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ߵķѧ

ֲ¶Եѧķ˼Կ

ǿ

ԷֲִתΪ20ѧ˼˼巨ѧĻۺͷִ۵ڷչ߼Щ˼һ֡ûйҵķɹۡǷֲʶ̬òǷɹְͬҵʶ̬IJ˼뷨ѧҵͬأɴ˱Ϊ˵ķѧڷ˼ַѧڴ뷨ɹϵϵķ߿˵ѧеıԵѧ˵ʵ巨ѧ˼УԼɴγɱ巽뱾֮ڴ˻ϣߵķѧͼڸ۱ϣ°ѹΪѧ˼ģӶڼϡ˵ķѧ˼йҵתٵ⡣

ؼ ֲ ûйҵķɹ ˵ķѧ ߵķѧ

ǿ1967ѧʿѧѧԺڣ 100871

йɷչĩƸĸƶķִ˶Ȼ죬ⳡִ˶йڲıǶⲿĻӦζйΪҡγɵһƣڹʷɹϵ֮нִҡⳡӰԶĹתʹɻǰδеش壬˾ϽסάĹߣϽҵĹߡ[] بδ֮֡УֲΪײĽһǰδеķɸ

ⳡ뷨ѧоҰʱǵķѧǾڡֲϣҪôѷֲΪҪҪֲʶ̬⣬ѷԷֲıɣֲַ֧ǿĸĸɣҪôѷֲΪֲļ⣬ȽϷɡֲл塰ֲֲͬ̽֡ǡеֲǡлֲǡհճǡѧϰ[]ȴ׷ʡֲνġɡʲôҲעֲת֮ڹԷֲз˼ֲǷѧз̸۵Ļ⣬ûвķѧ⡣

ѧ۽ԣѡֲΪ⣬Ѳڡֲڡɡ˵ɡƶķôֻҪԸ⣬ôֲܽأ̶̶ʮ䣬DzѾֲͨƵķϵ𣿵ǣ˵ɡйͬѭʽôֻҪʽûз仯ֲDzܵģ񡶵¹񷨵䡷СDzֲظԭģΪûв[]ϣ񷨵䡷͡˹˾˵ֱۺ񷨺͹˾ɹķʲôأȻ˵ijķʽֲζһĻս ֲжԡʲôζǵķѧû˼⡣෴ǡǡ֤ʲôڷѧѳ׽跴˼ǰٶֲűҪҪֲֲ⡣ˣֻҪȫ濼쵱ѧνʲô⣬ʾ뷨ֲ֮عпڡҡ͡ҡת͵ıϣ˼ֲ

һûйҵķɹ

ѧйڡʲô׷ʼڶԽ˼巨ѧġʤ˶˼巨ѧļ巴ѡ[]ַѧΪǽ׼ìܲɵ͵IJһ׼ͳһ׼Ĺұִͳν׼־ĹߡַɹʵǷɵιֵۣǹ־˵ͳߵ־ѧҲǡ뷨ۡɾͱ뽲ҡ˼˶ĹڷɱĴۣԼɴ˲ķĻۺͷִۣʹõѧ˼˷ɵιۣѡΡ͡ҡЩɵⲿҪ𲽴ӷѧ˼ųȥӷڲҪغʽҪⷨɣγɡûйҵķɹۡ

һɱʵĴۣɵļ̳

1979ꡰΡ롰Ρ۽ҿѧ˼ŵĻڽ뷨Ʊ£ѧʼɱǿķչɣɴˣչ˷ɵĽ׼̳ԡ׼ԵĴۡⳡǿǶڹ־ձԹˣ巨ȫԼ̳ʱ巨⽨ɳ˱ضͳν׼־ĹͬԸijЩ͹۹ɡΪ˵ɱĹұ־ѧۡҲȡˡ뷨ۡſγʽΪѧΪһƻ֪ʶ͡

