ΩԸƽˮʹ罭ϣ
et revelabitur quasi aqua iudicium et iustitia quasi torrens fortis

 

ӶϵнӶ

1898 ׷ 2004

ҵĵڽתȨʥķһϡԭֲʷʵ۵ս۵˵Ӷֻһ־ϵġϵ˶

ӶڽϵĶҲΪζ˸Եĸ޼֦ӡ֦ɣҲ֮

κһֻҪһʵûκһƲǽһڽ̸һķڽ̸֮ϣͲ仰ʷϷںӢϵĸıǼӶƬϵɡ ÿһλְʷѧҶһ֤ʵ޷ [עʮͳʷѧҡ] ڡʷһеĻ

ԼӶĿȾǶɵĿȣΪɶսĵսϣӶĵ׾ҳϵͬ˾

һλʷѧ˹˵

ǹܷȷڡҲڼӶ塣

Ӷɿµĵ·ŷȻŷ޴½뱱½ӰԽԽĹң˵ʵûбȫϵĻѾΪд¿ѧϡΪ⼸Dzġ Ϊ˽ӶǵηչӰ죬DZӶΪԵ֮γɴ򿪴ŵģЩδӼӶԭ֮Ϸѿɳġ

һԭǾϵų壬ķλһϵ۶ȫȨƹܣÿһ桢һеķȣɼġɼġһȫȨԹɳ漰棺 1ϵ۶ԹȫȨ

2. ϵ۶ȫȨ

3. ϵ۶Խ̻ȫȨ

棬֤ӶϵȫȨġ

ȣϵηڵȫȨνηҲǹҡdzϣҵĸ˾Դ˹˳ΪȺ嶯ϵۻ˻صĸˣ֮ҲûѪԵϵϵͺǵǶر죬ÿһ˶Ƕر죬ʵˡ

Ǵ˱һijлȫϵһ𡣺һγ࣬ϵǣҲǰе˺ͽǡڼǵϵһеһѪǣǽָΪ½½ָΪҵĹҸȴ޷͡Ψеγһ۹ſʹлͳһϵʵ֡ʣĽ룬ͳһʵ֣粻֮ѣûκζմۡƻлͳһԡɽ󡢰¹˹ [ע߶ͼͳһȫ] ĴΪDZ۹Ի󣬶Dzʹͳһƻݾʵͼʵͳһ롣

ͬ¹ϵͼʵֵģҲ˵ͳһ롣֪ǵŬҪֽϾʵʥ롣ЩΪڲ֮еһйϵһ˵Ȩ֮󣬴ȻԳһµлŦʵֺһͼǰŬһҲǶһʧȥ˵԰ѡ

ûĴڣҾûдڵıҪҲͰڼͥĸֹϵ֮Сһûϣ첻ڣ½Ҳ޴̸ƶȡͷɻ伣ȨҲͲڣͻȻء谭ءطչûѣ֫ȫֺαعȣˣҵĽȨȫһDzȻģǵıҪġһԭȨǿµȨͰյIJϷѡȨ֮սĸԴⳡսУĵɵĿϵԤּΪҪֹȨרƶáˣĹҸȨɵȨ涼ڼӶǰĻϵϵһȨԭ

