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et revelabitur quasi aqua iudicium et iustitia quasi torrens fortis

 

˭ܷ*

ܷıҹĶԪΥ

ǿ

Ŀ¼

һ 뷽

ܷȨȫ˴ίԵרȨ

һܷȫ˴ίרȨ

ܷȨ

ܷලܷʵʩֶ

һ͡

ܷͬڡͷɡ

ܷ롰ලܷʵʩ

ġ ȨܷȨ

һȨζŷɽȨ

ܷ롰ɡʽķϵ

ɽ͵ĺԭܷȨ

ģѰܷǡԮܷ

塢ѡȨΥȨ

һΪܰΧ롰й

ѡȨ˾Ȩ޶

ȨˡѡȨ

ԪΥ

һΥ

˾Υ

Ԫ˾ƵĻ

һ뷽

ֱġǣɵ֮Բͬѧе־ЩҪͨұʵʩʵ֮С˵ѧDzϵĶôɵʵ֮бáʵ޷õķɣǾ˵ġ鱾ϵķɡķ֣˺ѧһǵĶ죬̸𡶺Īȷ䡷򡶴ʱǺ̶̸ܴʷף̸۷ɡ˵ǷɣʵҲ˵ǷɣڽȻзɵʽʽѧֿķɽֵ䡰ȴѾʧΪѾͨұʵʩʵ֮ˡνЩʷϵķ䣬̶ܴϳʷѧǵĸȤˣѧǽѧƷ̶ܴԼѧȤһʷѧӦʷѧңϸϵķѧңѧҶԷɵĽڷɹͬ壬Ϊһְҵͬ壬ʷҶЩɥʧˡķıĽְͣҵͬԵûκιϵǵĽʷѧѧʷѧ̬ȣǵĽѭѧͬϷʷѧҵĽ˽˵飬ǿԽѧ˽Ļ෴ɽ빫Ϊɱڹִеġ ˣɽϣѧ/ѧѧлеʱ[]ʵϡʹ÷ɽͲһġ˾ʵʹõļգһձġһԵⷨɷ˾ķٺʦߡѧҺһڡΪˣѧۺѧŴģؽ뵽ͳķɽУʵϺԻڲ֪ͬʶϵϺͲͬĻռзչķɽۡ[] Ͼɽͺѧ/ѧѧĽּ͡ȤǸͬģ֧ѧ/ѧѧе۷糱ַ֧ɽ͵ȴǷʵǿʵʩȨṹ[]֮ɽѧ/ѧѧΪ֪ʶϵϵĶɽ˾չ֡ԡartificial reasonѧѧΪ˽͹۶ζѧ⡣ò϶ġ˵ɽͺѧ/ѧͬijĻǰ˾ĻѧĻ߲ԻΪһ̸[]˵ѧ/ѧѧעΪʲôҪнʹڣôɽ͹עνͣ˵ѧ/ѧѧҲνͣôɽͱDZһЩԵ⣺˭ɽͣʲôطɽַͣɽͷʲôĿģַɽͳΪܵʲô[]Щ⣬ѧ/ѧѧ޷ȷĴ𰸻ߴģǣڷɽ˵ЩǻӦDzġΪΪȨЧķɽͣȻǹǿԻзЧĽͣڹȨΧͣͱΪ˽⣬ʹֽͳΪǴЧ˾ƶȡ ǣ˾нЩһȷʱ򣬷ɽҲѡ˭ԷɾйǿȨĽأǵĵһӳ϶ǷԺǷѧңΪǷԺΪǿʵʩɵĻ϶Ҫнͷɵְܡǣ˭ܷأǵĵһӦȫ˴ίᣬΪǵܷȷ涨ȫ˴ίΪҹȨġְȨ֮һǡܷʮһôԺܷܲܽأܷûȷĹ涨Ȼһ⡣

߰ġܷ˾УѾȷ˳˵ܷҲǷɣôԺԽͷɣȻҲͿԽܷʵǡܷ˾ŵĻ˼·ƶԺнܷȨ[]˵DzǼ򵥵صѧпԡ롱˽񣬶ΪɹͬԾ尸ľйǿķɽУôǵĵһӳǣ˵ܷݻ߷ݺڣ仰˵ԺܷDzܷϵݣϾһܷѧеķѧ˵˾еܷǿ涨Ϊʹ ܷͳΪܵǷѧ˵Чơܷ˾ĻǡǡΪֳ𣬺ʹܷͳΪܵƶűΪ˾̲ӶΥܵɡ[]ܷ˾ijʵҲʶܷϰŹȡѧеĺ֤ԣرܿ˾ҪܷıͼѧȡӰ취ɳɴ˵ˡܷ˾Сܷȱ[]

ˣ˾мԺܷȨ;ܲȡرܷߣ˵ѧͼͨѧмԺܷȨ֧˾ԺܷĽͣҲ¸ҵܷıս˾ܷ͵߼ӦԺܷܷ⡣ѭ˾еķɽ߼ܷͨıϸ½̽ҹܷ涨ܷͺΥơ

ĵڶֺ͵ܷȷ涨ȫ˴ίġܷȷк壬նܷĺܷṹĽܷͣϸȫ˴ίܷȨһԵרȨܷͲͬϵķɽͣԲġġһԵĽܷͣලΪܷලֶζеԾĽ͡ĵĵIJּܷ̽ԺġȨĻ塣ȨζŶԷɵĽȨ˶ܷĽȨΪڶԷɷкԽ͵ʱȻԤ˶ܷ⣬ܷĽҲȻڴڷ©߷ɳͻġѰСĵĵ岿ִϷ֣ˡȨһҪȨѡȨȨʵԺΥȨ۵Ļϣĵĵܷ̽ȷĶԪΥƣȫ˴䳣ίΥԺ˾Υ鲻໥ıϵγ໥ٽĻơֽı۲ַɽͷƶܷѧоչеҪ塣

ܷȨȫ˴ίԵרȨ

һܷȫ˴ίרȨ

ܷȷ涨ȫ᳣ίԱʹܷලܷʵʩְȨܷʮһDZע⵽ݳܷоٵķʽȷ涨ȫ˴ίġְȨΧĵʮУܷȫ˴ίĵһְȨ

ܷһġְȨܷͬ蹫ĻȨڷϣȨǷڷɹ涨ķΧڲԤԼ־µĿԡ˶Ȩ˼ȿţҲɷְȨǹһطӹ涨ְܺеְ˵ġȨǿɷĻôһصġְȨܷ磬ܷϹ涨нȨܷʮһϲ˵ԷȨûǿκܷ֯Ϲ涨˾˾صְȨܷһٶʮ񽫾ύ˾صʱ򣬳ķɣ˾ر˾жϣְܷˣְȨΪһ֡Ȩãʵζijκ

ܷԹһӦְȨĹ涨ǸֻʺģˣܷͬĻ˲ְͬȨһ־廯Դζܷijһ涨ְȨDzתõģܱĹһȡڹ涨ĹһרȨҲǷȨѧ˵Ļ⺭[]ڹһְȨרԣܷһʱõģǸݹʹͬȨ֮IJͬԣרҵֹĻϣеĸ־ְȨھ֮ЩְͬȨй涨ְܹȨĻ֮СɴˣִҵְȨͨʵIJͬΪȨȨ˾Ȩȵȡ[]ܷЩȨʷֱЩͬ͵Ȩ涨ʺиȨĻ֮С

ǵܷȨ쵼˵ѡȨͶļලȨЩֹȨ־Ȩȫ˴䳣ίᣬȨֹȨȨ˹ϯװҾȨҾίԱᣬ˾кͼȨֱԺԺȵȡЩһܷ涨ְȨȷķֹΪȨȾζŻڴٽЧʶԹȨĽרҵֹܷȨ֮Թȫ˴ίΪ־Ļһּչֹ־ĻܷΪҵĸ󷨶ͱȻҪ־ˣܷȨȻҲȫ˴ίᡣܷ涨ܷȫ˴ίġְȨôζţܷҪ͵ʱȫ˴ίְܷ񣬶ְһרԵȫ˴ίȲܾܷܲǿӵҲְܷܽȨתøĹһС

ȫ˴ίܷȨһԵְȨ

ܶȫ˴ί˵Сܷලܷʵʩһ־רְȨֻȨʵķֹDzζһͲͨԼȨij̶ֳϷȨDZʶڹڹְȨķȨѧ˵Уһֱֲͬ˼·һ˼·ǻڹְȨЧʿǵϸȨѧ˵Ҳ˵һزַصȨַȨ˼ǿԳ֮ΪϸȨѧ˵˼ڷһַȨ˼ǻڻĿǶڷȨĻϽԼƽ⣬Ҳ˵һֹһصȨԼַһصȨȨַȨ˼ǿԳ֮ΪȨƺѧ˵˼[]ܷеķȨƶȾDzȡϸȨģʽǷȨƺģʽijַѧ˵ѧ˵ҪܷıĹ涨

ȣDZעܷжԹһְȨĹ涨ʽǵܷԹһְȨȡֹ涨ķʽһַʽDzȡȷġоʽ涨Ҳ˵һְȨͨȷоٵķʽ涨ģȫ˴䳣ίְȨܷʮ͵ʮϯְȨܷڰʮ͵ڰʮһԺְȨܷڰʮ͵طְȨȡȷоٵķʽһ־Dzȡʽ涨Ҳ˵һְȨͨȨĶ涨ģίԱְȨܷھʮһԺְȨܷһٶʮԺְȨܷһٶʮܷԹһְȨ֮ԲȡͬĹ涨ʽ벻ͬһȨйء һ˵ԹһְȨ֮ԲȡȷоʽĹ涨ΪȨӣܿҾкܴĵԣˣܷȡȷоʽĹ涨ȨʵζһƣҲ˵ЩûоȷоٵȨͲڸùһְȨϣܷϹ涨ȫ˴䳣ίǡ߹ȨءǣǾԲܽȨΪ˲ܰ˱Ů˺ͰŮ˱֮Ȩ[]ȨDzƵľȨȨΧҲģܷȷ޶ġ⣬ܷԹһְȨȡоʽ涨ζһȨֶʽ涨ܰչȨγ˽ȻĶա[]

