ΩԸƽˮʹ罭ϣ
et revelabitur quasi aqua iudicium et iustitia quasi torrens fortis

ӢԱȨı

С

תйѧ

κλȨıͨ򣬶ԻȨ⡣һͨĹϵԲԵߵΪʯıȨҲͬˡֻн綨˷ȷеıɵķΧΪκȨıǾԵģʹһȨıһȨıͻʱҲòȻⲢ˵һȨһȨҪֻ˵ڸȨ֮Ҫҵһƽ㡣ͬȨƽйҵķϵͳڶǷdzձġȥѰƽ㣬ڸȨ֮һǸٵ⡣磬Ӣýߺͷشı仯аýĵ뱨ŵ빫񱣻˽Ȩ֮ƽµǻ˼άƪͼͨӢʹ״Ѱйľ顣

ŷȨԼеɱȨ

רŵɱܷһԻʽȷ涨ɱȨΪһȨܷܵıӢûгܷӢΪŷ»ĴʼԱ1950׼ˡŷȨԼͨˡ1998Ȩ÷ȥ10ʽЧʽԼӢĹڷӶıӢȨķɴӢκι͹Լһ£ӢκηԺȨӢijһ͹Լһ£ʹȡʩ޸صķɡŷȨԼǵŷ޹ܷļ[1]ӢܷĵλŷȨԼ10Ա˱ȽϾĹ涨

бɵȨȨӦɡܺʹϢ˼ɣܹȨ棬ܽӰ졣ӦԹ㲥ӡӰҵ涨֤ƶȣ

ɵʹһκ񣬹Ӧһʽƻ̷ԼӦΪ涨Ϊ裬ڹҰ򹫹ȫڷֹһά¡˵Ȩֹ¶ܻõϢά˾Ȩ͹

Ϲ涨ԿɡΪһĹȨӦܵձıܵԵıûơ֮ͨĹϵһһεõ֡ǡŷȨԼԱɵʶŷȨԼ˵10Ĺ涨17ҲɱȨصķġԼ17ָԼһ½ͣκڽлѾɵĶԹԼϵȨ𺦵ΪϸֹģȻڹԼ涨ķΧɺȨʵơɴ˿ɼñȥַԼϵȨǹԼĽֹģȨԭǹԼĻԭ֮һ

Ȩԡ19ȨȨʹԼ19ȨԼ13ȨȨ¡9涨˶ɱȨıϡԱЩȨļŷȨԼ102оٵģȨʶʵעʵص㡣һ棬ϣĹ涨Ϊ壬ҲʵĶԡŷȨԺԹԼĽں̶ֲܴȱݡͳƣŷȨԺ1959꽨ֹ19999Լ916онʮ֮һڻ漰10ıȨ[2]ڰзչһЩԭ򣬲ΪŷȨԺİѭԸԱָͬ塣ȻԱԸľɲΧMargin of Appreciation,ȨʹŷȨԺļලܽһŷȨԺȨзչԭжԱɱǷڹԼ10ķΧܵ˵漰ɱŷȨԺİԷΪࣺ1Ϊĵα[3]2ҵ㲥ʽ[4]3[5]ͳϣŷȨԺɸ߶ȵıԶαǷdzСģ֮£ҵ﷽棬ԱеɲΧҪöࡣԣǶɱļֵҪαء

˾ʵУŷȨԺɱγһЩ˼룬Щ˼ŷȨԼеĹ涨бʹãӢԺҲҪָ塣а

1ɲӭģ޹ؽҪģ޿Ϣ͹۵㣬ͬЩһijЩ𾪵ģðԵĻ˲Ϣ˼룬һԪšݡҪڶ˾ߵֻ֡Ԫšݡ̬ȲֱܹЩ˵[6]