һ˼ŹȨһһ档һǣӦôڣӦֻһҡڵĸȨԾͿֶܵҰġһǣûйңûзɣûͳһһ˵ǵ˵صDZϵôˮȫȻܻһĸޡ

ӶڶʶǹҡıĿ̵£ȣӦĴжشϵܹȨǽ첻ɻȱġһ棬Ҳʮ־裬ΪȨDZŶǸɵΣв

⣬Ӷ廹̵ǣϣ˵ؼ񣬲ΪҪأDzֻҪʱϵæ෴ÿһҶϵ۵ΰ֮ΪʥһǰˮͰеһΣƽϵССϵ۰ٵǰǶΪڣģΪҫڣĶּڣýּʱǻۿҫǡ

ˣж䣬ǸΪЩʢУ˸ķѣԳֵ߳벻ʱϵ۵ҫҪЩֲֹ֮ܵҵõƣԻָͻһǿԵ֣ʹΪܡ

һȨϵ۵ģҲΨϵۡ

ûһȨͳαˣȻĻͱضǿʳϻڴͳ޷޺ϵķϾͳŰ˵ȡ

ҲûһȺ˿պԼԼȨʹ˳ˡǵʱǩġԼƾʲôҾԼΪˣǿǰ¸ҵءɵվ˵IJǼͥ£ΪĹϵлģȻġϣҲκΪǶˡ

˵ȨˣʷǣȻѹȷġ

ӶιΪһĴھԭ򡣵ڶϵһȨϵ۵Ȩϵ۶˵Ҫ˳Ҿ͹صҵͷΪһ˿һҸ˵ּۻۡΪһǿ׺˵ͷʱĽ֮ͬȨ˳ٸһ

ʥ˵йȨʹͽҲ棺ϵȨġԿȨģǿϵͨĹߣĿƷ񡣲ˣϵ۵ģΪǽԱϵҫĴ֮ʹȫȻ﹥ϵ۵Ĵ֮ϵ۵ļƻϵ۵Ĺ塢ϵ۵ҫΪϵеʦ뽨ߣˣϵȨϵ۽˵ɱȨͨЩά塣ԣǵ۹ǹ͹Ȩǵطϵ۵Ķ֮Ȩͬ˾˾һʥԣͬĶÿһ񶼱˳dzھ£Ҳdzġ

ӶĸһָһȨνģԼ֯ʽ޹ء˶ԣӶڹƶ֪ģΪƶʥġʽһĹûн磬ϵ۾һֱΨһľ ڽҫϵ۱عֳ֮֮ϡϵֱƹܵǾԵľƣһ۵˶ϵġӶΪԭʣһ໥ලƶȱȽϺá

ڼӶĵ˼֮ȨԣûиIJֻг̶ϵIJͬӾƶȡƺƶǿеʽǣ˶سϣûκ˿ȨͳˣȨϵ۵ĶӸġˣǶȨ˳Ϊ˶dzϵۡ ݼӶĵĹ۵㣬Щϵ۵ȨȨˣǵһŶۣʱ졣ҲԥֻҪԼѡǵѡٵĵطӦôж֮ijϵ۵رǹܷģǸлϵ۸ѡȨ

ġĸע͡ӶĸܹѡԼ˵ǰЩȨѡԼǣ˼УҪĶ䣬ҪѶˡΪ֮ѡڸλϡ һǣ˵ѡͳȷģԭѾˡÿһµĹҽdzڴѡÿһȨĵ̨Ҳ⣬ڼ̳оڱͨǵĴؽȨӶ˵ϵ۾ȫȨͨĻ֮˶һջأһô˶ݣǵȫ˴ףϵҲԸͲǡ