Σǻһעܷڹ涨һְȨʱȡıʽܷȫ˴ίȨȡԿ϶ķʽȷо١϶Ƕķ룬߼ѧϣûз񶨵ľǿ϶ġǣDzȡ϶ķʽǷ񶨵ķʽȷܷϵĹ淶京ַǴ˼˵߼ѧȴͬ˵ܷй涨һзɡ͵طԷ涼ִܷܷͬڶôܷ淶Dzζſ϶Ĺ淶˵߻߹ߣͿԺִܷأȻֿ϶⡣ͬκ˲ڽ̽ƻ𺦹彡ҽƶȵĻܷʮҲΪκ֯Ϳڽ̽ƻ𺦹彡ҽƶȵĻҲ˵ܷȡ񶨵ķʽȷij淶ֻܴӷ񶨵⣬ܴӿ϶⡣ ôܷϲȡ϶ķʽȷ淶DzҲζڿ϶⣬ڷ񶨵أȷ˵ܷԿ϶ķʽ涨ȫ˴ίܷȨDzζŽ϶ȫ˴ίְȨԺҲְܾȨȻûзԺܷȨôDzζԺܾܷȨĻôDzζԺҲܾܷȨƶ֮DzĹһҲܾܷȨȻ߼ϵ⣬Ϊ߼ϵᵼһְȨֵĻҺϵѡˣܷϹ涨һְȨʱֿ϶ԵĹ涨ʽζһֿ϶ͬʱζһַ񶨡ȷؿ϶ȫ˴ίܷȨζŷĹһȨ϶ԺȨͷһӵдȨҲ˵ܷеĿ϶Թ涨Ҫڷ񶨵⡣[]

ˣӱʽܷȷԿ϶ķʽоȫ˴ίܷڵְȨôζһȫ˴ίоȨ֮ȨһҲһܷȷȫ˴ίЩȨܷ涨ȫ˴ίСܷġְȨǾζܷԷ񶨵ķʽ涨ĹһûְֽܷȨˣܷķʽԺкȫ˴ίͬĽְܷȨɴ˿ܷ涨ȫ˴ίġְܷȨһרȨһһԵȨ ܷ֮ݹȨʶڷֹĻ϶ԹһְȨȷ֣Ȩרԣܷ涨һְȨΧʱõ﷨ʽȨԣǴƺԵóĽۣԺнְܷȨǣڵóֽ۵ʱDZҪСģΪڵóһܷԽۣǾܺǵ˵ԺнְܷȨܷĹ涨ͳıȷܷĹ涨Ժܷȫ˴ίܷȨôԺDzǾܷȨ֮͵ܷȨأǵܷDzǹ涨ֲͬ͵ܷأܷ⣬ǼȲܴһķѧԭóۣ뵱ȻţصǵܷıУΪܷΨһ𰸾ܷıDZܷͨıܷʮһ涨ġܷĺ徿ʲô

ܷලܷʵʩֶ

һ͡

Ҫܷ涨ġܷĺ壬ȱʲôǡ͡Ҫעǣνġ͡һܷıеĸѧѧеĸˣܰͨѧѧϵġ͡⣬밴ܷıĺ⡣

ܷıֻطˡ͡Ⱦ۵ġܷξܷʮȷȫ˴ίȨͷɡְȨǰ˼·ܷԿ϶ķʽȷ涨ĹְȨΪһԵרȨôζĹһػ˾أڲСְܷȨͬʱҲͬСͷɡȨ˵ܷȫ˴ίܷȨͱܷķɽȨ շѧϵͨ⣬ɽͰ͡ͺ˾ͣҪעǣֽͶһֳһԽͣһִʵĽ͡[]ֶԷɽ͵ǰսͷɵأءغ˾أеķ࣬ˣܷϸȫ˴ίķɽȨͱΪе͡ȷʵĿǰķɽʵϴŲͬĹһڲͬķΧڽнͷɵʵֹڷɽ͵ַʵϲʵؼ¼˷ɽ;ʵ һֹڷɽ͵ѧ˵ʵϻһַʵʵдڵʵ淶ʵĹ淶Ȼַʵ޷ȷʵ֤ǿĹ淶壬Ϊʵ彫ʵͬڡ淶ɾǶԷٽҪʲôԤ⣬ǻķ˹ľ[]ڵġǡ淶ġǿ롰Ȩߵһڹ淶ʵǡǡ˷ɵĹ淶Ի߽˷ɵĹ淶Իʵ֤Ҫ֡ǿ롰ȨĻϣȷɹϵĹ淶ԻԻ[]ֻֽʵͬڡ淶ķʵ淶Ի֮ϵķʵ֤Dzⷨɽ͵塣

ڲȡ˷ʵڰշɽԷɽͽзʱ򣬽֡ʵϴڵķɽ͡롰淶ϴڵķɽ͡ˣҽǰߵͬںߣΪڵľǹ淶ġˣѧ϶Էɽ͵಻ζǵķɽʵϴһͷɵ󣬶ҼٶֽͶһ淶壬Ҳ˵ٶȫ˴ίȨȨ˾˾ȨǵֽͶһԵԽͣôζϷӵԵķɽȨôԷɽȨ˾ԷɽȨĹ淶ԻڣǵܷԵķɽȨȷоٵķʽȫ˴ίᣨܷʮĿܷ϶һڵԷɽȨôǵķѧϾͱֵľأѧҪܽʵҪעʵĹ淶Իڡ Σǵ˾Ѿγ˷ɴͳִͳ⵽淶ߵΪܷǴѧϣ˵˾ȨͰԵķɽȨ·Գ[]Ⲣζǵ˾;ȱ淶Իǵ˾֮ʵӵԵķɽȨȫ˴ίȨ1981ȫ˴ί19λͨڼǿɽ͹ľ顷ȫ˴ίݽ巨ƵҪͨʽȫ˴ίӵеķɽȨлءغ͵ط˴͵طɴȷȫ˴ίΪĸطֹϵķɽơ[]ϣغ˾ӵеԽȨνͺ˾ͣʵȫ˴ίȨ˲ž˹淶ԻȨDzǾܷϵݣǵȻһ⣬Ҳۡ[]

ʵ1979ġԺ֯ȷظԺԵ˾Ȩ[]ǣ2000ġ涨ȫ˴ίзɽȨζţѾȷȫ˴ίΪĸطֹϵķɽƣǣֻȫ˴ίķɽͲڡͺ˾ȻѧϾʣǷϣҲǷɵЧϣܵˣʹͲ͡˾ͲǴͬһЧλϵķɽͣʲͬķɽ͡ȫ˴ίܷȨصͺ˾ص˾ͲܷϵȨȫ˴˴ίķȨˣνġܷ͡˵ġͷɡҲǡ˵ġ[]ȫ˴ίΪһ֡ζȫ˴ί᲻ƶɡȨͨͷɡܷϸȫƶɡȨ

ܷͬڡͷɡ

˵ܷȫ˴ίᡰͷɡְȨһȨҲ˵ԡáĽͣһֳԵôDzζǿڱܷʮġͷɡĺܷڵʮһġܷأ仰˵ܷϸȫ˴ίᡰͷɡְȨζȫ˴ίϽнͷɣôܷϸȫ˴ίᡰְܷȨDzӦζȫ˴ίܷܵнأȫ˴ίĽܷȨDzζŷȫ޸ܷȨܿһֲ淶ĻΪʱȨ֮ơȨȨ[]

ȻDzĽͣΪĽĻԭìܵġӷ˵ܻܻΪһ־߽ġlegislateڷϽСƶɡlaw-making֮ȫͬ£[] ΪΪƶɡĻرеĺϷܷṩģܷϵزܴܷҲ˵ȫ˴䳣ίڷϲܴܷǣDZע⵽͵Ǿܷıһֳۣۡȫѧиͬ໥ìܵĽֽͣǡǡչѧе˼ɡǣܷıDZ˾⣬ܷͨıĽܷȨԡˣʱáӰ˵ѧ˵άظ˹̹˵ֻҪҪ롱۹ǵܷıϣѧ˵ϡ

صܷıϣȻܷȫ˴ίְȨȷ涨ˡͷɡܷ͡Ϊʲô߼ϵأ⣬ʲôĺأ

ܷȷ涨ȫĵһְȨǡ޸ܷܷʮһܷΪȫ˴ίʵܷȨ[]ôͻῴǵܷг޸ܷĻһȫᣬһȫ˴ίᡣȻܷнܷ޸ȨͨʾĬʾķʽͬĹһǿܵģֻҪֹһܷ֮䲻ᷢͻ߷ͻܷϵĽ;ǵܷȨʺIJͬȷ͵طȨػߵطܷȷ涨ЩͬȨ֮䷢ͻĽ취[]ôǽܷΪܷĬʾķʽ涨ܷ޸Ȩֱȫ˴ȫ˴ίô޸ܷϷͻDzǾܷϵĽأ

ܷ涨ȫ˴ίȫġءصĺָȫ˴ڻصԭĹλ޷ÿʱÿְȨڻصԼλʱ򣬰ԼеְȨίиȫ˴ίᣬҪڴԼְȨΪȫġءȫ˴ίҲһءְȨΧóȫܷȨޡȫ˴ίȫ־ϵľȫȨı߳ȫ᳣ίԱ᲻ʵľܷʮʮһôζţȫ˴ίܷͨ޸ܷʱܷ޸ַȫ޸ܷȨʱȫȫԸı߳ȫ˴ίܷ޸ġɴˣܷڲһԡ

ǣǵܷȫ޸ܷרŵر涨ܷ޸ģȫȫ֮ϵĶܷͨʮһ˵ܷĬʾķʽȫ˴ί޸ܷȨôζȫ˴ίܷ޸IJҪܷйܷ޸ĵרΪֻȫԣȫ˴ίճܷϹ涨ɺ鰸ȫȫĹܷͨʮڶҲ˵ȫᡰı߳ȫ˴ίܷͨ޸ܷľôҲҪȫȫİͿͨˡ

ɴ˿ɼΪܷʮһй涨ġܷĬʾķʽ޸ܷĺ壬ôζǹҵܷ޸ij໥ìܵĹܷ޸ĿԲܷʮ޸ܷרŵʾ涨Ҳ˵ܷڲìܣܷʮ޸ܷʾ涨ڷЧĺûʵġҪע⣬͵ܷıΪ֮Ȩݵġ󷨡ܷͨĽͶóܷĬʾܷʾͻĻôܷʾЧǽͳĬʾЧΪǵĽͻ˾ܷȨԣǻѧеġ롱֮Dz뵱Ȼش߼ȵĽǶ⡰ܷݡܷʮһġܷġͷɡȫͬ⡣