Ŀǰѧ̲ȻijЩ˼巨ɹۣɷϣáѧȡ뷨ۡǿԺͼ̳Ľ׼ԣǿĹְıͳְܣһ˼巨ѧڲ۸ĿҪǰά˹˼巨ѧڷѧаǰӰ졣˼巨ѧϵʶ̬ɱ˼巨ɹ۵ĻдʶһѧϿʼ¯ȡرܵķʽ˼巨ѧ˲ķѡµ۷ʽѸ£˼巨ɹ۲ϱˣDZˣɱʡ׷Ϊһ۷ʽڷѧ类ˡ[]ֶ˼巨ѧԷĻۡ

Ļ

Ļ1980ĻȡIJѷΪһĻ󣬶ͳν׼־˼·˾ûϲ㽨ϵۿܣΪѧ۵ķչһȫµĿռ䣬ɴ˺ܿһѧǵĹעĻȽУйĴͳĻȫȽĻĻΪгȶĹķϰߵһ֣еĻֵ˵ͳν׼־֣˵dzʷĻͳIJڷĻоУɱĹ־ˣɱʷγɵĿԽľձԵĻķɹȽϷеġϵ֮ͬȽϷĻȽоһ𣬹ɷѧеҪ⡣ҡ׼ΡȨͶȵЩ˼巨ѧеҪز౻ĻоͱȽϷоҰٴĻĽǶȶЩ졣 ĻȽоһʱ˴ף۱ڵȱݡһ棬Ļͳ󣬡ĻͱһĸǷչΪһĻ͵ķۣɥʧϵĽ[]һ棬ĻıȽо뵽ĻѧĿУ޷Ǩķɱ仯[]⣬ĻıȽϲҪĻսҪԡȫʶָ̬Ϊ˿˷ЩȱݣĻ𲽷չΪִۡ[]

ִʽ

ִһϵͳۣҲһоʽִΪ˼ɵij㣬ѷĻСйĻȽתͳִʷչ⡣ΪˣִȾҪһڷɷչʷ¡ڹʷʷУɴӴͳִݻȨѿݻϢϢأɷչʷȨʷȨǷɷչıȻ෨ɵݻ̣ΪӴͳġλִġȨλȨλ˵Ȩķɱ͹˷ִҪ־ʷĽҲõʷ֧֣йɷչʷҲִʷ[]ǵйڡȨʱȨķѧ˼ɴ˹˵ѧĺ˼롣[]

гϵѾͻƹҵĽޣȫΧΪһ塣ȫ򻯵ı£гõķƶҲȻҪͻƹȨһȫԵķƶȡйɵִ˵׾ǰִйһ֣ʵйʽӹ졣[]ѧǿɵձֵǿȨıǷɷչıȻǿʽԣζִɳԽȨҵĽޣձķɴˣڷִУȨλʽԷ롰ɵԡִڴͳɵҪء

۴ڲԽ˼巨ѧԸ£Ǵⲿ¯Ӷ˼巨ѧѧɹؽһȫµķɹۣһûйҵķɹۣ˵һûεķɹۡ˵˼巨ѧǿɱĽ׼ͳκ͹ұ֮ҪأǿɷͳεĹôûйҵķɹʵǿԡʽ˵ַɹһ֡塱legalism,ʽԡձԡͷɵڵԵЩɹⷨɣʵ˵ַɹһȨۣȻȨΪ˼ݵij㡣

˵ķѧ

塱ȡɹۣ巨ɹȡ˼巨ѧѧǰѧ˼طḻ˶ԷɵʶѧķչҲƺʶ̬ѧоԵĻѧоĵ·ѧʽıǨѧչ߼ģⲿĸıҲѧʽķչҪ󡣵ѧ֮γûйҵķɹۣΪΪֲʵͷɹͬĽṩʶ̬Ҳ뷨ѧҵͬأ˵ڡ˵ķѧ

һΪʶ̬

1970ĩŸĸ↑ŵķչйƽʱڡֲķƶȡӿIJʼΪ巨ƵĹؼڡֱ£ڲ˼巨ѧǿɵļ̳뷨ɵԣ޷ָԼ̳ʱķƶȣǼ̳ЩеְܵķɡڷĻ۷ʽͷִʽɹعճɷչͼУֲִйɴӴͳִıȻҪҼٷչı֮·[]ֶԷʷ۽ɹΪֲ˹ͬʶ̬[]ûйҵķѧġ䷨ۡߡʽӹۡΪĸɽзֲṩԡ