13ɱƱһϵеϸ˵ԡͳؽһƱǷĹ涨ģƱΪʵֹԼ102оٵضĿҪġôʲôDZҪģŷȨԺһȷһЩԭ򡣣1ɱȨĸԤǡеҪʲôǡеҪԱȨݸԼĹжϣȻҪܵŷȨԺļල2ɱȨƶ׷ĺϷĿdzɱġᵽЩͬʱ㣬ܹݵ102Ĺ涨֤ɱȨصĺͱҪġȻŷȨԺ綨ЩһЩԭԵĹ涨ΪԱԼ˾ʵṩָͻ˼·

ŷ˶ԱȨı

ӢŷҪһԱӢɱȨ״ܲŷΪΪŷ˵ķڸԱɣڸԱֱЧκŷ˷ͻĹڷԶЧŷ˵ķӢķϵռҪλãӢȿŷ˷ҵŷ޷ԺжӢɺŷ˷һʱӢڷ޸ġӢ1972䲼ˡŷ巨÷֤κᷨڵκιڷɶҪŷ˷ɡ

12ŷ˹ͨġŷ˻Ȩ¡dzΪŷδܷĻڶµ11涨˱Ϣɣ

5 ˶бȨȨӦɡܺʹϢ͹ɣܹȨ棬ܽӰ졣

6 ýɺͶԪӦܵء

ΪһµҪĹȨļ¿ǵϢĸٷչһȷָԶýʽıǽйעŷ޷Ժһİŷ˷ԣ漰ŷ˷ʱκŷ˵Ĺ񶼿ԮһڳԱѰ˾ȼá

ŷ˷ͨȡԼָ[7];ʽ⻹ͨ;ʽзɾ漰ɱҪָ1989103ͨģ1997630սġûнĵָ89/552/EECָּЭԱڹ㲥һתͽչ㲥ӵǿԹ֪ȨȨȨԼı⣬Ϊӭֻ;ȫ򻯵սŷ1996깫Ϣжδ˺˵ϵıƤ顣ִѧĸٷչýʽԽԽϢĴԽԽʻഫͳý岻⡣ֱ֮£ҪһֱȽķʽȥʵдڵ⡣磬϶ͯɫĵѾһԱܶ⣬ŷ˵IJϼǿԶͯȨıִеķɹ涨Ȩε׷ȡֶζԻйȡƤеĸԱԼŷһ״ָԱķɶڡŷȨԼеĵ10Ȩһ֮ƶģŷԼ˹ԼF2ѰΪһԭŷ˷Сݵ10Ĺ涨ɱȨʹŷ˵κεطǾԵģܵơŷȨԺͨչĶκλȨƶϡԭ򡱣proportionalityһҪļ׼ˣԭ򡱺͡ϱļ׼ŷ˸ɵĹʶǣڸĻ͵±׼IJ죬ھʵʩԭͱ׼ʱܴ³ֵľ⣬Ƥŷ˸ҪǿڹʶĻ֮ϣѰҵİ취