ܷ롰ලܷʵʩ ܷȫ˴ίᡰܷ͡ͷɡְȨǣȨڲͬ߼⡣ȫ˴ίΪɵĽΪɵƶ߱ʸͳһôΪܷĽȫܷƶߣ޸ߣеʸĻܷϸȫ˴ίᡰְܷȨζʲôأǻҪϸطܷı

ܷĽͣDzܷܽıеĴʾ䣬ܼ򵥵شӡ͡һʵ溬⡰ͷɡܷ͡⺭ֽܷıеĸܷṹ⣬ЩֻܷĽṹϲܻ壬Ϊġ͡ȲǴǵϵĸҲѧѧеĸܷıеĸǷܷʮһ͵еĸˣԡܷԶԸΪ עһܷʮнṹͻܷᷢȫ˴ίġܷȨ͡ͷȨǷһУǷͬСʵȷָܷ롰ͷɡͬ߼⣬ְȨȫԷһ롰ͷɡܷͬһܷܷʮһǰ䣬һȫȫ˴ίȨܷලܷʵʩܷ͡ලܷʵʩݣǣΪʲôܷаѡܷ롰ලܷʵʩһ𣬶ǽܷ롰ͷɡһأ Ȼѡܷ͡ලܷʵʩͬһУζŶԡܷһơҲ˵ܷĺڸ⣬ڡලܷʵʩı⡣˵ͷɡȫ˴ίһ֣ôܷʵȫ˴ίᡰලܷʵʩһֶΡɴˣҪȫ˴ίġְܷȨͱܷ˵ȫ˴ίᡰලܷʵʩĺ徿ʲôҪ⡰ලܷʵʩĺ壬ͱ⡰ܷʵʩĺ壬ɴ˽仰ܷıĸṹ⡣ ܷԵĽβһȷ涨ܷԷɵʽȷйܶijɹ涨˹ҵĸƶȺ͸ǹҵĸߵķЧȫһйһغװ͸塢ҵҵܷ֯ΪĻ׼򣬲Ҹάܷϡ֤ܷʵʩְ𡣡ܷвȡʽһ涨ָĿȻܷģ֤ܷʵʩܾгܷĵر壬DZ֤еĻء͸˶ϸܷܷȨְܷȨˣܷʵʩȫ˴ίְ𣬶һء˵ְôȫ˴ίᡰලܷʵʩDzζҪලһغǷʵܷһҪලDzܷ񣿶⣬Dzܼ򵥵ش߼Ͻ⣬ܷĽṹ ܷĹǻڹ񣨺͹ɵ壩Ȩһ֮Ļƽģ[]ܷʵʩͨߵԻɵģ֤ܷʵʩDZ֤Ȩһ֮ԻֻϵĹؼԼһʹȨжԹȨİֺɴˣܷĹؼ˵ǶԹȨĹ涨˵ǶԹһֺȨƶԷ[]֤ܷʵʩȻܷҪôܷľƶбȻ˱֤ܷʵʩĻƻƶȡ֪ԹȨл֡ÿһصȨн綨ƵȵȶDZ֤ܷʵʩҪơڷȨIJͬģʽֱ֤ܷʵʩĻҲͬڡȨԼƽ⡱ģʽ˵֤ܷʵʩҪͬȨ֮໥Լɴ˵¶ԹȨıڡϸȨģʽ˵ҪѡĹȨضĹһмලǵܷƵϸȨģʽ֮ϣ֤ܷʵʩȨһʵʩලˣܷȷ涨ȫְȨ֮һǡලܷʵʩʮڶȫ˴ίְȨ֮һǡܷලܷʵʩɼνġලܷʵʩԹһء壬Թˡ ܷṹԱ⣬ôȫ˴ίʹܷȨʹͷȨΪһֶʹĻǴһʹȨһָԻΪܷĿΪ˼ලܷʵʩڼලܷʵʩУܷҪԽ͡ûΪලһغжͲСලжij֣ͬලûгΥΪôҲûнܷıҪ ܷʮȫ˴ίȨ˴ίһһȡּලһǷɼලһǹල[]ǰʹΥȨͷȨܷʮڰ͵ھǶճмලܷʮڹලУһһַܷ磬Ҫȫ˴ίܷյĽͣ[]һ־һڹܷ⣬Ҫȫ˴ίܷгͽ͡[]

ġȨܷȨ

˵ܷȫ˴ίܷȨΪලһֶεְȨȨȫ˴ίԵרȨǾζκһضûܷͨලһְȨDzǾζŷ߹ķʽܷ˵DzǷ˹˶ܷȡһԷĽͺأDzǷ˷ѧҶܷѧأDzǷԺ˾нܷأȻܷķʽȫ˴ίܷȨζܷԶذغ͸ķʽܷȨ/Ȩ仰˵ܷϸȫ˴ίܷרȨζܷķʽԵĺרġڴ˱뽫ܷȨ롰ܷķʽֿûвȡԷķʽܷȡܷǷȨѧûȨܷΪѧȡܷDzDZѧɻ˼ɣԺǷڸнܷҲͬȡܷԺȨĿǰҪԺܷȨԣȻҪܷϸµĽ͡

һȨζŷɽȨ

ǰǣܷԺְȨȡ˶ʽĹ涨ԺΪҵġлءܷһٶʮʹȨһٶʮôʲôȨܷ˵ġСʲô壿˵ġСDzǰˡܷأDzǰĿǰͨеġ˾͡أЩ⣬DZĽԭ⡣ һԭͨеѧ͡СһǵϵͨǷѧеĺĸγ˾еѧ˵ˣĽͱҪϷѧй˾ѧ˵ͨ⡣ڶԭǷϷƶȵԭΪǼֵ˾еĽ߼ֽͱзƶϵݣеķƶûгͻԭܷ涨ͻԭҲ˵ѧϵĽͣƶϵĽܷͣĹ涨ԭͻ ѧϽоǶշɹԾ߰жϺͲеĻбȻ˶԰ʵͲԷɹͽͺķɹ԰ежϡУǶԷɹĽֽͣͻƶķ뷨йͳķֿɴ˹˷ʵ֤ѧ˵ͷʵѧ˵ĸ𡣡ͷɡͳΪСеĺҪأΪлжϺͲþǷٶԷɹͽͣ˾աͷɡչġ[]ڽͷɵļйеҪԣвűԡԡã[]ٲҪְҵѵּԡˣȨȻ˷ٶԷɵĽȨûĽȨл޷СⲻϷСʵΪݣԷΪ׼ķԭ򣬶ڡԺ֯еġ÷ɡ֮У롶ٷľһµģ[]ܷнһȨְܽзԭ򲢲ìܡ Ȼ˵ġͷɡǡԺ֯ȨԺġ˾ȨʮǷлжõķɽеͽ͡˵ܷԺȨ˶ԷɵĽȨַɽȨDzǰܷȨأ᰸ġܷ˾УһеΪȨɽȨҲܷĽȨΪܷҲǷɡȻŵݲܷһֺķѧ˵һּ򵥵ĸ߼ܷҲǷɡ[]

ѧϽͨͳУ֡ɡ͡ԨԴƶȣйнܷɡϰߺѧ˵ȵȶԨԴкͣӶγΪɵоɴγ˾鴫ͳǣ͵IJһѧһܷԡȨϷɺܷĹ涨ǵܷнɡϸ޶ȫ˴䳣ίƶķļУˣܷҲǷɡ˵ǵܷǸͲܳģΪѧϿԻġ롰ɡĸ͵͵ȡܷϸ綨ġɡǵܷϣɡֻȫ˴䳣ίƶĹ淶ļʮڶˣܷͲǡɡǵķУϷԺ֯ٷԼķɣûй涨ԺԽܷԺзЧ˾ʴȷ涨аĹвԮܷ[]ҲȻ̸ϽܷˡǷ϶ȨĽ綨Dzܷ϶ȨĶأܷġȨDzǰ˽ܷȨأ

⣬ܷƺ˳ĬȻܷڡܷϽṩһԵġԵġԭԵġṹԵĺͿԵĹ涨ʱìܵĹ涨ǶκȫĹ淶ҲΪеṩȷжĹΪˣΪÿһܷṩ˽͵Ŀռ䣬Ӷÿһ˵Ķĸ߶ܷܳΪΪֹŵġʵ顱Խʱı仯ľ޴չȻʵĻ[]ˣҪǡܷܷı﷽ʽ硶øдɵģͼѧöԻдɵģʥùдɵģܷýṹԵдɵġܷҪIJǾĸӸǽЩһĽṹֻжܷĽṹͱʽ˽⣬DzܷС Ҫעǣǵܷȡ˶ʽȨʽ涨ԺְȨȨʽбڶȫ˴ίȡоʽȨʽֶʽȨʽΪְȨṩչĿռ䡣ܷûȷȨԺܷô᲻ķʽȨԺܷأԴˣǻҪܷķ

ܷ롰ɡʽķϵ

ȨĻͰͷȨġɡָ˵ġɡ桢طԷ桢͵ڶһԹ㷺ĺ壬ܷй涨⡣ԺʹȨʱ򣬱ȻܵЩɡԼԼٵַɹϵµĹϵ뻮һĹϵɡͬһϳַʱ򣬷پӦһַɹأ

ǵķѧѭġɡڡ桱桱ڡ¡ԭ򣬶ЩԭٶǵķһʽĹϵϵĶ˾ܷܷȷܷǡҵĸߵķЧԣһзɡ͵طԷ涼ִܷͬһɴˣǵܷѧܷΪ󷨡

ʲôǡ󷨡ëһܺõıΪܷǡĸķǡӷǴ֣ͻᷢνġĸӡϵ˵ĸסӵоԵȨߵȨΪǵĻУĸסߵȨܷߵķЧȨǶ˵ӦܷΪҲΪǡȻΪйܷĵߣ[]ëáĸӹϵܷɵĹϵһԼصĿǡʵϣǵĻУĸסȻȨȴߵġԴȪӡɡĸסģӷɡĸġϣζŷɹԨԴγһϵΪĸӷӷ﷨Ҳɴγһķɼĵȼϵë󶫶ܷ⣬ǿԿܷΪߵЧзɹϵռԨԴκʽķɹҪܷҵԼԨԴ