ҪעǣйԷֲǡǡѧߣڸĸ↑ŵֲķƶȣɾйĹ鲻ͬҡ[]ܿͱйѧߵķֲûЧشƷֲϵ˼ϰͽȫֲķƶȡڷֲ۵ʶ̬£ȫ˴䳣ίȷֲķƶȣӿ콨гõķʵ֡ʽӹ족ûйҵķɹΪһֻ뷨ֲȨʵܲɷ֡

ɹְͬҵʶ̬

ûйҵķɹۡǷֲʶ̬£ôһֲַ֮ɹ۾ͬͳ˼巨ɹһ⵽ˡȻʱգǿַɹ˿˥ļ󣬷ܼȲΪֲڽУҲַɹϾȻĺԣַɹѾΪɹְͬҵʶ̬ΪɹͬʶıڷֲԷɹͬγɡɹͬγйƽһҪɾͣʦ١ѧ֮Թһͬ壬ΪǷһ׹ͬĶԷɵʶֶԷɵʶΪʶһֹᴩְҵ֮СֶԷɵʶϼûйҵķɹַۣ¡ͨķ壻ָ߹󱰼رȨΪʵƽȵĹȨͨɼκ͵ijԭ[]

ʵϣɹͬķչУÿһְҵʶ̬ĸı䶼ǿûйҵķɹۡʦְҵķչΪҹԱְҵߵתְͣҵҲκιҵġεĻµĿǣϸӵ塣ʦְҵչĹгʹʦѾԽ˹硣ٶְҵ;ӢĹУ˾ְҵʶ̬ҲӴͳġұߡάȶ͡Ϊĸ↑űݻתΪ˾͡˾˾ְҵתʹá˾Ȩ˾޴תӴͳİ취˾ġ˾תΪΧƷԺеġС˾ȨҲҪӡ˾Ȩ޳ȥΪȨڹ棬ǹĴˣǺ˾[]

˵ķѧ

۲Աͷרң˾ʦͷ٣ЩҾӢ֮ԾԾнûйҵķɹۣȻְܵҵӰ죬ҲDZĬؽܵķ֪ʶͷйأЩ֪ʶɷѧṩġѧҲΪרҽռ˷ɿãΪ֪ʶռݹۿռ䣬Ϊʶ̬Ҫ1980֪ʶӶ˸֪Ŀʣ1990֪ʶΪһ֣֪ʶд¹淶ѧо[]֪ʶƵĹϵ½˶λ֪ʶιϵĵУѧҴΪɾ֪ʶӵһ֣𽥷չΪְҵͬһ֡[]ת͵´ӷڲоɵעͷѧΪѧ[]עͷѧ˼·Ѿռ˷ɿãעı䱳Ĺҡκ;õҪأǿ˷ɹͬķ򡣶ЩעͷѧķѧҲΪ֪ʶӣڹռȨϵķ

ѧҵͬǿšûйҵķɹۡǿ԰ֵķѧ֮Ϊ˵ķѧζûйҵķɹ۲Ƕڵķѧ˼᳤ӰǶԷɵ˼Ҫǣѧɴ˱ɷ˵ʶ̬ɥʧΪһſѧеĿԺͷչԣΪһµĽ죬ѧоеĽѾߡڷɻеǡ˽ȨĬȨ֪͡ȨշµȨȨѾȡˡ׼ԡΪѧоµʶ̬ʶ̬˼ʽӸ϶˷ѧ˼ķչǵķѧѾɥʧ˼ĶǷѧҲ˹ɥʧ˼봴µ

뷨ɹϵķ˼

ÿһֻڷչ˵ʱܴ߽硣ûйҵķɹ۷Թҵ˼תΪ߼ĸˣݱȨʱ۲ű¶ڵìܡڶԹұֺȨĿ־壬ûйҵķɹͼѹҳ״ӷɵҰųȥûйҵıķɺȨοܣˣ巨ɹ۵ľ費ǶȨĹעǶԹҵ˼ȨҲΪ˼㣬յ㡣Ҫڡѧһعҡ[]ͱ뷴˼ûйҵķɹ۽ķϵ˼뷨ɵĹϵ