ӢԱȨı

ӦָɱȨṩǹӦе񣬶ýŷȨԼ1͹涨˶ԵԼӦȷÿйԼ涨ɺȨζŲҪԼԤɺȨʹҪԼȡĴʩԱȨɣȻɱȨõءʵϣԼһڶʽġڵý巢չĻӢɱȨıͨƶڡŷȨԼŷ˷Ŀ֮γɵġ

һýȨĶ

ӢӢ㲥ӹ˾BBC͵4Ƶ㲥ӹ˾еý嶼˽СӢ֧ýҵӦ˽Ͷʡ˽жƶչĹ۵㡣ĿǰӢҪıֽһЩӵжýĴý幫˾ұӵ̫š̩ʿ̩ʿżԼӵÿվվﱨÿռ¼ʱնľšڹ㲥ӢΪ㲥ҵӦ뱨ҵƵģʽ˽ӵеĻϷչߵ粨εߵ㲥ڵǿӰʹȡӵĿƵķʽ磬Ӣ㲥˾Ϊһ׼ԵĹġĿǰӢýԽԽڹ˽ͶʺͿơǣӢҲһζ֧˽ӵý壬ӢɻԹ˾ýгȨơDZҵǵ̨͵ֻ̨ܿһһһ򣬽ýΪṩϢɹ涨κθ˻˾Ƶıֽշʮݣûɣø˻˾ӵиñֽȨij̨Ĺ˹15%κθ˻˾ֹӵиǫ֤̃[8]ȨĶһ汣֤˹ѡĶһҲ֤гýгͬʱṩҵӰĹ㲥ӽĿҶԹ㲥ӵ¢ΥŷȨԼ10ԱȨıġ[9]ŷȨԺΪڹȷ㲥ҵ¢ϵλڡԼ޽ijǷϹϵһģִڵĺϷڵʱһʱǺʵġǣκιҶܱ֤ԶǺϷġƼڵĺϷԽܵʱĿ飬ڿѧضʹǨĿ顣ΪҵֻиֲڶԪԭܳɹʵĿꡣȷʵĿĹУ¢ǶԱɵƣ¢ֻʮе²ܱΪġ

ӢԱȨķ

̸ģŷȨԺжȨɱǷĵһǡΪ涨ôʲôǡɵľ涨ŷȨԺ1992225Margareta and Roger Anderson v. SwedenһоᵽΪ涨ҪйظʩӦйڷݡThe Sunday Times v.UKһУŷȨԺΪΪ涨һеġɡƶҲƶΪƲڡΪ涨ɽûбȷ涨ȻΥԼߵͼʹһǩԼͨ102ıҡƶȵĻŷȨԺЩоӢԱȨķưƶ

1.Դͳýķ

֮Գƴͳýڻµý崫ʽԡΪĶԣǵΪһ⡣ӢûһۺԵȫŷԼŻķԭ͹淶ɢڹ㷺ķɡº֮СӢƶһŷǻ¿ǣӢķھʵʩԳֵĽӦĶԲߣѭ򽥽ͱƶһ㷺ȫķֳһЩơ⣬ΪҪһԭǣӢý岻ķɵλ༭żֻǴ·ĸ幫˿ԽͨķͬڵŻȨûбҪʹŽΪһרŷɵһķɶڴͳý壬ӢҲƶһЩضý巽ʽķɡ19901996ġ㲥ӷԱȹ㲥ӣҶųĹҪɵöࡣųҵȡҵɵķʽɱҵ֯ͶίԱᡱƶҵ򣬽ҹʵУ漰ԱȨƵķ£

1̰Ӣƶġ1996̰ּڱ˺͹˾ַڱȨ͸Ȩ֮ƽ⡣ⳣʵʵIJв״ﵽһƽ⡣йط̰Уý巽֤Σָ֤صΪԡɷ̰ɿǶй漰¼ڿ͹ʵĻۣǶһЩdzҪϢýڹҪڣȻýռ͹ЩϢʱ뾫ȷ͹[10] Ժ϶ָصķ̰Ϊdzڶģһб绤ͽ͵ġ1996̰ʵʩǰֳɷýĿУɷ˱ָз̰ԵۣýӦԴ˸𣬿Աߡ̰ʵʩ֮ýܹ֤֪Ҳ֪Ϊٳ˷̰Ե۵Ĺý彫ΡĿǰӢԷ̰ϣİеʵУܶӢ˲Ը⽫𺦰ύͥд㹻İܹʤస漰ķdzӶҰ߷Ҫ֧ʦпԶԶ֧⳥1998꣬ɴ㲥˾֧5Ӣ⳥𣬶֧ʦϷþߴ60Ӣ