һʷеķչ̾˵ȨḶ́Ȩɼ̳жƵĹҾˡȨҲͨԡѪսҲҮʹȨǡͷ͸ġ[עԼ丣1911]ȨҲŴն۹ͨЩѡʥ۹յĺ͹ȨԸʡ֮ڸķչУȨʽӦоСһһ

ͲйڡΪֹƵ޵ʽɳȨһжϵּ뻤֮һȨȨΡȨΨɫгֹΪϵɫֱӽϵͨ˾֪ͨ漣ĹܽУƹɫеȨɫˡ ӶϵȨijȫйңһͳȨ֮ԴͷҲͥ︸ĸԺӵȨ

ΪǿΪ㣺

1йҵΨϵ۾ȫȨûκһ֮ȨΪDZȨ죬Ķּƹܡ

2εķڣѾƻϵ۵ֱͳΣ˱ʹȨΪһֲȡ

3ȨԺʽ֣ϵ۸Ȩûһͳ˵Ȩ

ӶֱӶԿ֡ǰǷ1789ڰĴȨǵ¹ʷչȨӸ˵ûʲô𣬵ΪԴ

͵ʲôľǶȨķŭǶרƵĿֲǶȨɵĺ𣿵Ȼһ㣬Ӷ߶Ĵжسϣµȷϵ۵С

ǣǶȨijޡ[עʮӢμ] 1688ġٸ[עӢתƵIJѪĸʷϳΪٸһµϣڽ̸ĸӢĸıɵα]1789ķԭ˱Ƚϣ˵

Ӣ뷨ϸϻ徫϶Ȼ෴

ͬλ˷ԷIJˣ˵Ӣķǣ һ־лԭʾɾԵ˼롢۵һҪĶ

ڼӶ﷢ΰ[עӢ]ûϵ۵ҫdzڶϵȨijϡÿһ˶ϣڡĬ쵼£ҹ [] ĸˣҲû˻ɹӢĹٸƷ˹ͼӭ˰[עԡĵһǩ] ڡԡһٵ˵ģӵȻɺϵ۵ķɡʵж֡ÿһ˶ǵĴģɰȨǡ߷ֱĶԡϵۻ֮ȫȻ桶ԡڡʮݰܷЩ˵

Ĵжسлȫϵ۳ϡϺڽϵɣʹףǵһŬ

ǵĸϵΪȫܵȨߡǡߡرΨдϵܵѡԼʽȨ [עԡ֮һ] ݡԡġ½顱еĽDzʱȫһϵ۵棬ϵ۴ǻۡ

˭Ϊ뷨֮Ļô1793dzڽѷ뺺ܶ [עǰΪͳԵҪˣսʱʢٵ飬] ֮ļսӦóȥĴ۵㡣¹ʷѧһģֻз˵˲Ż˵ĶǴ¬ [ע¬Ƿ˱˼ҡѧңԷܴӰ] ߾ܶԼ˵

Ҫ÷ȽϵĻô÷С˵вӢͽȣ֮֮

ӢĸԭϵIJ𣬺߶õ桢ſϵ۵İеġϵۡϵۡǷκαȻҲDZԼΪ̵ĻġȨ顷һ˶ϵ۵ľԲţǰ˵־ȫϵ۵ıϡ˵־һУеȨһеȨˡǣɸ˵ˣ˵񣬾ͳһȨԴȪǵܷȨϵۣȨ񡣶ڷһȨԼκȨ˵־۵ĸ۵㡣ڼӶķڣǵġԡһϥǫ£ͷͽ̧