һȻȨնĹ

ѧ˼Ϊûйҵķɹۡ˵Щû˼ң˵Щ۷ʽѹҷڴҪĻҪ˼ڷĻȽоУйٶΪͳһĻԪɴ˽ͬԵйĻܵķĻ۵ΪͬԵĻνġͳ롰Сͳ֮֡[]ˣҲDZΪڵʵ˼ĻͳIJͬĹҽʽֲͬĻ˼άĽ[]ڷִʽУҵġ䷨жƶִҪ۶ԱȨάгõķԼʵʽӹķɷչ벻ҡЩУͳִת͵Ĺؼ÷νġݡԼǨ˹νġᡱıǨжνֹΤνԻҲת͵IJ ûйҵķɹϰѹҷڴҪλõͬʱҲμֵжϵƽϣѹҷڶλϡҲǸʵֵijDzаͱŰԨԴҲǺĶ󣬶ҪĶⷽ棬ûйҵķɹۺ͡ᡱ۾۷ʽϴͬۼμֵγĬ᷶ʽΪ֮ʵ壬ҰΪṩԻ߼ǰᡣҲ˵ΪȨѧṩ۵֧֣Ȩһ߼ijֵҾѧ۷ʽһ𣬲ҵѧ˵ һԼۡΪȨԻȨݣձȻǻȻÿ˵ȻȨʹͨԼȨɴˣȻȨȻڡ֪֮Ļµ޽Լ˹ȨԻѧ˵ڹ뷨ɵĹϵϣ׵ߵ˼巨ѧɲԴڹңҲǹ־IJȻȨԼIJ dzۡԼ۵ĻϣҲܸṩԻҪɸṩԣôԺڣɵԾͨ໥Э̶ɵһ¿ɵǹ־Ͽɵı֤໥Э̵ijԼ֮ΪȨṩԻԼһ򡣳۲Ϸķҹ˷ɵѧǹҵѧΪͨ໥Э̺ЭγɵΪɺ͹ṩԡ[]

ûйҵķɹȨѧԷɷչʷ̵ĽԼ۶ԹҺĽ˶Թ뷨ɵĹϵعһȡϵĸ򣬴ӶһԭΪˣڹҳΪ˼صҪأһڵ¼ֵϣ׳˹ҵ⺬ԼУڳУղһ׸ӵķɳ׿Щɳ򣬹Ҳ޷ڣɥʧ˴ڵɡͨӵij˹ңұû־һ鷨ɹϵҾǷɹϵܺ͡[]ȨҲɴȡȨ[]ϣ桱ûʵʵ壬塱ҲȻΪ̡ȫ򻯹бûйҵķɹ֮ңΪȻȨͳ򣬳˹ҵ⺬ѹұɷɻֲɴ˳ΪһθĿdz״ݻٴͳңѹҽΪɻ

Ȩ

˵ûйҵķɹڷϣøȨ˼ɣ÷˼ңμֵϣøȨ۷ɣ÷۹ңôҪڡѧһعҡҪ˼ûйҵķɹƾ۽ķۡ

ǽĻ໥ײǴͳתִתͣDZԵʷʵǣʷչĿ͹ʵвȻزӦļֵҲ˵ʷչĿ͹ʵ֤ڵ¼ֵĻִԽģйĻ߹Ŵǵӵġ¬ԿѧչǷµ½׷нһԳ˸ѧɶִԵĵмӾļԡûйҵķɹǡǡڷϽʵ롰ֵѴͳִķչǼֵɴй֮Ҳ˼ֵȼơֵּе£ĻִɾͳΪɷչ꣬ɷչʷйֲɵʷΪɽ½ʷĻijͻߴͳִת͵ĴͳȻҰƵʷֵ֡Ԥǰ£Թ뷨ɹϵ˼۲߼֤ЩֵٶǶȨɺ͹ʵʷ˼ǿ߼ϼٶȨڹҶڣʵʷУضι֮ͬУûйҵĸ˲ԭʼҰˣûйҵȨҲûġ