2ӷͥýڱ˾ල˾ȷʹְȨĹз˻ãһ棬ýIJIJ뽫ΣԺĹ˽ˣⷽûвƵıɣ޶ȲӦԽҲǻĿǣŷȨԼ102й涨еһǡά˾صȨ͹ԭΪӢɵһԭͬʱܵŷȨԼ֧֡Լ61涨Ȩܵƽ͹СӢָȨϯͥڷͥʹƬȨЩΪոֹܵҪdzڵĶгӰ졣ĿǰһЩϳЩ̸Ӣý岢йٷĵλֻһ㹫ڵġ۾͡䡱ȻϯͥйгȨɵҪأͥӵųý彫ͥϵбȨ磬ΪܴΣ״̬е֤ˣԷеܺߵȡӢý屨гȨʩӵصйӷͥĹ涨Ӣӷͥ·ӷͥķԴ1981ġӷͥԴشһҲŷȨԺоķӳ[11]Ա˺ܶơҪĿǷֹýӰ˾ǶԱĶжӰ죬Ӷɡý嶨Ӣ෨ԺΰԺɷɵġ⺺ûнܹϵͳķɽרҵ٣԰жǿĺ壬ýIJʵɶ˾ĹԡȨԵӰ졣⣬Ӣڲþ°˺ҪáʹŵĹͬӢñȽϼijѡԱĹУԱܻܵý屨ϢӰ졣ˣӢ֤ݹ֮ǰý°ıЩصӦӷͥ涨ϸι򣬼κζԷͥı㲥ӣͼʲôֻҪñ԰ϳе°°ʵԵ𺦻ƫԺԶ֮деӷͥκּڸԤ˾Ϊǿ۹ԣҸԤΪʽΪʼ֮󡣿ܹӷͥýı鰸ľϸڣ밸̲Ԥⰸûͬ⣨18ϣԷܺߵݣ漰ͯΪ桢֤˻ܺߵ°ȡ

3ܷܷƹЩڱӦùϢ[12]ֻеϢĹҪڱظܵĵĹʱýſԹܷӢѾΪֹý幫ϢһǿķɹߡӢûжԸ˽ȨĵķɱͨͨȨʽǡŷȨԼ8ȷ涨˶Ը˺ͼͥȨıȨЧ֮Ӣ뵽С˭Ȩռʹij˵˽ϢǵӢһҪͷ⡣ýԣϢȨý屨һҪķ棬رǵ˽Ҫ󾭳ڸǷǷĻ򲻵µΪʱˣûɵ£ý岻Ӧֱӵع˽ϸڡˣɱṩһַʽƽ˵˽Ȩ͹˽һҪȨȻӢ߲Ըһȷ˽ȨΪ˽һѽ綨ձ˽ȨɹɺܴвܶӢΪӢԸ˽ҪһǿȨӰ£Ӣڵý屨źͱ˽Ȩ֮ƽ⡣

41989ܷ1989Ĺܷ涨κδְĻǰĹҰȫ鱨ŵĹԱлȡ򹫿йϢϢĹԣ·ַΪй濼ǵ⣬Ҳ˵ڶԹڸı绤ܳ

519591964﷨ݸ÷ָͷԺĹ۵㣬ᵼ°ܻͶЧκ£ָݣҲָЩбݵ¡ǷΪ̷ͽ̡

ӷϿƳΥ±׼йԺͱдӰΪӢѾ͡Щȷɵı׼㹻԰仯ļֵͬʱܹάϣӢٵһѵ㡣ڶԳ˺ͶͯӦӴйԺͱݵýֲͬĹ۵㡣ӢӶȨıýжרŵĹ涨ֹΣĽɳ1978Ķͯ涨˶ԶͯɫĿơݸ÷κ㡢ַ桢ʾԷַΪĿӵ16¶ͯƬƬΪɷΪܵ´ǣûжʲôǡࡱɷԺľ庬塣1988巨涨ֻӵжͯɫƬ͹ɷܵ6µļ﷨ӦµսκһԵ˶ͨȫصĵͼƬѶԴ˷ӳͨ޶﷨涨ӴҲԱΪһʽijΪ硶1994͹ʲôǡƬĶ塣ڵԴԼκܹͨӷʽתƬݡƬָһͼ񣬲ͨƳɵĻͨʽȥƬһͼⷽ棬ӢĵӺ͵̨ܵȳΪĹƣԵӺ͹㲥иߵı׼еҵ㲥ӹ˾뱣֤ǵĽĿ͹沢Ǵסʧߺðݣ9ǰòŲʺ϶ͯۿĽĿ