ȨķһȭͷսϵۣһԼһǰūϥƵذмǧǰµνԼ

ڣǷҪ֪ôʷ㣺壬ӢĹٸӢҵ췴ΪɴҲԼش⣺˹ǿȨɴ֮⻹ʲô[ע1789ķܿ͵ءð͵ļȨר] ʮûһҵʷȷˡ

ѹעؿѧĵ¹ȨĻһϡʷѧҶ1789꼥ЦΪһǰĹ£ŶͼҲ﷢ЦʷѧƼҲȷõȥ

죬ȨѾȨȡһǵ¹ѧIJǵָǴʵ֮һǣ֮ϵߡḻǹҡǹҾͳһصĸһصĴڡֹҸķչγνʶ־ֱäĿشﵽĿ߸ĸѾΪǸܺ͡һ־ۼлһ塣лȻл١ЩлٽʷϷչ־ЩһжӴ˹־־ȨԹƵʽֳҲھϣϸǵĻʵҲıĶߡһвʽͬˣǶһҵĸֹķչ֮Сʽα仯䲻УҾߵȨÿһԱҪӹΪʥȨ塣 DZѹȵ˿̧ͷġϵ۵ijȻȨʧˡʲôġԵֻеȥң֮ȷΪɷߵԭ򣬶ΪǷɡʱԸı䣬ȴΪġԵġĽʹ˵ĴijϹӣԵı׼ֻǵͷʧȥ˶ֱ顣ֻҪǴڵģǺõģΪڡǴǡ֪ǵϵ۵־DzͣظıŵĹҵ־ΪԵģϵģΪϵۡǵǵĴڶҪɴ˹ҵ־һ˼صĹҲִ֡־ʱɻóֹۣȨһʽȨҲᳬϥԶһϵ˳ վЩۡȨİٿȫǺЩƳ緺۹Ȩĵ¹ѧǵĶϣӶ߼ϵ۵ȫȨ˼һȨӶ߽ÿһ塢ÿһ˶ϵĸǰӶ־ߵıʶʵʵ1789ڻӵΪһֱ۵Ķ࣬Ӷ߰˵ıԡӶָл໥ϵȨĻеϵ֮ʹǸ׵˳ȨΪȨУʹϵ۵ȨʹǴӳڶǿ߿־֮Ķ˳ΪԵʵ˳̵ǽ۹˼ķϵ˲ĵ뷨еIJиĿ۹öȨѹƸɵķչ۾ԶעĿڸڹȨ֮ҫâȨϡѹԶǹ׼ߣĵԶϴﵽı֮ǰףǵĹңڴ˹ףǺǵļҵ ڹҵȨҾ̸᷶ڵȨ

ӼӶĹ۵˵ͥóסѧȵȶķ룬ǵĴڲңҲشӹҵȨ֮ΪԼ򡢹أ˳ԼȨϵ۵ĶȨȨҲбԼߵȨһ ˹֮Ķûаῴһͬ֯ľۺ壬ΪɸлɡÿһлֵĶԺԡ

ͱȻһĸߵȨǰѴ˳ΪÿһԼȨΪҪȷ˵Щͬϵ֮⣬ûκȨͷϣҲ档ϾͿԸо漰Ȩɵģ˼⡣ DZμסлĻе֮˱еԼչһжֱԴڱ֮ʼһ㣬ӼͥѪԵϵһӾܿСŮϾܿһһϾ֮ܿԴ˱ķһͥȻȻؾֵܽõĹϵЩdz˺Ҳ顣ЩϵѪԵϵЩͥĹϵһйϵУûлеϵչԶԷģ֦ӴϳһȻѾһв˽ҵӰ죬ѾѱףŤ硣ȻѾϵ۵ֹͨ˵İͼҪ߽ƻͥʥϵȻǾȻĻͥѧķ롣 һ㣬ҲˡΪԭʣȻѾʧȥ԰ҫس޼DZͿܳԱһŬҪĿȻ˶֮ǰ֮ƣȫءһϱ֮֮⣬޷õġѧཫ汻˼άоӦõ֮СDZģǷḻȻˣdzһﱻͨԼһ棬ĸɵĸıؽҫ֮նͬʱȻΪЩеĻĴ졣һеʽǸݴ֮Ķּչġ ȫͬdzϣʹﲻڣǻһҪڶļͥһϵ۵Ȩ֮µϣ⽫һ↑ʼʽȫͳһг˳ϵ۵Ĺȡʱȫһϵл֮⣬ûκιҴڣѾȫʧ֪ԤԵġǵȺǵδ 죬ȫϵǵгһѾڡϵ۵һȲֱӴڣѾﱻٻˡһԵȲܹҲӦýͱԸ˺󣬸彥γɣϵΪָˣʽһҵǴȻģһŻеذȥԴһ״̬֮IJȣֲ֧ĹӣȻʹ¡ ҪɱȨʹͽļ֤彣ģ⽣˼ǹ֮ﷸʩгͷս֮Աҵ桢ȨҲά֮ƽϢڲҡ·ºĽ̼ȷָȨڴˮ֮ģʱϵɱ˱ȡȨΨϵۣΪΨϵ۲Ǵߡˣûһ˾д˵Ȩϵ۸衣һϣɱͱĦɷҪ͵ȵö࣬ΪѴȨ˸׺ūĦɷΨȨֹ̡壬Ҳιùڡʹõõķչʹǰҵ һһеĸлڸԷطչһ棬֮һĻеһеĦͳͻҲɴ˶ΪĻеȨҪַҪеذšĸ档跨ĿȨ¸ŵ˼ߵĿĶҪƷȨҽ߷һߣǾͻϣĽ͹ҵȶлеȨ֮໥Ľġǿ֮ĹϵⳡУӶһվ˳ϵȨǿϵݴʱĶֲּµȨ ֮Ҫһ໥ϵִֵܿߣҪɣǼӶ弫ǿġˣ˵ǼӶԭܷ ʷɵ֤ܷû̹ңҲû·ڹ֣ڼӶĸĸǣϵͬķォȨˡһǻеϵĹȨһлеϵȨ֮ڣиԵȨΨϵ֮ϡ