ʵʷĽǶȿҡͬڡǷɽĻڷɶڵľ⺬ιͬ壬[]ڷɲʵʷҾϵ壬ΪΪͬ塱ǻǶԹͬĻͳġ[]ˣɵļֵɳ߼۸ģоҵʷĻġйɵִܼ򵥵ΪͳִĹɣֲɣʵ漰֮ijͻԼЩ汳εĻֵijͻֳͻ͢ٳ֮Ϊijͻ[]ʷʵ޷óڡֵϵжϣֻΤ˵ʶDz֮ͬĶ[]

ڡ֮ġʵϣ߼ϵġֳֵҪ塣ûйҵķɹĻͳִֵ֮ȼƣ˵ǻֵĿǣ˵ǻڹЧܵĿǡЩ֮߼ϽйͳĻΪϵӵģǡǡΪĻУйͳĻû𵽡֡Ĺܣɥʧ˹ϵļֵĻײУﵽƶȺĻġȫڹЧġĻͳִļֵȼƱ˹ϵЧܵȼƣôǾҪʣЩߵЧƾʲô׼ģǽǿĹңʹл֮֡ˣڡ֮ʷУйΪһһвɱ粵ļֵϵԡʵڷĿе֪ϱһ⡣ˣֲ޷ȨѧʷıȻ⣬ڽ֮ı⡣

ʵʷķͻ֮ᷢġʱΤУҶǸˣȨⳡ㶷ļֵ⡣ڴˣҲǿնķɻԳʵʵ塣ѧһعҡҪȡʵʷĺεķӽǣѹΪѧ˼ij㣬˼ûųԸȨĿǣ俴жȨıֻȨıڸȨ߼ϵȻֵԣڸȨıִҵǿִҪݡ[] Ƕ˼ֲͻᷢ־ֲܷԽǿִҾҪļֵ漰ͬʶ̬ķѣ£ûйҵķɹ۷·һ֡߹Ļԡͨһ׹ڷԺͱȨԵִ񻰣ɹشֲɲʵ֡ʽӹ족ʶ̬Ӷӿ˷ֲͷƽIJӿ˽ǿҵIJΪĸ˵춨ʵĻ

ִʵ巨ѧ

ѹҺΪѧ˼ģǶԡûйҵķѧɱΪҺͺĹ⣬ź뵽˼ķɹۡ쵱ѧķչַᷢɹ۵ȷɶԡûйҵķɹۡDZкսмȲ˼巨ѧҲͻѧԻںִʵ巨ѧ

׿ʶ̬֮ӷѧоķִ˼ѧжԷɵı˼⣬ӶһʵõѷɿضʷԽʵĹߡʵ巨ѧþѧѧͳѧѧѧȵִѧоȡעͷѧ巨ɹ۵ѧ˼档[]ִֵֺ֧ʵ巨ɹ߹˼ķɹңӦͬںߣԷɹ߲dzһָ̬ȣ׼ѹȵĹߣ׼Ĺһ෴Էɹ߱һֻ϶ĿĵǷɹαʵָ棬ɴˣӾеġɹܡġͷ硱ɲǵʵԼЧߣǹڱ˴˲б˫õĹߡ[]˵˼ɵͳν׼ôʵ巨ѧУɹߵǷɢģߡ漯šʦ٣ǵˣҲǷѧԼʵ巨ɹۺͺִѧܵؽһ𣬹һķɢġ΢Ȩķλս

ǣʵ巨ѧ޷ⳡλսļֵ壬˵ΪǿԼһŽ͵Ŀѧ۵Ŀѧ˵ִ屾ļֵֵ⹹ûйҵķɹۣͬԽ⹹ƣԽ⹹ϵչʾѧ롰Ρ֮ڽšʵ巨ɹ۽Ǽģıһᶨģ˵ִܱ⹹Դı[]