6ϢԴı1981ӷͥ10ֹ涨κηԺҪκ˹ϢԴdz塢ҰȫֹɧһҪǷҪϢԴջɷԺԺھǷҪڻܵϢԴʱҪᵽŷȨԺ˾۱һ¡ȣзɹ涨ӢУҪ߹ṩϢԴķɰ1984꾯֤ݷ1989ֲֹз1981ӷͥ1989ܷ1987巨1985깫˾19891986ڷԼܷȡWilliam. Goodwin[13]һ״ݼߵԴȨӢ˱ϯŷȨԺͳʽҸԤǷȷɹ涨ָԤǷҪԺԵһĻشǿ϶ģȻԵڶ⣬Ժ෴ĻشŷȨԺ漰ۺϷȨ֮Ļ֧ɵĺڡɱȨɵĻʯ֮һǩԼҹְҵµĹ淶йɵĹļΪṩɱϡԺܾʵʩౣϣż߱ڹעĻԼܴ졣ɼȲִġڿҹpublic watchdogְҲż߻ȡʵŵԴɾ޴ϰۺϿԴȨıɵش͸¶ܶԸɲĸӰ죬ڱӢȡΪΪҪٵشвԷϹԼ10

2.ýĹʽ

ýǹʹɱȨ壬ȷýܹҵĸԤýĶDZ֤ɵһҪǰ

̸ıɲǾԵɣܵƣԾ;ýܵ⣬ǶϣýзԽԽҪãṩϢĹܣڹǵĻԷҪáԣýȡɷչ̬ȣ֮й淶ͼලǺܿµġDzȡʲôķʽҪ֤ɱȨܹȨĸܱɱȨãڶýҵĹ棬˭ƶϷ򣿹ӦðһʲôĽɫӢͨԸŽȡ淶ԵĿơΪԱҵֱӿƻڹƶȵɣһﲻܵӭŽĶԿӢDzȡýҵҵɵķʽΪ־֣Ľİ취

Ӣýҵҵ֯ҪͶίԱᣨPCCԼ۲֯IWFں粿̸ֵͶίԱһڱֽҵרŴйرֽ־֯ίԱ16ŽijԱɡίԱƶŹΪΪı׼κֱܵӰĸ˺֯ڱͶߵ³һ֮ڵίԱͶߡѾ뵽еİίԱΧÿίԱԼ2500飬һƽҪ30ʱ䡣ίԱṩķѵġίԱûȨԱָصıҵƲãDZöΥΪıҵҪ䱨ֽϹίԱԵIJö˾ҹķʽŵ㣺1öݵĽķʽΪṩһִ淨ͥҵͳɱ;2κ˿šίԱῪ˷ߵ绰ṩйصϢ񣬻רΪơäṩרŵķ3ҹķʽܹ֮ҪһϷƶϷ򡪱ֽ־ı༭ԼƶΪ򲢳ŵЩ򡣵ίԱֲDZҵĹߣίԱȻɱҵṩʽ𣬵Աɱҵʿɣɴ֤ίԱĶ4رȺ档ίԱĹԼƶΪظЩڲλ˵ĹעжԶָͯط˵ѡַܺԼҽԺƵIJ˶رıңίԱгֵһЩָϣһЩ⣬űעԲƱнȨı5ųҵҹʽͻĺôǿͬʱʵűְҵ±׼ĿꡣùƶɵʽųҵƻɣͬʱҲߴҵԱĵ±׼ڷϷԽԽߵִᣬýҵͨǴҵͶ߷֮䣬ƺֻЩǮơһŸԸͥķʽˣңָԼķʽ谭ųҵķϹ顣

