۵۲죬˽淶ϵѧ׼ֹǵ۵㣬һɡĻԪ"չ"ֵԪ"˵"DZ˽ʵϿԳضԪӵļֵЩֵͬʵͬԡͬ͹ۣ޷ij㲻ĵȼϵ򡢻ij־Ա׼СЩֵ֮䣬еĻֵݣΪǻɲͬᡢڲͬʱ׷󣻻ͬһУɲͬȺ׷ǿ׼̻ᡢ׷룻Ҳͬһ׼̻ᡢ壩֮УΪͬĸ"
ֵĶԪӢ𽥳Ϊһѧȡ׵˾Ļ֮ϣһ˼ֵϵͳ޷ͨԼincommensurabilityۡ˵ֵԪ⣺һ̬Ԫ̬ļֵ˴޷Լֵֵ֮侭޷г棬ŽŶĹϵֵ֮䣬޷ҵͬߵƻijķʹֵͻԺ ĵǶԪǿ"ͨԼ"ص㣬͵£George Crowderʮϸķ˵"ͨԼ"ָ"޷Ƚ"incomparable"޷"immeasurable"޷"unrankableļֵԪܻżֵֵ֮"޷Ƚ"ֶ޷бȽϡº͵ļֵԪżֵ֮ԱȽϣֻ޷ѡ͵ԼΪ"޷ͨԼ"˼Ӧý֮䣬⼴"ԱȽ""޷"Ҳ"޷ҵͬı׼"
͵µʶֵԪ廹ǿ֮֡ڼļֵԪ֮УеļֵԿ۵ļֵҲܴκձԵĹ淶ȤǣӲֵ׵͵£ЩӢԪ߶ļֵԪ壬º͵ļֵԪ塣νº͵ļֵԪ壬˵ȻΪֵԪ棬˴˳ͻìܶ޷ͨԼÿֵֵϵͳȴǿ͹ЧģijЩֵӦþձԡ־˵"͹Եļֵȷʵڡν͹Լֵָ֮ΪĿġΪԵʶ׷ļֵ" ļֵѧ˵ΪֵԴԸڸܻжϣҾŹĸǴģôǴģҾûʲô˲ôͲǴġº͵ĶԪȻΪֵֵϵͳǶԪģֵԸϵ϶Ǿп͹۴ڵĻν͹۴ڵĻָ"ȷʵҸ˵ܸĻô"ΪˣԼֵҲԾձԩҲ˵"κʱأǶȫ඼мֵ"
ºͶԪ֤ǿܻú֡ΪĵᄈһΪdzֶԪļֵۣӦҲǸֵԼֵߡֵ֮һԪƺӦֵ͹Լֵձءǣֵ˵֤ȴʾ"Ԫ婤͹婤ձ"һᣬͬʱ"һԪ۩婤"̢˼ʷֵ·Ǹ޷Բ˵ţձȻҪΪֵѧ˵Ļǣһ϶ijЩֵƩ塢ɡƽȡп͹ձԣֵĶԪҪνأºͶԪձԡ͹ԼԪԵĸݶ"ҽΪ"ʵ˵"ֵּܻݣǵ಻޾ΪȻ䣬ȴ뱣ijЩϵԣgeneric characterͲٳΪ"ҲǻֲŸƶ"ʹûձֵҲijЩĹ淶ȱЩ淶Ἰ޷"ĿЩĹ淶ֹūƶȡֹڽʽϵɱΪֹɴĶСֹɱ޹ֹͯ븸ĸȵȡ
Ȼ"ҽΪ"ʵܲƳͼձֵأ⣬Щ"Ĺ淶"ķĺ׼ôֵԪ壨ԼĻ壩ѵۿۣ޷ʵϣȽϼĶԪߣֵе"ֵ"ǷκձֵĴڡ˵۴ѧоʷѧķļֵϵͳȷʵԪ磬ҲʵĹͬ淶ͽƽȣӡȽͽΪȼͬй˽̵СҪТ˳ĸ"ĸڡԶ"ŷ壬Ů֮ѵ븸ĸһ˹һΪ̬ͽĹƶΥŮƽȡ󣬼ʹڸIJϣ"ϲأϲ٣ΪźҪΪ޶ɷ㺴˽вƲȨع"Щֵҵ͹ۡձı׼
ʵ𲽷չֵĶԪʱѾʶԪ岻һ֧ļֵƩɡݡȵȡΪֵԪͻ֮κ顢ԡ׼ֻ"ݶЭ"modus vivendiķʽЭݶЭȻijЩ"ձ͵Ҫ"universal minimum morality"ݶЭĹΧ෽ԤȨʵϣ̺ȱ㲢ϵĶԻԽԡٶϱȻǶӦԪѷ򲻽޷֤Ҳһ㶼"֮ܶΪԪܰݵļֵƶѡΪֻ࣬һֿܣԲΨһܡһĹܹϰհҵŷ̷ԭܱһ̷롢ҸȡˣԪôžͲΪ档ȫʱѡԪ壬֡
ǿ׵ĶԪȻȣ벮һЩֵǿ͹ձġΣ"ݶЭ"ȻԤijЩ"ձԵ͵Ҫ"Ʃƽ桢ʵϣ֮ԤҶܽЩֵôԹͨͿԽСĶԪ岢κձֵĴڣ粮˵ǵ־ͽɷ׷ߣҲdz׵ߡ һ溬壯͹塢壯ձߵĹԣν綨ԶΪǻĹͬԹͨҲصơ޷ɹʶǸûлôľ滹ܲܳΪһ

ٶȻصȡۣҪʲôԪΪijȫ޷йͨȷġһѹ޶ȵĹšһ޵ɮ¡һΨͼϰ塢һ޶ıͽһٽ˺һǻĸȳѧߡһȨߣЩ˼ʹͬһУԹͨǣҲǿԻǶ˼ȥDz"""ƽȵز"ԻǷʣҪһôҪʲô
ȣȻ""Ϊ""򡣵ǹԱܹĶʲôأΪͬʷĻϰסֵʹϵĻҲȫʵԵΪͬΪණ磬ܸΪһϣĴʮȤ˵ǹ֮ͬ"һ"һȺͬһ鿪ʼۡǹͬһķչǾʹһռ䡣ռεģȴʹý顣仰˵ֻҪDzǶԱ˹ĵĮġֻҪDzǼͬѼôͻصȺ֮и֡ǣǹͬһ»ͬһ""Ƕ»ҪͬжϡˣԪĻ⣨"ֵϵ޷ͨԼ""ͬһ"ûìܡ
Σγ֮DZÿһسԱȤȥ˽˵ͼ뷨šԱֻܱԼijµĿȴмȥ˽˵ĿôȻǿնģǷȱһ໥ԣreciprocityҪ˽˵̬ڹѧǿ⹵ͨͬΪҪÿһ߶⣨good willҪԷ۱Ҫ"ں"fusion of horizonsЧǴ˴"˽"ֻһֺ棬ԼΪһжòҪ˵ʹһ˵ͼΪ˴ԷҲ˽Էʲôʲôǿ"˽"ԵģȻԲ"໥"Ч