ġ壺ѧ

ִֺķѧȻƳûйҵķɹȨţûʲôձȨȨǾĺʷģҵʵأɴˣȨ˼Ҳӳĸתʵ澳⡣ԡȨȡֳ׵ķѧ˼ȻѶȨ޷˼ܣǿĻΪѧ˼ȨӶȨѧ˼ڱϡ[]

ɴˣDZַ龳ıѧĻıԣ㷺۵ġԴУǡǡֲͬһĸԡһ棬Ϊһ龳ķۣѧжձԿ͹֪ʶķ񶨣ɴˣѧоĹ淶Ҫѧоıһ棬һȷ˼ԵйĻʷʵѧϵԡֱѧԹˡ֮ĸԴԭĿںġѧȨ֮ġʱΤDZ˼йеϵԣձֵdzɥʧļֵ䵽βߡĵزĴij롰֪ʶ޹أ롰͡־йءˣִԶйɵսǡͳ롰ִ⣬ʵȻǡй롰⣬ν֮һĻսһսһ־֮Ľйܹڼȫֲķƶȣʵַɵִǿִңǣһ꣬˵йʽеǷʵأ ִйΪĻսֱ̬ҲҪڡ֪ʶϱɶִԵ˼ִDzǺľȫĿԣйִǷɥʧձֵʷDzǾʹս᣿ȻǺִ龰屾˼·˼ġҪѡ֮ѧ˼УһҪӡ˵ķѧаѡҡȳԡҡΪѧ˼ĺģΪֻзϽִңпܴĻҡ[]

ġߵķѧ

ԹΪ˼ĵķѧƺɶԵѧһӶصͳ˼ѧʵϣַɹǡǡҪѶ߽ѵѧжԷɼǿ˼巨ѧжԹҺεǿлؽַѧûз񶨷˵ķѧַɹۣȨλʽԷִҵַѧ쳬Խ˷ְҵӽǵġ˵ķѧӽǵġߵķѧ

һ뷨

ߵķѧӹĽǶ˼ɣҲǴĽǶ˼ɡҪ˼ǰɡϹ򣬷ƶȲǹеⰲţ˾ˣˡˣߵķѧĿǰеġѧ˵ġߡҲִϵķƶߣlaw-makerǹŵϴ߻ߣlegislator[]Ǽٶ彨֮ͨƽ棬˼ͨ壬νķȻһ㷺ʹõģϵ˹ԣʲıȻϵ[]

ǶȿߵķѧȻҪ˼棬ͬ˼巨ѧŵijЩضἯŵΪ棬Ҫ˼ΪԵġǰԵ⡣

һʲôĹ棿ζоеIJͬἯţҪڸ㷺ıоҵľ״ΪͬĹҲDzͬġIJͬСģһҵIJͬڶҵģŴҵIJִͬҵģҵIJͬҰҵģںƽҵIJͬڴսҵģ׷ȫƲɵ׷ɡϺҫȻвͬĹ棬Ҳ׷ͬĹ档ЩζŹҵĵ˿ں幹ɡᾭýṹĻͳԼʵʷȵȶӦΪַѧҪķΧַѧҪԺԾ̵⣬ΪԺЩĿ䡰󡱹Ļ׼ֻDz̽⵽ضʷʱڣضĹң澿ʲôߵķѧҪ˼Щݱϵ˹ͳΪľ񡱡 ڶʹǡЧرиֱ﷽ʽɹҵӢҲɹͨķʽҲķʽеķʽҲ÷ȨƺķʽЩͬı﷽ʽ˲ͬ塣ΡĻʵ˶ԹIJͬơŵѧν̬Ļ֣ʵǶֱĻƽЧϵЧر棬ɱר壬ͬЧر棬Ȼɱˡ˵ıϣڹŵѧвźʫһΪһڰͼڻ˹ɶΪߵǽǰά̹ġʵŦ۶ڹ۹ղĴӢ۹Ŀǰƶ۹ɴǡ۹Ȼνķɣʵָ񷨣ǽĸʿ°ΪĹɣconstitutionǽַɳ֮Ϊܷ