Ϊܷĵߣë󶫵Ĺ۵׼ȷǵܷǣⲢζë󶫸˵Ĺ۵־ܷߵıͼë󶫡桢ܶСƽ쵼ǵļ־Ҳܷߵıͼǽܷߣܷǡȫ񡱡ˣǵĸ˹۵ܷͼǣܷߵͼʵܷı֮УǵһЩ˵ΪǸõܷǵͼṩЧѡܷıҲӦĸݣôë˵Ļ˶ܷ⣬ܷͼܷĴǵͼ

ʵϣܷıͿԷ֡ĸ롰ӷϵǶܷĽϵ⣬ͻܷᷢΪĸεӷȷĹ涨ܷȷ涨ֻЩɹǴֱܷӵģȫ˴ίԱƶɡʮȫ˴ίƶȫƶķɡʮڶԺƶ桱ڰʮһطƶط桱һһһʮ涨ε͵˵ɡ͵طԷǴܷеģ[]ôĸֹ¡취ʩȵȾǴЩ桢ɺͻеģ[]߼˵մܷĸеġգΪһܷԷɾǽܷΪĸġķɹϵԡסķʽȷ涨˽ѭĻ񷨡[]

ǻܷԭǽ˽ʽķϵǸijѧ˵ģǸܷġɡɡ͵طԷ汾ǶܷеһԭݼԾ廯ǶԹĻȨľ廯Щɡݱܷ֮ҵݣҲִܷܺͬĸֹ¡ȵȶǶЩɺͷҪݵľ廯֮Ĺϵ뷨ɷܷĹϵһģһ֡ĸӹϵĸӹϵڡļУ֮Ϊλ롰λȻλ롰λϸķԣʵԷɷͨ׵ĵ׼ȷǡĸ롰ӷġĸӹϵУһԿܷѪҺѾЩķɺͷ֮Уһ棬Щķɷ淴ΪĸѪҺ˻Ĺ⡣ûܷͲзɷ棬ͬûЩɷ棬ܷҲͳûĽ

ǵܷͨȨķȷܷҷֳɴγһʽķϵܷǡڽˣΪɡȵȵġԴ[]ɴ˷ܳһɹ򹹳ɵԵ硣[]Ļ˵ǵķѧۺܷУܷڷɽϵˣҹ涨˷ɽĸ߶ȡܱ߳߶ȵȵȣɴ˻ɽ״ͽṹеѾܷķɹ֮Уκ⡢ⶼڷɹܷҵķ𰸡

ɽ͵ĺԭܷȨ ܷķɹϵԺʹȨDzǰܷΪԨԴ˵Dzо֮ԮܷѾòǺҪˡΪУܷѾ廯Ϊ˷ɡ桢طԷ棬һ廯־Ĺ¡취ʩȵȡϣлھİþķɡ߹򣬿ΪܷȻܷıеijܷԭҪԺܷԭʵһķʽܷеľΪˣԺԷɡ͵طԷЩܷӷн͵ʱ򣬱غԭҲ˵ԺԾ岿ŷĽͲܵ²ŷܷͻֽ;ͲϸòŷҪһִĽ͡ʵܷڸԺȨı⺬Ȩ˶ԷɵĽȨҽһҪԺķɽͱѭԽ͡ԭԺԷɡ͵طԷ治ܷĽͣЩɷ汾ܷͻⷴζŷٱܷԭ͹涨еķɷн͡ԺڶԲŷ͵ĹУDzܷҪʱʱԼĽDzdzܷĹ涨 ߰Ϊѧָ߰УԺȫԮܷġȫաͨ򡷺͡°ʵϼٶܹþIJŷܷΪЩŷܷҪݡȷͨ͡򡷱Ƕܷݵľ廯ͨѵǶܷ򡢹Ȩݵľ廯ϣԺ˾йжԾIJŷãǶܷãֻһķʽܷԺķʽܷԺܷȨıȻ ϣԺ˾оDzԮܷʵ壬һ⣬Ҳ˵һ˾Эĸʽ⡣[]ȫеой涨ĸʽܷijijԼӦIJŷijijо¡ĻҪҪԮܷͱ˾дʽ⣬һ⡣ܹݲŷôԮܷöһ٣ΪܷΪһֳʽķȨԮȻܷƶߵı⡣ɴˣDzΪʲôԺڡнֹԮܷҪԮܷΪֶܷԮǴӡо顱͡顱ĽǶġ[]ϣԺҪȷģûбҪ׷񶨡[]

ţšܷ˾ѧ߲ΪоԮܷdz˾ЭʽļԿǣ෴Ҫһʵ⡣߰һ˵ʵǣѾֺܵȨ档ڷϵĹؼڣֺܵȨڽʽķɹϵ֮мԱҲ˵ֺܵȨΡ롱ΪɹϵоķȨʱ򣬷ҪǵIJܷ⣬Dzŷ⣬Ϊܷн涨ġܷȨߡȨfundamental rightsڲŷвǽֳȨ廯ΪȨ桱entitlements[]ܷй涨ijȨתΪ߽ΪġȨ桱ǷԺְ𣬶صְصְڽܷеЩԭȨʵκתΪġʵֵġԲķȨ档ĹǽЩķȨõİУӶһķʽܷõС ͨ£ЧؽܷԭȨתΪIJŷǿԽ̿ܷ϶constitutional gapsġܷľ廯̡ŷɴ˿Աǡ廯˵ܷˣԺԲŷúͽҲķʽúͽܷ˵ʱʵ״ܷһԾ廯ôԺйʵϾվ尸ľؾ廯˵ܷиΪ廯ĸ⡣ȻܷʵĿ˾ѾʵˣôҪҪ˾оԮܷѾҪˡ

1986߷ԺһУܷԮҡԺίָʾ͹£ءͨͷľ飬طľ͹£ܷɡ治ִģڰ참ʱִУҪáԺĹִ᳹иַɵԼȣӦִ᳹УҲֱá[] ľǿ˵овԮЩԨԴ磬顢ºȵȣȻΪɹãܷͬھмãûбҪԡֱáˣԺʵϹһܣԺԽܷҿֻܷķʽУҪ[]

ģѰܷǡԮܷ

Ƕܷݵľ廯ǣ̲ܷȫݡijضʱھ״ƶģܷΪһʷʱڶпܵ״ƶġôܷĹȨûо廯ھIJŷûͨIJŷʱ򣬷ԺֱܷܲΪݽأʵ漰Ժܲܷ϶⡣ǵܷȷˡ˾ԭܷ϶ܷԺְܡԺܷܽʹȨ鲻ܹɷԺԾȼõ飬˲ܳΪԺİ[]

ŷȷķʽ綨ȨϵЩ尸УԺڽͲŷʱҲķʽܷİǿԳ֮Ϊ永Ժÿ촦İԼЩ永ЩٸҪֱӽܷΪѾӵؽܷijеȨϵ޷ڲŷҵȷľ涨ʱԺܵݶܷĽͶİ漰ܷȨûоIJŷݲܳΪ˾ȼõĶ󣬶˾ܾȼõġ˾顱ǵķԺÿ춼ɾܾġ˾顱˾̵ij

ǣ˾һЩ£ԺԵڲŷй涨ֹ涨Ҳȷղŷַܳݲ㣬ܾṩȼãôԺʵϰ˵˵ijȨܷĻȨе£ܷ涨ij涨벿ŷϵľ涨֮·ֲһ£ӶòŷܷܷⲿŷѡڷԺҲԾܾЩdz֮ΪѰڡ永͡Ƿ顱֮Ĺɵشķͨɹ֮ķԭ򡢷֮ı׼Уķûзȷ涨Ϊɶܾ֮ԳΪǵķѧлȱһ׽Ѱķѧ߾ͿԿһѰ

߰Уܷ˾ţʵDzˣܷ蹫ܽȨûбȫЧؾ廯ΪŷеľȨ棬[]ٵѾһֺܵ롶ͨ򡷶ȨıйأǣҲŵġܽȨ涨[]İǽͨ򡷸ȨıôжԭܽȨȷ޷ͨ˾ñҪԭܽȨбĻܵ;ʲôأԴԺĽһδ󵨵۴£һֽѰķѧԺѰʱԮŷͬʱԮֲܷŷIJԮܷԲŷ⡣Ҳ˵ѰУܷΪһķԨԴԮΪⲿŷһֶζֵġӦڡԽ͡ԭ½ͲŷӶܷ벿ŷ֮䡢ܷ֮䡢ŷ֮佨ЧĺԽ͵ѭܷԭĽ͵IJŷ֮УܷгԭȨΪŷоġԲķȨͬʱҲʵгֵҪȨͨ䵽ܷУӶḻܷݣչܷͷɵ⡣ڷ˵Ҫһ׸߳ķɽͼÿһѰر֮[]ѰУĵⲻԮܷȨνܷܷͨһȷŷĺ壬ӶܷͲŷܵؽһ˵ȨԺ߰ġҪ壬ܷҪͨȨϵ[]

ɴ˿ɼȷȨϵҪⲿŷҪԺ永ʱܷȨڡѰг׹ˡڴˣܷΪȨԮģΪɽ͹뿼ǵģܷڷͷɽͣǼ򵥵ΪԨԴԮ[] ܷȨdzⲿŷҪڷִܷ£ԺDzǿʹΥ飬ɴ˲ΥDzַȫ˴䳣ίΥȨҪһ̽֡

塢ѡȨΥȨ

ܷΪԺʹȨȷ˷ɽ͵ĺԭҲ˵ڳ永УԺԷɵĽͱķʽܷΪԷɵĽͱܷݣѰУԺԷɵĽͱֲܷɱ©ˣбҪضܷнͣȻ巨ɽһѭͣǶܷе͡ǰǷܷҪһµģǣԺʹȨĹУõķɷܷͻֳͻԼڼʹͨٶԷɵĺԽȻô죿Ժȫ˴ίΥ룬ԺԼȨ ˵Ժȫ˴ίΥ룬ôܷϹ涨ȫ˴ίԵطԷԽΥ飬ûȷ涨ԷɽΥ飬DzζԺʹȨĹ̷ַܷͻʱȱһܷϵĽһƶõܷȻ˽ܷijͻӶܷȨ;еʱֽİ취ܲǹ涨ģķʽġˣҪĹ涨Ӷʹֹ涨ܷͳһ֣γɾܷԼܷڴˣҪС̽ѰԺܲԼȨܷijͻҲ˵ܷϸԺȨDzǾΥأǻôӿܷԺȨ֡