ԤԸԱлνȻǹ賓˵֡ơ顢񡢾ֹװ硢ߡƷȵȾйͨõţԡνָԵвȻ˺ɱսȵȡʵϣ뱩֮ʱ֣Ʃ"в""δըʼ"ȵȡǣúã"ǰ"Ļ֮ĹͨñУȻһֿԱZּ"ͨ"ΪôֹϵѳΪ""ȽϽӽij"ս״̬"ʹ˶ԣ׼"ݶЭ""ƽ"Ϊǰᣬûе
ģijԱֱǵ""ĸ˵ʱȽϿȡͱ뿴˭"ϼѵ֤"better argumentϼ֤һҪ˹˵Ȼ""Ϊ׼ǰһԡԵ֤Ƕ֪ʱijЩ򵥵ijĬĿ飬۱ϵ˵Ǹܴġ˵нߣ˴"ϼ֤"ٶҪ׷ձԹ淶ЧĹʶͼһʽձԼֵϵν"ϼ""ϲ"ȫɶԻڵȺжֻҪԻ߶Ͽij֤Ǹ֤ǶԾЧġ֤ǷطȺЧʱۡˣƸ׵"ݶЭ"ϼ֤ܵҲһּ"ڵػ"local׼
ˣΪIJҪĸڹͬĵ⡢Ը˽˵뷨Խлܽϼ֤ЧĸڣijԱͿԽĹֹͨͨ˹ڴ"˵龳"µ"Թͨ"ϻԵġȻϲرˣʵȴڸĶ̸龳֪Թͨδܹʶ"ûйʶ"ԪԤʾĿ֮ܽһ"ʱйʶʱ޹ʶ"״̬ǻDZơ

* ڻʦѧйִ˼Ļоٰġ֪ʶִйѧֻͯڼλṩл
Seyla Benhabib ΪĹԷֳֻͣ"ʽĹռ"agonistic model"ʽĹռ"legalistic model"̸ʽĹռ"discursive model߷ֱԶBruce Ackerman˹ΪͬʾΪ۲ֻǿIJ棬ʵҲй̸ͨμ Seyla Benhabib, "Models of Public Space: Hannah Arendt, the Liberal Tradition, and Jrgen Habermas," in Craig Calhoun ed., Habermas and the Public Sphere (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1992), pp. 73-98.
Hannah Arendt, The Human Condition (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1958), pp. 26-31.
Ibid., pp. 32-33.
Ibid., pp. 179-180.
μ Peter Fuss, "Hannah Arendt's Conception of Political Community," in Melvyn A.Hill ed., Hannah Arendt: The Recovery of the Public World (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1979), pp. 172-173. Bhikhu Parekh, Hannah Arendt and the Search for a New Political Philosophy (London: Macmillan, 1981), p. 177.
The Human Condition, p. 180.
Hannah Arendt, "Philosophy and Politics," Social Research 57: 1 (Spring, 1990), pp. 78.
Ibid., p. 80.
Jrgen Habermas, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere: An Inquiry into a Category of Bourgeois Society, trans. by Thomas Burger (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1989).