ҪעǣǽܵؽһģΪͬĹҪͬķʽ棬ͬı﷽ʽȿܴҲڸĹ档磬սʱڵĹңȨڱ棬ںƽʱڵĹң棻뺷Ĺңרܸõر棬紾ӵĹңܸõر档ˣѵȲƣҲǾƣЧر壬ͬĹҪͬʽִ֮ܵձƳ磬ΪȻԽԣΪ˶ϴ񣬼֮ҵԪʹΪ˰ԼΪ棬Ѱǡıƣ£Ϊһַɹ죬γִҵ档ǣʵһ̬ǽʽǸʽDzȡƻDzȡһƣDzȡϣDzȡȨƺ⣬ɵģɹҵʵġıﹹ棬ǿ԰ѹҪǵݿεġϡʽεġʽõξġϡҵǡġʽ˵ǡġʽġϡ ʿϵʽĹϵУߵķѧǷ񶨻˵ķѧǴεӽɷ˵ķѧľ޴סȨѧζѧ˼нųڶԹĿ֮УѶȻȨĵͨܺͷƶɻķȨעͷѧӸѧнųָɸԭɴ˷ɽͼΪһεļա[]֮ߵķѧУɲDZȨļ򵥹ߣһεļգһŹɴγ뷨ɡԭ뼼֮ƥ䡣ִԪӵУɼԽԽЧʵ棬ԭȷԽܹԦɼ

ңִйת

ӹĽǶ˼ʵһִ۹ŴǰǰҡûгΪѧ˼ġҡȽ뷨ѧҰĹУΪŷεͳȨʹȨҡΪбԵҪأҹⲿвİȫΪ˼ġԡѧ˵ɴ˵̽ȨҳڵĻͷڡԡıϿʼġ[]19ȫϵγʱ쵼ȨĶڹ֮չ֮չй֡ͻıнִġ

Ŵйһңңйˡֻ֪¶֪йҡijйٵIJǡ¡һҪ֡ˣͼ桱ĵһǷ¡ͳĻȫѧϰĻһҡˣơȵЩĸйڹ壬ҵĽҡɴ˽˷ѧҰ˼巨ѧҲ˶ڡĻԹĸӰ죬Լս˼άijӰ죬ǵķѧʼˡҡˣҪѹ뵽ѧ˼Уߵķѧ»صͻнҵϣйĹһʶ

ȣִչУйΪһ󷢴ڹʾľȻڱ֧λϣǻҪϣľѹĿǰȻڸȨҪԡСƽȨΣǿָҪȨҪȨҪ˸񣬻Ҫ񡱡[]ߵķѧһʶйִһ֡ѹִڶڱȨͬʱҪάȨȨȨǿйƽ̵ĸԣ[]һҲʶһȫµһʡЧػεִ[]ѧִִִڳξðڹǿ󣬶ƶʵлΰˡ

ΣйһԵδάҵͳһΰȫǹҵҪ棬ǶΡͬСĵطױΪˣĵ뾡취֫İȫɴ˱СİȫԱϡСͨڴðȫ˱̱֫С֮⣬ðȫΨһ;ͨʵȷȫ[]19͹ʹϵʵȡͳ֮󣬴ðȫҪ;ߵķѧҪйΪδٵͳһͰȫΪҪǵأ˼Ρ̵ʱ򣬱뿼ͳһʵͨһơʵֹͳһٵĸԣӶ̽µģʽ·ɴʵĽĸ;ر塣Ŀǰй˼УһǶǵĺȽ˼·Ҫô붫ŷǰҵȽϣҪôձ¼º̨ЩĹҺ͵бȽϣͼ˵йķչ·Щڷɼļ򵥻ȽǡǡЩСʵתͣڸӵڲ⣬Щڳıӻ±Ƚ׽Ƚ֮£̵¹ҷѡ˥ˡͻ⣬ֵõйȡеĽѵΪйһһδĺƽתάͳһȶΡ