ĻеȨ벻ضлȨӦۡ

Ȩڿѧ⡣˹ [עѧҡԺѧ] ۵ʰ͵ [עʮѧ] Ͱ [עʮѧ] ʱд

ʰ͵µ˼ͳһʮ꣬Ҳ˰ǡ֮󣬰ǵ˼ڴ˺Ӱȫŷޣѧҡ

⻰ȻǹڿˣĸȴǶԵġʷ˹ºͰͼʰ͵ºͰǣ·ºͼӶģºʹĵȵЩԼžһȨγѧɣǵ˼вɿܵɹӰ졣ŵȨϵ۵ĶͣҲΨгϵ۵Ķ䡣ȨκˣΨϵ۸Ϊϵ۸ ķҲܹͬ۲쵽һÿһλʦĹȲdzڼ̳ҲDZ⣬Ϊϵ۵Ķ䡣ЩʦͬȨͬκܵǶŵ𾴡

һҲõԵȨϣ֮䲻ͬխ򲻱ȸ٣ȣ˼չӥ߷緶֮ߣΪԼڵȨԶ뻹ǷԣǵӰȻ赲вȱȽǡڹ̵гϣóУںҵڴƻҲ⡣ÿһطһĸԡ츳;Ļ˸ռ֧λˣ֧䲢Ľ룬һлԼȨ ͬлȨָ˵ȨȨ磬ѧѧռλѧԺӵȨЭڷϣڹеȵȡȵȣиҵڸԵķΧڳȫȨЩѧȨл棬ǼͥÿͥԼڻƲ֮ϵϵȨͥȻͷʹȨȨϵĸȨıҲϵڸ˵ĵġ[עТĸ] 󣬳ҲγĴڣdzҪҲǵȨ

ǴЩпÿһﶼԼȨ

1. и˵츳

2.ڼĸдѧЭȵȡ

3.ڼͥͻ

4.

ĸɽķǿȥԼڵĹɡϵѡȨʹڹҷڵȨһҲѡרƹЩ

Ȼϵ۵ԼΡӣɸıҲƻȨȨϵۣΪϵ۵ԭȨҪƣΪĸͬгϵ۵Ȩѧҵҵͥκ˼ʵĹϵӦñĶݡԶӦóΪһDZ鼰˷Ĵ㣬㽩ŪӲˡסԼĸλɭľһԼĸϡӦءάÿһ̬ǶиԶġʥȨ ǷζЩ̬ȨȫǣصȨ