ӢĹ㲥򣬹ҸԤĺۼҪԴųҵʸԤԱ֤ݵĹ͹㷺ȻӢԵ̨͵̨Ĺ淶һ[14]磬ɾġҪԤýĴڶεDZزٵģӢεһԭñֵֽ֧ɵι۵ѳΪӢεһɫǣӢȴôԸõɺռݵ̨͵̨ݡ㲥ӷ˹㲥ӱ׼ίԱᣨBSCͶίԱ ITCίԱḺӢеҵ̨ίԱƶΪĵ̨䷢ӪҵִաίԱȨԲĵ̨ʵоƲãִա

㲥ӱ׼ίԱ͹㲥ҵʳģӢΨһĵеĹ㲥ӷ֯ίԱ13ίԱɣеίԱӢĻýίԱḺÿҪĹ档ίԱƶйع㲥ݱ׼Լ漰ΪָϡίԱڴ˻Ҫ͵顣κιڿij㲥ӽĿΪ漰дԻйؽĿƷλʱͶߵίԱ᣻ֻЩڽĿ漰ֱĵ˲йعַ˽ȨͶߡίԱԾ֤ˡһίԱ֧Ͷߣ㲥̱ͨ粨ڱֽ־ϹίԱĴίԱûȨڽĿ֮ǰĿݡԣίԱĴºľȼãͶ߷һ㶼ίԱľ

3.Ӣ㲥˾BBC

BBCӢҪĹ㲥֯ν㲥֯Ӣý巨ѧEric BarendtڵĹ۵,Ӧþص㣬Щص̶ܴڶԱɵıϣ1㷺ĵ򸲸ʣ2עԺĻ3ڹҺҵ棻4ĿĹԣ5ĿĹ㷺ԺͶԣ6ʽҪԴڶʹߵշѡ[15]

BBCǸӢʼ¡1926ġ19261954꣬BBCһֱڹ㲥ҵռ¢ϵλ1954ԺBBCĵ̨׼BBCȻĴͳг̨㲥ռ¢ϵλ1973꣬طҵ̨׼BBCܵӢĻýBBCίԱǩɺͬԼúͬ涨BBCĹ͹ͬʱBBCҲܵ㲥ӱ׼ίԱᣨBSCļල1996꣬BSC685ͶBBCİ78Ͷ߱BSCȷϲֻȫ[16]

BBCΪӢеҪý壬αֶչҹȨĸԤԱ֤ȨijʹǹעĽ㡣ΪֻеֶڷϺʵеõϣܱ䵱Ŀ࣬Ҳڴڵ档BBC³̡ᵽBBCĶɺͬĵ21ȷĹ涨

漰ĿݺͲʱԼ˾ĹBBCӦֶ

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[1] μCase Loizdou v. Turkey, Judgment of 23 March 1995, Publications ECHR, Series A vol.310.

[2] μŷȨԺеıɡ־20004ڣ41ҳ

[3] μCastells v. Spain, ECtHR A-236.

[4] μCase Markt intern Verlag, ECtHR A-165;Groppera Radio AG, ECtHR A-18.

[5] μCase Muller, ECtHR A-133.

[6] μHandyside v. United Kingdom, 7 December 1976, 1 EHRR 737, Para.49.

[7] ָŷ˷еһַʽŷһ廯ķչз˺Ҫáֻ涨ȡõĽоʲôʽͨʲôȡĽɳԱо

[8] Perry Keller, The Media in Britain, P8, The British Council, 2001.

[9] μInformations Verein Lentia v. Austria 1991.

[10] μReynolds v. Times Newspapers 1998.

[11] μSunday Times v. United Kingdom 1979.

[12] μAttorney General v. Jonathan Cape 1976.

[13] W.v. the UK, ECtHR, A-121-A.

[14] Perry Keller, The Media in Britain, P6, The British Council, 2001.

[15] Broadcasting Law: A Comparative Survey (1995, Oxford, Clarendon Press), P.52.

[16] BBC 1996/97ȱ棬65ҳ