йĻңΪһ壬йųеĻϵΡǰǣŴйңңνڽĻֵϵͳϰ׵ȵܹṩͬһϵͼشԵ⣺˭ˣĻһֱ翴[]ײУйһֱŬİȫƶȺĻйλΪһҡַͳ˼·ΪҵIJȡ˾޴ijɹǣڲнִͬڡڡִ֮йʹȫҲᱻͬΪһ֣ĿǰͶ˹ӡˣָ͢Žҡɣܿһġڶ󡱡һڼʹϲ㾫Ӣ²ȻĻͳȻϲ㾫ӢŬһĻͬĴʹùᱻΪࡱ[]ˣδüᶨ־ĿƳеԱȻˣΪһ壬ҲԲغͼ͵ŬелձֵΣ帴˶ȫൣĻʹйҽɣҵĽȻΪһΡ[]

һķƣѧҴĽǹڷƵۡ[]ֲǽбԵѡǵķѧҲ˴ֲƷ񡣴˼巨ѧΤķѧȨѧ۵ۣӼȵҮˣӸµ˹ɣѧйѧ̨ϴҴתǵķѧʷ·Ƕѧ˼ʷǷѧҷ·׵׾ӷߣһһоɹΪиĻӴסǵķѧҲΪ׷ȡʱУγԼѧͳ̶ܴѧй˼ʧ֢죬DzòѧĸԼ˼룬ڱʶ˼Դ֮γ˸ӵĽŹϵһ棬ʶڲòѧʱѧӦ֮䷢΢ƫ룬һ棬оѧʱԾԾذѧҪ⵱ԼҪ⡣ ָӾһҪڡʡ롰ԹУ͸ǵķѧжѧй˼磬Ӷ˼˵ķʽһ棬ǵķѧսͨѧͳʶ˵ձ⣬ԴΪѧ˼ij㡣ɴˣΣյǡǡǶѧķdz⣬ɴγɶԱķdzաûйҵķѧ֮ڷdz򵥵ؽĸ⣬ûаĸͨҽľʵʡ[]ˣֱųѧ壬෴һ޵ѧʹζDZ˵⣬Ӷй˵˼ϣѧйŵԿףɴ˹йɷָһ֡

ˣߵķѧһҪƶѧȡdz壬һҪưѱ򵥻һΪġط֪ʶҪΪٵձ⡣ֻвȡDzܴĻͳִǵ˼ѣ봫ͳ뵽ҵĽ֮СߵķѧϰѷΪһİ˼ֲɴ˲ΪһѧսᣬΪһַʵսᣬΪֲ߽вȡļʱʽѡķɲƶڷУDzϵģ飬ֲɣջҪع鵽ͳ ȻķѧĿǰѧɣҪҪ19γɵרҵִѧƣȡŵ׷ȫ֪ʶѶѧ۵˼뵽Էɵ˼֮УߵķѧҪеȻҪǣߵķѧ׷ʹҲ޷ɷѧԺĿǰͨ򵥵ְҵѵķ˽ײеֻĹϸְҵѵμеϣ˵˽ײͼеҡ˼ҵʹôǷѧԺķɽҲĿǰгΪְҵҪμңlawyer-statemanΪԼҪ[]

Toward Legislators Jurisprudence

Reflective Survey upon Contemporary Jurisprudence in Context of Legal Transplant

Jiang Shigong

Abstract

Against the background of legal transplant since modern China, the author reflects the evolution of contemporary jurisprudence since 1980s, in which a paradigm, so-called law without nation, has been emergent. In such a paradigm, law has been thought as universal rules to protect rights so that law-makers should transplant western law as far as possible without concerning national interests and cultural tradition and protecting them with sovereign legislative power. The author names this paradigm lawyers jurisprudence, criticizes it as a kind of political ideology for legal transplant since 1980s and professional ideology for lawyers community emerged since 1990s. Based upon rethinking relation between law and state, the author advocates taking the state back to jurisprudence and crafts a new paradigm, legislators jurisprudence, to face eternal struggle among civilizations as the fate of modernity in China, in which law should been thought on the native stance as a political art for nation-state-building and revival of ancient civilization. Since this jurisprudence would include in its field national interests, political struggle, economic and social structure, mores, cultural tradition and so on, the author argues to end legal transplant and explore a new political order for this world.

ԭĿءйѧ20051

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