1. ÿ֮ͬ䷢ͻʱӦָ˫ԵĽߡ

2. κεطȨʱӦˡһ 3. ֶεáάҵȶ

һоɱ涨ȨвȨԷֹȨһȨԼȨܷ໥⡣ҲǼӶʱԵ⣬ʱȱȨصĹͬЭȵط֯һγ˸ԵġС˼ӶϣƶЭЩط֮֯Ĺϵ

ķ⽨ƶйأѾڡ죬ط֯ĸѾ߱εȨҵ쵼ȨȡǴȫά򡢸ȨбҪǿΪҪȸ˵ĵƸЧҲǣʽθı䣬Ӷĸ䣬Ǿǣġġķʽϰײ㣬򡢸֯ڵȫĺϷȨǶӰ졣

ڵǣӦ߽ʢеĽѡȨ˵ĵ·أǰѡȨֲͬ塣ΪһҪùᡢ̻ԼֲͬҲǼѡȨҲĺ

ЩҾͲ˵ˣҸ˶ԣһַʽԣֻҪһߵġųԵľСһǣӶ巴ԹҴȨ԰зΪԱ׼ȨĿ¹۵㣬Բܷר

ӶԵ´ǶȨ̡ӦлӶרĺĴӡӶôȲӭϴڵĿθҲǶԵΰκλ룬ʶЩȨȨdzͬһȨϵ۵ȫȨ˵ġͥġÿȨ͹ҵͳȨdzϵۡˣȨ˫붮ãǶиԵʥϵȨ˳ϵ۵Ȩ֮¡

ˣѼͥȨֽ񣬻ѿѧȨøĴѧϵǰһȨͬ˵ΪɶģÿһԼλϵⲻ󷨹ϵһߣ˷ŵȫߵıȥǽеˣڣȨǰشǫصͷ

Ҫ۵ĵ㣬ҲѶһ㣬Ǿǣ

̻һҵȨ

֮԰Ѵ˳ΪѶȴ󲢷ΪҶĽκλɣҲҶǵĽκλɡΪǵܷһʼѾ̻ᾴݵɺ̻֮ĹϵӶȥκεIJȷءҸ˶ԣڶʮǰѾҰܿдԣһɹɽ̻ᡣΪǿһ㣬Ҹ˼ŬǺڽ̻Ƚǵ۵¡ѶȲЩڻά˹IJ [ע1553߶˷ά˹Իһ]ڳϻԶɵ̬ϣڶǾݷʽϣͽںҲһֱڳͷѶҲʷϵļӶаѡԤһʽİżͼڽ̣̻ĵʥݡ֮ȨиѶڵӶĺͬһҪڽи档

ǣѡڽɵʱ򣬾ͻһȻȻָأǼǸʿǹΪ˼Ӷ壬ԼӶ塣 Ϊ˱Լ˻ɣҪһԭһϵ֮ǰĸϵĹͬۡ෴һϵڲͬǰϵ֮ͬ

Ѳּڽ̡żνﲻǼӶķ¿׷ݵʿ̹ [ע͵һλΪʵۣ״ʹ̳ΪϷ] ʱΪ˶ԿǰֶԻͽIJпȺȡĴʩӴԺһΪеѧܲԺҲÿһ̹ҵɡ·ºͼӶĵʱҲһ̺ڽ̸ĸڹϵߡʱÿһλܳѧҶͬά˹Ի̵оīٵһվ֧ [עī·Ҫѧ]ӸıڵĹ۵㿴·ѼӶ߿϶ͷ̨ҪдλһԵά˹̲֪Ҫ١

ڽ̸ĸʱƵļӶǵ϶ͷ̨̼ܣ֮º·ں̵ǵɱʷά˹һ¼ҧǼ䲻ƽ [עĸ]