һΪܰΧ롰й

1979ġԺ֯нܷԺġȨΪ°°Ȼʮı仯1989ͨġϷԺȨһչУͬڴͳ°°漰˶Ϊ⡣

ͨеѧ˵ԡϷڶԡΪ͡Ϊ֡һΪϷԺԾΪ˾ְȨȴֹԳΪ˾飬ֳΪΪƶձԼ͹µΪʮڶֹֿܹעϵں˶Էıȷ⡣

ȣΪΪԽȻѿΪΪѾǣ浽˳ΪԾΪ϶漰ԳΪͽ͡ڶصغΣ˾ڶ͹ЩΪƶǺϺܷͷɵģˣԺ͹µĽͱѭԺͺϷԵĽԭ򣬶Ľ͹Ѿ˶͹µ⡣һ̶ϿԿǶԳΪ̡ѧڶԾΪšϷ顱롰顱ۣǣߵڹѾڴӡɳʵɳ򡱵Ȼ֮С

ΣԳΪ˾ձΪϵľܰΧɴ˽ϹϹֳķѧΪһ̸ӶԾϹȡɱϵķѧΪԺЩԺѭġйȻͬ⡣ϣǶԡϷ;ܼ򵥵زȡ͵ķȡṹ͵ķΪǵġϷǹйĴӻ߼Уһƶ֯днṹıϹ̵ķ߼ϷΪʮһ¡ÿһ¶Լ⺬ÿһ¶ͳŸĵݡˣÿĽͱڵľ½нС

Ϸڶ¡ܰΧȷʵ涨ԺijЩϸоٵġΪʮһȷ涨Ժ񡢷˻֯ԡ桢»ƶľձԼľϡʮڶǣҪעǣ涨ԺֱԳΪϡijЩΪܶԹDZڵΣǣֻҪЩΣDZڵģֻҪЩΣûбֱӾΣô񡢷˻֯ܽΪЩDZڵĿΣϡ˵ܡԱDzͰ취ΪÿһȨDZڵΣǣ˶ԺϣԺͿԸϷܾİֻԼȫ˴ίΥܻΥ顣[]ǣݡԱDzͰ취Ϊij˵ɵľΪȻԺϵܰΧֻΪĹУDzҪ顶ԱDzͰ취ΪĺϷԻԣѾڡϷеġܰΧҪ涨ݣС涨ݡ

仰˵ԺΪİУǷܹЩΪ漰ijΪ飬ڡϷڶ¡ܰΧҪ涨ݣڡϷ¡оҪ涨ݡֻмֽṹ͵ķϷĵڶ¡ܰΧ͵¡оڽṹȥֿDzܿϵġܰΧ涨ԾΪΪɣԳΪΪɣ˵ΪΪΪܰΧԺֻΪ飬Ϊ顣[]ھΪΪԺϰ֮ԺDzҪԳΪ飬ڵ¡оҪ涨ݣ롰ܰΧ޹ءܰΧй涨ķɹܾоѭй򣬷򣬡ϷûбϸˡˣӶԡϷĽṹͿԺǷԶԳΪ˾飬Ӧѭ¡коȷԭ򣬶ڶ¡ܰΧĽޡΪʲôܹΪԺԸȼõİڷȫͬ⣬ɴˡϷŽЩͬݷֱ涨ڲͬ½

ѡȨ˾Ȩ޶

Ϸ¡о;涨ԺϰѭĹʮһȷ涨

ԺչԺίݷɺ͹Ժ桢ƶĹԼʡֱϽкʡڵصк;Ժ׼Ľϴеݷɺ͹ԺƶĹ¡

һѧвͬ⡣ǣȷӷѷͼıԷͨıߵͼȱ뿼ߵԭ⡣

Ϸȫ˴ƶġɡˣӦȫ˴ȫ񡣶һЩΪĻɣɴȫȫ˴ݡķɶרɵרίԱݣھ۵Ļϣγ˷ɲݰǣDzܰЩɵ߿ߣΪݵĽһзЧġݰIJݰȫͨʱ򣬷ɵ߱Ը÷ɲݰĿĺ;һϸ˵ǷɷרңˣǶԸ÷ɵⲻͬڷ߶⣬ǶԸ÷ɵ߶Ը÷ɵ˵˵ܹ˵ôǾͶƱͨ÷ɣǾͻ÷ɵͨˣȫ϶Ը÷ġ˵ζͨ÷ɵʱ⣬˵һ̶Ͼ˸÷ɵͼ 1989߽˴λϣˡ<л񹲺͹Ϸݰ>˵ȷָԷϷɡ涨Ĺ£ԺҪԲϻȫϷɡԭĹ£Ժء˵ֳġϷԣԺġȨȷذ˶µġǰԺֶµġΪԺġѡȨȨ⺬ һԺȨշɺ½顣Ŀȷ±Dz뷨ɺͻʵѧ˵˾Ȩ

Ľǹ뷨ɺ֮ûгͻôԺҪִСѧ֡ϷеġաϷͨʹõġԷΪݡϵ𣬱աֳԺµĹֳɶȣϸִС Ľǹ뷨ɺ֮ųͻôԺԴ֡ΥĹ¡ͿԡĹؼڡָʲôأûDzأĺȻDzãõĻͿԹ롰ա֮СȻáΪʲôȷҪá˵أԭھ֡¡ʵΥģǣֹʽȻзɵЧȻԷԺԼˣĿľڹԼԺйпԲѡֹΪݣӶֹµԼ ɴ˿ɼԺµ˾Ȩܷѧġ˾顱judicial reviewźܴľ롣˾顱ĹؼΥܻΥķɹЧĹ򣬲зɵԼǣ˵˾ȨΥЧȨǷԺԲȡܵķʽΥĵȻЧĹ²ȡõȨˣǵ˾Ȩʵһ֡ѡȨζԺȨЩΥĹѡõȨӶʹ־зЧĹ˾йЧֹѡȨ˾ãǣDZһ޵˾顣[]

ȨˡѡȨ

뷨ɷ淢ͻʱ˵ԺͨµѡʹԹµ˾ȨôɷܷͻʱԺǷͨԷɷѡʹԷɷΥȨأ˵ԺʹѡȨСϷϵݣôԺʹѡȨķݺأڴˣDzҪעҪעķ DZסеķɹܷͳ֮µĽϵ֮СϵΪһϵСλ롰λĵȼϵֵȼϵݡһλķЧڡλ߷ͻλڷϾӦЧģԺӦѭλλǶԡλݵľ廯ûзͻĻôλݾͻᱻǶԡλݵĽһչ;廯ЩʵѾڡλ֮ˣԺӦѭλ˾Сⷨһ㷨ԭ˵̫֮ûʲôʵġϿ˵ܷ֮ûʲôʵġеķɹ򲻹ǶܷݵĽһ廯 ˣϷй涨ԺĹѡȨʲôʵġݣǶܷйڡȨľ廯ѡȫ˴ͨԺġѡȨֺܷأѵȫƾմһܷûиȨˣΨһȷܷԺʹȨʱѾٶȨֹѡȨȨ˷ɽȨһ˵ȨѾֹѡȨôڷϴֿܵ⣺һȨеĹѡȨºжԷɷѡȨȨ˹ѡȨֹֻѡȨڶԹµѡȨпܱڶԷɷѡȨѡȨûͨȷڷ϶ܳ߼һȷDzǩʽĶIJҪһ ڵڣзЧķܷͻʱԺô죿ǼþзԼȴΥܵķأǺܷȨþԼķأʵϽԺ֮Сһ棬ºϷҪԺСԷΪ׼һ棬ܷҪԺܷΪĻ׼򣬲Ҹάܷϡ֤ܷʵʩְ𡣡ܷԣֲͬҪǰԺô죿ôʹԼġȨ˼֡ΥܵķҲǷɡַʵ֤˼·߼֡ΥܵķɲǷɡȻ˼·ûпԱǴ˼˵ĵ·أ طϷչֳĹѡȨ;壬һΪλЧһҲΪλЧʵԺصءһ˼·ǽͻ˼·ǽСλ롰λͻ˼·ȻҲΪɷܷͻ˼·ˣϷй涨ĹѡȨͲΪֻϹеȨӦΪԺλ롰λͻĻȨԺġѡȨߡѡȨܷԺġȨĻ塣Ҳ˵ֻҪܷ涨ԺʹȨô֡ȨˡɽȨˡѡȨڡλ롰λͻʱӦѡáλ֡ѡȨбȷؾ廯ΪѡȨܷԺġȨû֡ѡȨôϷ涨ġѡȨȱܷݣܷҪԺάܷϡ֤ܷʵʩҲΪջʵϣһЧܷʵʩԭ˵ܷԺġȨ˽λ롰λͻġѡȨôȻΥȨΥܵķɻ򷨹飬Υľݻдǽһ̽֡ ԪΥ

˵ԺзѡȨǾζԺҪԷɷĺ飬ܷҪϷĹ涨ִУִܷܷôӦѡáǽԺַѡȨҲΪһΥĻôԺΥȨ᲻ַܷϸȫ˴䳣ίΥȨأڴˣҪܷȨֲͬΥơ

һΪΥ

Ҫرעǣȫ˴ίΥȨܷȨְֶȨ֮䲢ûбȻϵǰȫ˴ίġܷȨʵʹܷļලְȨһֹеලһܷеĽ͡һ˵ȫ˴ίᲢܻؽܷdzΥҪΥȨҲȫ˴ίʹܷලְȨҪֶΡǣһֿԻʹȨԴֹܷ涨 һȫ˴ίֱӡԺƶִܷͬ桢ܷʮʡֱϽйȨƶܷͬɺִĵطԷ;顱ܷʮڰʵȫ˴ίᵥʹΥȨһҲһ𣬶ȨЩΥܷķЧ ȫ˴ίΥȨУֻܷ涨ԡ桱͡طԷ桱Υ⣬ûй涨ԡɡΥ⡣֮ûй涨Ϊܷٶȫ˴䳣ίΥܵ⣬ΪڡɡΥ⣬ȫ˴䳣ίһ򣬼޸ij ܷȷ涨ȫ˴ίᡰ޸ijӦȫƶķɡܷʮڶ;ȫջڼ䣬ȫƶķɽвֲ޸ģDzͬ÷ɵĻԭִܷʮܷȷ涨޸¡¡һĺĻɡȫ˴ְȨΧܷʮɴ˿ɼڷɵΥʵȫ˴䳣ίֱеܷȨȫ˴ίᡣ