Jrgen Habermas, "Hannah Arendt's Communications Concept of Power," Social Research 44:1 (Spring, 1977), pp.3-24.
Jrgen Habermas, Moral Consciousness and Communicative Action, trans. by Christian Lenhardt and Shierry Weber Nicholsen (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1993), pp. 65-66.
⣬˹Ҳǿô֮ǵҪ涼ԳΪжϹ̵Ҫأ"⶯"ҪĮӡIbid., pp. 66-68.
Ibid., pp. 82-98.
Ibid., pp. 88. Habermas, Justification and Application: Remarks on Discourse Ethics, trans. by Ciaran Cronin (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1993), pp. 56-58.
Habermas, Justification and Application, p. 59.
Isaiah Berlin, Four Essays on Liberty (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1969), pp. 169-172.
Isaiah Berlin, The Crooked Timber of Humanity (New York: Vintage Books, 1992), pp. 7-14, 79-80.
John Gray, "Where Pluralists and Liberals Part Company," in Maria Baghramian and Attracta Ingram eds., Pluralism: the Philosophy and Politics of Diversity (London: Routledge, 2000), pp. 87-88. See also John Gray, Enlightenment's Wake: Politics and Culture in the Close of the Modern Age (London: Routledge, 1995).
George Crowder, Liberalism and Value Pluralism (London: Continuum, 2002), pp. 2-3, 49-54.
Berlin, The Crooked Timber, p. 11.
Crowder, Liberalism and Value Pluralism, pp. 45-46.
Berlin, The Crooked Timber, pp. 14, 18, 80.
Gray, "Where Pluralists and Liberals Part Company," pp. 86-87, 91, 93, 101. Gray۵ķɲμCrowder, Liberalism and Value Pluralism, pp. 11-12.
Berlin, The Crooked Timber, pp. 77-78.