ǶһƶΥܷԡǶԼΪƶķɽС޸ġȫ˴䳣ίΥȨʵϱΪһ͵طԷԣЩЧǸƶصְȨģȫ˴ίΥ飬ζŶЩķЧ飬ֱӳΥܵķ棬䷨Чƶصͬ⡣պȫ˴䳣ίȨȨǹҵȨأʵʩΥ麴ܷϷȨȫ˴䳣ίƶķɵΥ飬ֱܷӹ涨޸ķɵ֮Сˣǿ԰ܷȫ˴䳣ίΥȨ֮ΪΥ顱ΥֱԷɵһЧҪô񶨷ɵЧ͵طԷ棩Ҫôֱ޸ķɣԡɡ

˾еΥ

ڽ綨ܷȫ˴䳣ίΥȨľܷ֮ԺġȨΥȨһΥȨDzȫ˴䳣ίΥȨͻ߲ͻô֤ǶԡȨȷģͻô֤ǶԡȨǴģΪܷȫ˴䳣ίΥȨԹʽģԺΥȨĬʾĻķʽ涨ġܷĬʾ涨ⲻ빫Ĺ涨ͻܷ͵Ļ ԺΥȨ䡰ѡȨ֮УˣԺΥȨ䷨ѡȨڣȻܵ˷ѡȨĹ涨ԡԺѡѡȨҪԺΥȨȻֳ һԺΥȨԾ尸չģڡѰУϣԺΥȨܷһ֡ǰڽķϵУɷΪλΪλܷ֮䲻ڳͻôݡⷨһ㷨ԭԺЩ永оԮ߽ܷȻҲͲΥ⡣ǣѰУŷûȷ涨߹涨ƺܷһ££پҪԲŷС⡱͹̱ȻǶܷͽ͹̡͹УܷٶԾIJŷŬġ⡱ȻܷҪôζŷܷ˳ͻˣԺԷɷΥһھİԾȨͻչģֶԾ巨ɺܷҲһԾ⣬dzһ⡣ΪˣͬһܷĻ߷ڲͬİпвͬ⣬ܷɴ˱һŵʵ顣һϣԺܷĽȫ˴ίܷĽ;ijԣԾĸĽֻ͡ԺԵϰȫ˴ίԵ¼ڹܷʱʾ ԺΥȨеܷͣôΥЧҲ尸ûһЧΪԺķѡȨζŷԺԡλ롰λͻʱȨѡáλDzһϷ񶨸÷ɵЧܷȷȨֹԭȨֱڹغأ˾ءˣһɵЧɵƶģƶ޸ġֹǸûؾȻΨһȫ˴ίʹΥȨĹУֱӷ͵طԷķЧԺΪ˾Ȩ񶨷ɵЧʹַɿΥܣܷȷķȨԭģԺ˾еĹоַܷȨ£ԺʹȨĹУΥҲֻʹѡȨЩΥܵķɲȡãھ尸з񶨸÷ɵʵЧʽϵЧ߶ЧһϣԺΥȨȫ˴䳣ίΥȨŽȻȫ˴䳣ίΥȨһֹġֱӷΥܷ֮ЧΥȨԺΥһġΥܷ֮ʽЧΥȨǵ˾ͳлûȷʽЧˣһԺij尸зijΥܷɵʵЧӰ÷ԺмʵЧΪ÷ɵʽЧûз񶨣ԺȻԼ ɴ˿ɼԺΥʵһ֡˾Υ顱ûַȫ˴䳣ίΥȨҸպȫ˴䳣ίΥγɲ䡣ǰԸЧģһЧģǰDZģеģǰеģǹġΥ顱롰˾Υ顱պγлıϵعҹܷĶԪΥơ

ԪΥƵĻ

Υ˾Υ֮ĻԹ˶ԪΥƣǣϾͬơҪлؽӶγͳһΥƣעһЩʹЧƶȻơ

ȣܷ˾ΥȨԺǷɢڸԺܷнȨͳ衰Ժǣ嵽ڲͬȼԺ֮Ч֯ͷȨܷȨܷһٶʮͨԺ֯¡ºϷо䡣ôڡȨġܷȨ͡ѡȨڸԺ֮ηأ

Ժĵȼϵͬƣϸ¼ϼ֧ͳιϵͨϳмලĹϵϷĹ涨Ժ֮ܰΧͬǣ尸÷ɵȨһµġϣȨΪһֶԷɵжڸԺȫһµģˣܷȨ͡ѡȨΪȨһ֣ҲӦڸԺһµģҲ˵Ժ㷨ͥȨڡѰáܷȨ͡ѡȨ

ҪעǣԺ֯жԺرĹ涨ʵġ˾ȨԺζԺһ߷ԺһϼԺΪԺûеġȨȨͨ˾ָԺйˣϷϹ涨Ķмල֮⣬߷ԺжԸԺġָȨȻָȨͬϵеġȨͨʾ˵ķָ¼ԺĹġʾ˵ֳһ߷ԺȨ߷ԺڶԷɵⷽ¼ԺܾиȨԣΪ߷Ժڷɵⲻһֻڷѧ⣬߷ԺλϸǴӹߺԭĽǶⷨɡ

Ϊˣ¼ԺѰʱһ㶼ҪԺʾԺЩн͡ˣѰ漰ܷͺΥ⣬һֻԺʹܷȨ͡ѡȨȨӶ˸ԺΥжܷIJܷͬȨɥʧͬķɷڲͬķԺвͬЧַƲͳһľ档

ΣԺʹΥȨΥЩΥܷɷڸеʵЧûз񶨸÷ɷķЧˣԺڸз˸÷ɷʵЧ֮Ӧȫ˴䳣ίطɻ߷ΥĶ飬ȫ˴䳣ίص飬Ӷ޸ķɵľ߷طľȫ˴䳣ίᾭΪԺܷطɷⲻ׼ȷôӦӦͽͣӶҪԺڴ˺оִС

ƷdzҪΪΥ漰ܷͷɷ⣬һdzӵרŵԻҪרŵĻСһ棬ȫ˴䳣ίһ֮£߷ԺһרŴ·еĻȫ˴ίЧⷨɷܷijͻһ棬ԺһֱΥĻΪΥܵķɷɵֱΣɵֱͨ϶뵽˾ΥҰ֮УͨIJ㷴ӳӰ쵽ΥܷɵЧʣˣ˾ΥΥΪֱӺЧһ˾Υ飬Υͨ˾Ͻ뵽߷Ժ߷Ժھרҵ֪ʶĹ֮Ȼύȫ˴䳣ίΥ顣һ˾ΥΪΥṩѧϵݣһ棬Υ⾭߷ԺĹˣӶΥ⽻ȫ˴䳣ί飬ЧؽԼΥԴķѣΥЧʡ

ɴ˿ɼ˾Υ顱롰Υ顱ĹϵǸЧһЧ빫Щ໥ֲıϵ໥ٽĻһΥ˾ΥȨԣΪ˾ΪΥܵķɷտͨΥЧ޸Чһ棬˾ΥҲƶΥķչͬʱҲΪΥ齨˸뻺ΥġԤ顱ߡ顱Щ໥ֲıϵ໥ٽĻϵУԪΥܷĿЧС

ڷѧ˵ԪΥʵʲôرĴ¡ЩѧŽܷίԱᣬDzų˾飬ܷίԱΪһɽ׶Σȴ֮ڳܷԺ[]еѧֱŽܷίԱ˾鲢еġΥơ[]ЩŶĿǰƶйĽ̾зdzҪ塣ĵIJͬЩʵϣڷѧоϣIJȡɽѧǷѧ[]ַѧIJͬӳܷооǾǺܷıǺܷܷһͨѧͷչķḻ֪ʶͳǵ򵥵Ľͨɽ͵չܷĿռ䣬ͨĸı䷨ͼƶܷȡǰһȻطɿѧأܷ֪ͨʶͳĸı佫֪ʶͳУȡһȻ뵽սУͼͨĸܷƶȷַ֪ʶͳϻƶչʵУлؽ֯һ Ŀǰַйɾвͬ塣ʵϣȡ֪ʶӵйΪһܻƶܷ⡣1980֪ʶΪйڡԡеġԭ⣬ܷԲܷл֯ȱѧݵ۶ϡ[]1990ķչˡϰܡĴͳҲǸݵ·߷ı仯ܡ֡ϰܡ˼άʽУ֪ʶæָܷٵУ˽вƲΥɳΪ֪ʶӹעȵ㡣[]Ȼ֡ϰܡʵ϶˸Ӱ졣һܷȶԺȨԴۿۣΪܷǴ޸֮Уû˻Դܷԡȴꡱ̬ԴܷϣδܷУ̬ȶԴµܷȨһ棬Ϊܺ⣬Ϊܷ⣬Ϊܷ⡣ܷϽǵܷνǣǿⲻܷι涨ܷʵʩˣעܷξעܷʵʩƶı;УȻ漰ܷĽͺ⡣źǣѧǧƪһɵԾܷƶȺܷȱо֪ʶۡ Ȼ˿ΪܷʵԭܷأʵܷĿ겻ξܷģθĸЩ谭ܷʵʩϰ˵޵ϸǴڲϸĸθĶ֮УˡһŰֽԻͼĴʱǵȻûгɹûпǶθĿ˷˼ϣͨθԯޡǿܷ֪ʶͳγɵձܷĻЩ֪ʶṩڷѧҺܷѧҡûܷ֪ʶͳûձܷĻܽΪֻ֪ʶͳʹϰܷͨĽǶȨ⡣ǵķѧҰܷĺܷ֪ʶ֮ԺʱϣμܷѵεĻˣƶйӷѧ𣬱ѧܷġעͷѧյªϰڷѧоȷܷȨأȷעͷѧյijߵλܷЧ;ԸѧеĹڸͷɼմªϰҿܷͨ˼ܷ֪ʶͳΪܷĻֻУѿ׳ɳˣνķתΪܷϵķ磬˵սתΪѧҶܷԭ͹IJͬ⣬Ŭܷͨ͵ļЧؽЩ磬һڶ޵

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* деõʿͺκʿĴһЩۣDzһȫͬⱾĵһЩͣشлȻ߱˶¸ [] 1990кڷѧ翪ʼֵķɽȳУɽ͵ĻҪ٤ĬѧѧΪݣǿѧѧ뷨ɽѧ֮Ĺϵ·ɽѧѧڷеľáμǣ񷨽ѧйѧ磬1995ƽࣩɽ⡷ɳ磬1998ꡣ״μMichael S. Moore, The Search Term Begin InIiSearch Term End Interpretative Turn in Modern Theory: A Turn for the Worse?, 41 STAN. L. REV. 871 (1989)J.M. Balkin, Understanding Legal UnderstandingSearch Term Begin Search Term End : The Legal Subject and the Problem of Legal Coherence, 103 Yale L.J. 105, 171 (1993)Georgia, Warnke, Justice and Interpretation, Polity Press,1992, ch.4

[] ǿ˫ؽṹµķɽ͡ƽǰע顣

[] ǿǰעģ͵⣺Լַıͷ׷ʡйѧ19974ڡ

[] ڡۣμ϶򡢻£˼ʵ͡룬磬1996ҳ ڡ˾򡱵μ϶򣺡ɵ˾ѧǿ룬ۡ22

[] ǿǰע2ġ

[] μڣܷʵʩ̽߰ļܷ⡱йѧ20032ڡ

[] ־Υɵġ˾̲μ֮ͯΰܷ˾оеļ⡱Ŵӥࣩɳ磬2001ꡣ

[] ϸķμǿܷ˾ۡйѧ20033ڡ

[] μάȨ룬꣬1997ꡣ

[] һִȨ˾ȨĻСʵϣڴͳҵְȨУȨ˾Ȩ˾ȨһϵִȨҲ˵˾һȨơŹ֧Ȩ˾ȨִȨ໥룬ųֹĶ˾ȨְִȨԴͷչμάǰע飬ڶ¡

[] ַȨѧ˵ʷչݻμάǰע9顣ǵķѧǵΪȫƣӶȡ˷Ȩѧ˵ʵϣǷ񶨵ĽʽԼƽķȨѧ˵DzȡʵϸȨ˼·Ȩϸ񻮷֣໥֮ûԼϵն

[] 仰ӢģʽľȨǹҵģʽӽӢƣǣDZעֳܷ벻ܷڹȨŷش𡣼˵ΪķҵӢܷƶģˣܷߵȨǣһܷĹңйܷƶģרŵܻƶģܷᷴƵģˣȨԲϵģDZܷܵԼ

[] ܷѧ缸ûܷȡֲͬȨģʽǣѧֲͬȨģʽ֣̽̽ҪΧϵġܰΧչģϷϵġܰΧӦȡоʽ涨Dzȡʽ涨Щϸۣμκע56ġ

[] һ˵϶ԵĴʹùУ˵Ҫ϶Ҫ϶ݣ˵ҪĶˣDZڷԻԵĺЩ϶Щ϶ûзáЪ󷨹ڡѷMabury v. Madisonе룬ⷨѧ20001ڡ

[] ⣬ѧҪڶ˾͵֮УѧΪ˾ʵϾһμޣ˾ۡйѧ磬1999ڵֱӽ˾ͳ֮Ϊ˾μܹȨ̷˾͵޶ȣ˾֮ڼԡѧģ1997

[] ķ˹ɵĵ·컪룬http://www.law-thinker.com/detail.asp?id=2022003721յ½

[] μأɵĸԵ룬йٿȫ磬1996

[] ˾͵ҪһֲȡΪ˾ͱƻ˹Ȩ˾Ȩִ˼룬һֲȡº˾͵Ҫ˾ѾˡԽȨ󣬿ʼͷɻͲһ£ɴʴ͡μϼԽȨ˾ۻ顱ѧ20088ڣҳ103-8

[] Ҫעǣ顷һλ˵ʱ֮־ķƣֱ롢෴Ŷ巨ƵƻͶЩ˵ķƹȽϱͬʱԷƵлúܲ˶Է򻹺ܲϤȫ᳣ίԱΪһء壬Ӧʵ⣬õͰмƻԵؼǿ巨ƵʹɲȺ˽йصķɹ涨ռɵĻ֪ʶһֱ롢෴ƻ巨ƵɲȺڣرǸ쵼ɲ͹졢Ժ˾Աغȷִзɣڲĸ־ףͬʱҪ÷ͬһƻ巨ƵΥΪжҲ˵֮ԽǻڵʱǿƽҪĿǰƷ˸Եı仯ȫ˴ί᲻˾ջطɽ͵ȨȻԷƵжϡ

[] ʵ漰ȫ˴䳣ίܷȨ⣬ȫ˴䳣ίDzǿԽܷԼְȨͨķʽһأ棬͵Ӿ߽ȫ˴ίڣλ飨ꣷ£գͨˡȨἰ䳣ίԱֱƶ͹ھʵʩľȨʹ˴䳣ίڷЧϿԸڹ㶫ʡ˴䳣ί͹㶫ʡڹԺίƶµЧӶܷڡطһй涨ĵط˴Ȩ޲һ£μ⣺ҹȨ״֮ⷨѧ19995ڣǺ磺תʱطϵ˼йѧ19961ڣ¬ϼޣȨ֣̽֡ݴѧѧ19972ڡ

[] Ժ֯ʮԺйξӦ÷ɡ⣬н͡

[] ٣ͣΪɽ ѧ̳20023ڣҳ22-8š͡ǡΪǷɽΪDzЧͺ˾ڷЧλϵIJͬν͡ͺ˾ͷͬһЧλϣӶǿ͡롰͡͡˾͡ھʽϵԣǸݷƶ֮ľִйгֵнͣɴǿزΪɽ͵壬ΪɽȨڷɵִлأءμԬƶ֮ǡйѧ19944ڣԬƶ֮ǡйѧ19953ڣ˹ϲƶȵǼйѧ19983ڣҳ63-70˹ϲǿΪʱڵȨ֮ơʵеıҪԡ෴ѧǿ͡ڡҲͺ˾Щý͡Ӷ͡޶ڡΪͶ͡Ϊලö͡μ㣺ƶȣԷɽƶȵĹ涨뷨ɡ20006ڣ㣺ƶȡ㽭ʡɲѧԺѧ20011ڣҳ23-8

[] ܷ͵ϣܷѧձ齫ȫ˴䳣ί漰ܷһЩ漰ܷıݵһЩܷͣӶܷͿȫ˴ίһһµԵͻϣȫ˴ίܷȨȫ˴ܷȨμ⡢Իҹܷ͵ʵо20002ڣȻܷûȷ涨ȫ˴ҲȨܷҹʵʳ죬ȫ˴ӵжܷĽȨǿ϶ɵġţҹܷƶȵļ˼ɽѧѧ19993ڣܷδȷȫ˴нְܷܣⲢ˵ȫ˴ܹܷʵȫ˴ͬǿԽܷġ

[] legislator롰ƶɡlaw-makingΪֲͬΣǰڡܷΡڡճΡǰڡ߼higher law-makingڡͼlower law-makingμBruce Ackerman, We, the People, vol. I. Harvard University Press

[] ܷرܻƶģǣܷȷ֮󣬶ܷƶ޸ľɣرܻɡˣӷܷƶ֮ģͨ޸ܷͳΪһܻܻҪѭرķɳ򡣡л񹲺͹ܷ1982ȫ޸ͨģǣȫǸݡл񹲺͹ܷ1978꣩ģɴ˽Ŀǰܷʷϵļܷǡл񹲺͹ܷ1954꣩ڹȻĹؼ1949ǹȨûб仯仰˵ȽңȻɹƶܷ޸ܷܷͨ [] º͵طԷطԹ²ܷͷִȫ˴ίȨԺƶִܷͬ桢ܷʮȨʡֱϽйȨƶܷͬɺִĵطԷ;顱ܷʮڰɴ˱֤ܷΪеЧ˷ϵһԡʵϣҲ˵ܷĬʾķʽԵķɽȨ˾Ϊͺ˾ͻ߷ɷ˳ͻĻôȫ˴ίȫȨֽ͡

[] ܷṹϸμǿȨܷͣ߰еܽȨΪ˼ᡷ3ϺϺ磬2003

[] һܷĽṹϵоͿԿܷ֮ԽĻȨڡһǰ棬ΪʾܷԱȨԿǡμ棺л񹲺͹ܷ޸IJݰı桷19821126աȽ϶ԣܷ1789ͨʱвûйڹȨľ涨ԴˣΪܷԹĻȨо涨ΪܷĿľȨָԼƽԭ֮϶ԹһȨƣ൱һȨμܶٵȣļ̷룬ӡݣ199784ƪ

[] Ⱥйƺ˴ල ˴о20028ڡ

[] һ͵Ӿȫ˴ίԺۻⷢȫ˴ίн͡ [] ʵϣܷѧָȫ˴ίܷʵҪ

[] һּ˵ѧ˵ΨзԺĽͲŹķɣķǡɵԨԴķнͣǵĺɷԺģǰѳķΪǿڹͬǽԺֺĺǿڹͬ塣John C. Gray, The Nature and Source of the Law, Mass. Peter Smith, 1972, p.170.

[] ԡ롰ΪԡҪ¿˷ٵһϵһ𣬲μģܷġ߼ǿ룬꣬1996ҳ35ڷ˵ġԡһۣμCharles Fried, The Artificial ReasonSearch Term Begin Search Term End of the Law or: What Lawyers Know, 60 TEX. L. REV. 35 (1981)

[] ٷȷ涨ĿǡΪ˱ԺʹȨϷְ߷ٵʡһ

[] ײμڣǰע6ģԼݵķѧ۵ϸۣμǿǰע8ġ

[] μԺԺовԮܷΪ̵ݸ1955͡ԺķӦ÷ɹ淶ļ1986

[] ܷΪһֿŵġʵ顱ǻķ˹󷨹ٵҪ˼룬۵ɵ⡣μAbrams v. U.S.1919е顣

[] ëǵ֮ġܷܷ֮ģ1954ܷΪëܷμܷʮ֡http://article.chinalawinfo.com/article/user/article_display.asp?ArticleID=223262003722յ½

[] 磬л񹲺͹ͨ򡷵һ涨Ϊ˱Ϲ񡢷˵ĺϷȨ棬ȷ¹ϵӦִҵչҪܷҹʵܽ»ʵ飬ƶл񹲺͹̷1997һ涨Ϊ˳ͷ񣬸ܷҹͬľ徭鼰ʵƶл񹲺͹ϷһΪ֤Ժȷʱ񡢷˺֯ĺϷȨ棬άͼලʹְȨܷƶ [] 磬л񹲺͹عʵʩһ涨ݡл񹲺͹ع¼ơعƶл񹲺͹عһ涨Ϊ˼ǿعάص幫ƣԴأʵأٽᾭõĿɳչܷƶ

[] 編ɹƶ򣬷ɹĽ⣬ɹ֮ĵȼϵȵȡ

[] ĿǰķѧУԴ͡ԨԴͬʹáԨԴǷȨıݵĵıʽĶʵһ˾ѧĶ壬˵ɾǷԺ˾оôԨԴڷγоĹοȨԷݣˣķ˾ͺϰߵȵȶԳΪɵԨԴμGrayǰע32顣ǣǴĽǶȿɿγɵȨļôνԨԴӦָγɵĺϷݻԨԴڴˣͼáԴָϵķγɵĺϷݡݡл񹲺͹ܷ1982ܷзɺͷķԴϣɾǴܷϷݳγɵɵȼϵ

[] ڷ֮УɵǷɵһҪζŷɲξõӰ죬ֹڷԵĽʵϴ˾ĽǶġĽǶĻʱʱξõӰ֮У̱һַӳ棨Ǿ棩IJͬ漯֮һּۻ۵Ĺѡ̣˱һεĹ̡ǣλܷͷɵĹڻȨķ䱾ϸܷ涨ġˣ˾ͼȷΡõԽʱܷȴеЩξû뵽ķ֮ڡ [] Ҫעǣ19551986ԺڽֹԮܷĵУ漰Ľоʽ⡣ǵ˾ʵУϸķɽͺͷһ㲻дڰоУдڰᱨУıһΪļڰġСˣ˾овȷԮܷζŲᱨнܷǵ˾ʵУɽͺͷɽ͵ĽǷֿģ˾ĸ֮ƶод⣬ǽԭμʽ⡣

[] μǰע36

[] ڡܷ˾УΪܷ˾ϰ֮һԺǣָģʵһ⡱1955ġֻǹ涨ˡܷûг׷񶨶ֱܷԮͬʱá°ûй涨ºIJвܷ1986ġָֻ˷ԺֱԮķɹ淶ļҲûȫųܷĿԡμУܷ˾塪Ժһ̸𡱣Ժ2001813ա

[] ҪַϵȨright롰ȨܡentitlementȨһһЩ涨һЩŵһЩҪ󣬶Ȩܡָķɹ涨֮иʵϿԲͱȨܷϹ涨һСܽȨǣҲ˰ѧУĻô֡ȨԿһšֻйҰ䲼Լ˰ķߣʹֳܽȨ˾СѧϴѧȨ棬ܷϹ涨ijġܽȨ塣ȻʱDzϸֶߣڿáȨĹϵҲܷȨ롰ȨĹϵǰ߸ؿһţǿԲķɹ涨ϣܷǷɣԭߵԭܷҲܼ򵥵ؽ뵽ԷҵͨԺ֮Уڵ¹ܷͨԺרŷԺġ˾ʵܷΪԨԴ尸ִܷܷķɡ

[] 1986ꡰȫ£

ʡ߼ԺԺշ[1986]11ʾϤԺӦ÷ɹ淶ļ⡣о£ܷط͵ط֯йع涨Ȩȫἰ䳣ίԱʹԺȨܷͷƶ棻ʡֱϽἰ䳣ίԱᣬڲܷɡִǰ£ƶطԷ棻εطȨյΡúĻص㣬ƶ͵ˣԺº;þװʱȫἰ䳣ίԱƶķɣԺƶ棬áʡֱϽἰ䳣ίԱƶܷɺ治ִĵطԷ棻εطյΡúĻصƶ͵Ժ˫ڱڵº;þװʱҲáԺίָʾ͹£ءͨͷľ飬طľ͹£ܷɡ治ִģڰ참ʱִУҪáԺĹִ᳹иַɵԼȣӦִ᳹УҲҪֱá ϸͻᷢԺ֡ʽĹ涨ʱɾǻڽʽķɹϵΪܷйڳԭȨĹ涨Ѿ廯ŷ֮УǾ嵽ֱܷӹ涨ġܷӷɡ͵طԷ档Ժίָʾ͹£ءͨͷľ飬طľ͹£ܷɡ治ִģǶԷɡ͵طԷġ͡ϵ̣ġ͹̡Ժڷɡ͵طԷЩܷӷĽ͹еIJοǡִСҲ˵ǵĽͺԺĽһµĻԺܽܵģôͿִУԺԲִЩ顢µȵȣԺĹִ᳹иַɵԼӦִ᳹СӡִСִ᳹͡СĶԱ֮УǿԿ϶˵Ժ1986ġѾȷԺСѡȨҲ˵Ժաܷӷԡܷ﷨ĺ飬ΥܵµʵСӵġ˾Ȩμĺķڡܷ˾Уڴ߲ȡѧķԺ1986ġһ߷ԺԸӶԺͻЩûвȡעͷѧķͺͷ߼ͷڡˣܷ˾ĹĶ߲͹߷Ժǻۣûж߷Ժ˾Ÿ㹻ѧע [] ʵϣԺసйӦܷԭ򣬵DzûֱԮܷڡֹӰƬȨԺ1994͡߿ѧȨԺ1995Ϳ϶ɵҪԡμմ˾Ĺ˾ҩɡѧо19963ڡڡԴߡƾ޺2002Уоý塰ȨۣάҵľȶҳϡȨΪΪһȨ־ԡ漰桢ṫֲͬijͻͶԿɱز񡢷˵Ȩ˽ȨýʹìܡԺ˹񡢷˵ĺϷȨķɱýеܷ˳ʵֵƽ⡣ûֱԮܷĹɵľЩڽܷй涨ɵľںڸðзʵϽýġʹġṫ桱Ϊܷй涨ɵľݡرμԴߡƾר⡱http://chinese.mediachina.net/index_news_list.jsp?topic=432003723յ½ͬڡ־ĻϱҵȨУовûᵽܷʵϽɵܷȨΪýԹСۼලȨýʹۼලĹУΪķ־㣬ڿܵ΢ӦܡӱϿ 漰Ƿ־˵˽£һ˽¡ṫһ֣ȻԳΪűݡýעĽе飬ʹۼලȨڸṫһȷ˵޲ðܷȨĽܷͣNew York Times Co. v. Sullivan (1934)ɵ֮ͬرμԽӷ־߿ۼලСȨ⡱http://www.people.com.cn/GB/paper79/9514/879814.html2003723յ½

[] ڡܷ˾У˱ԹΪԺֱܷױԺų⣬ʵ˾ܵش⣬·еľ׶ӦɷԺʵϣԺ뽫ųڷԺ֮⣬Щ漰ܷȨ˾ۺ˾ƶУԺЩЩߣҪɵĹ涨ǽֱԮܷ׵ĻǾζκεԺ߶Ϊκξ׶ܷҵݡˣ˾顱롰ܷ˾ȫͬĸԺܷԷɷк飬һ㲻ܷܽΪݽ

˾УԺոӵġɡstandingѧ˵ڡɡѧ˵УһҪѧ˵ϱǡ˾ϿʶġҲ˵ݡȨߵİᱻԺ֮ݡ˾Ͽʶ𡱵ԭ򣬾ΪݳܷȨߣϣɴ˴ԵĺҪַصְܷȨAllen v. Wright[468 U S 7371984]һд󷨹OConnorŵģѧ˵һЩ˾϶ʹ˾ϽȨһЩǿӵƣ磬һ˵ֹͨϴһЩ˵ķȨֹһ㻯ıԹЩԹʺЩѧ˵ݳȨвþôʵʹԺΪǷǡǷڳϵļල֮УɫʺͨίԱµĹᣬʺϡ˰˵Ȩpower of the purseԷȨѧ˵Ϊѧ˵μ󷨹Scalia Lujan v. Defenders of Wildlife [504 U S 5551992]һе˾μScalia The Doctrine of Standing as an Essential Element of the Separation of Powers 17 Suffolk University Law Review8811983

[] ҹܷȻ涨˹ΡᾭáĻԼɵȷĻȨЩȨһͨͨɷõʵЧı⣬൱һֻȨûо廯ΪͨɷϵȨⲿȨֺܵʱԺΪûоķɹ淶Ԯ¹ܷеЩȨòӦеı磱걱巹Աȣ˴󻻽ѡʱ巹ǼΪϷѡ񣬵巹ûиǷѡ֤Ҳû֪ͨDzμѡ١ǣԸ÷ַܷϹ涨ѡȨΪɣ򱱾ԺϣҪ󷹵еΡԺöDzеһмԺеһмԺ˵ûзΪɣߡҹܷ涨еĻȨ൱һ˾ʵгڡ˯ߡ򡰰˯ߡ״̬ܽȨһܷȷ涨ûо廯Ϊͨɹ淶ϵȨУǰע46ġ

[] δ꣺ܷ߰õķ˼ܽȨ빫ȨķоԺ2001813ա

[]ε߷Ժ󷨹Saclia˵ģȵİֵļ˵һſѧ˵һջһϷΪȰйоɡholdingķɽͲι̲ģǿԽеӦĿǰΡڿ˵һеġɡ˵һֿԽзԭͨԭķٲŵóоAntonin Scalia, A Matter of Interpretation: Federal Courts and the Law, Princeton University Press, 1997, p. 8.

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[] ȻϵġܰΧDzȡʽ涨Dzȡоʽ涨ѧҽһֱڲͬۡܡϷȡ˾оʽ涨Ժġ2000͡ȡ˳ʽĹ涨ʵչϵܰΧӶΪҲΪķΧʵϣԺҲͨϵܰΧͻƶԳΪ˾顣μκܰΧһҳ˾Ȩʵʷ19902000,ۡ42ͬѧ˾ʵͨеֽ;ͼͨ֡ϷеġܰΧ͡й򡱣ͨԡй򡱵ijԳΪ˾⡣ [] ˾ԣμ飺ҹΪ˾顱ִѧ19996ڡ

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[] ڡܷԡܷṹеĵλԼܷԵϸ½ͣμǿǰע27ġܷУܷΪܷл֣ԡҲΪܷл⡣μGeorge Fletcher, Our Secret Constitution: How Lincoln Redefined American Democracy, Oxford University Press, 2001˶ۡԡ룬ؿ˶18ѧҵǡ룬꣬2001

[] μ⾴ȣ޸ܷ˼http://www.law-thinker.com/detail.asp?id=17172003722յ½ҪעǣЩܵУȫ˴ίIJ̶֡ϰܡرǿܷʵеľʵ