ȻҲϵĻ̼бҲطһǣһǼӶɫ෴ǼӶ彨֮ʱı˱ǣӶδܴӴ˴ͳȫ

Ҫ֪ϣӶԭĻôͱȫͬķʽôDZ뿴ϣְڽϵIJ˾֮µϵͳֱһϻĽֻ̻һʽһ֯ڡ͵ʱ򣬾ֻһ̻ᣬκͬĶΪΨһ̻ĵˡˣβԼжϡȨһĽ̻ᣬκεķˡ һһֿ̻ϻĽ̻ڲͬĹԲͬʽڣͬһԶʽڣôдͳһν̻֮ĶͶʱʧˣˣӶ岻ɷϵشͳһ̻ᣬڼӶŷḻʵĸֽ̻ʽʵʹDzڵʱĴͳϵȥҼӶҪԼĸϳҡ ʵѾ֤֮е̹ң޵Щ̹ȻΪ̡·ڹ·ڽ̻ΨһĹûвΨڼӶ崺紵ʿӢոʽĽ̻Żɡ

죬̹ڽ̻ʵһͳ֮£Ȼν̻ν̻Ϊͬһ£·ڹԷʽµԳ·ΪĸڵDzDZDZΪĵ˶⵽ĶԴγյǣڼӶĺΪڽԭȺҵ˱̫ܵӴ·ڵ𾴣ŵɵ[עʮͺ½̵һ]ߺͽԼĽ̻ᡢԼļʵǵЩӢĶɽ̻ںҵǵİ֮ͽȸ»Ŵʻ´½ [ע1621굽ĵһͽȸ]

ҲѰҽڣָӹɵʷʵһ꣬DZ뵽ӶĶǴӹȥܹĶѰҼӶص㡣صһ˾֮̾ǣǵļӶѧǺ˾ǴһʼԷڽ̷ͥĵ [עʮͳڽţרȺʿ] ͥʶĵɱضڶһ̻ǽǾԼԡDZϣӶŶɵĴԭϱν̻κһ־ԡ

ֻҪһҵĵɣͿԳ˼Ľ̡1649꣬ǾѾ棬Ϊڽԭ˽ȺǡһֶԾ񡢶ıɱŭµ¼ӶΪڶԸһϣҲǵѡ·ڽ̻ᣬǿָ

˶Ի̵ֲͬƫ룺һ΢еƫDzعʡڶһ̶ϵƫ룬ԴһҪпϵ̬ȹһǹ뾭ѵ˱봦ijͷ

ҳȷ̫˵㣬һԭ˵ְν̻ΪԵ̴ͳһִͳƣֻʱѡĹؼǣӶ뿪̰ν̻ν̻ͬΣΪ͢ǸһԳֲͬ˽ȺġӶһֲԺģŵΪǾǾǸ˵ǶȣԶŲƵģӸĽǶ˵ԶӦðԼǿˡ

Ѿо˲ʵǶۣһΣ

1. ϵ۵Ĺϵ

2. ̻Ĺϵ

3. ˵Ĺϵ ϵۣӦˡϵףǵȨϵۣӦøϵ۵Ķּ񣬷ϵֹ֮ۡӦ¸ҵسеһӦðѳϵедܷȥӦΪϢգաжڣӦϵף

Ϊܰϵ۵ּңÿһȻϵ۵ĻʶϵۡⲢζҪκν̻ľΪԼõʶϵҪʥ֮⡣֮µƣҪÿһϵ۵УʹȨΪϵƹijȻסdzһԭ򣬲ܰЩȻϵۡϵǹҳȻ׵Ĺ۵жΪ¡ˣͷIJڽϵðҲDz˼٣˶ԹҺԴڵķɸĹͬʱͬƶȵĹ֮ҲŲ졣ЩȫľƣЩƣҲЩơ ھԾƵĹҵ־ڹһˣԼϵּգƻƵĹͳһ־ٴڣȡ֮Դ˶ϵּIJͬ⡣dzһ˵־ͶƱĽȲڽ̻ᣬҲӽ̻Ļֱվȫϵ֮£ضϵ۸һƬۻ֮ء̻ԼķΧ֮˳ϵۣҫΪˣǶϵ۵ĻʽͬķִͨߵĸġȻҪеĹҶӦԻ̵ķʽйҲ˵ԭ˵һȨڻֻͨЩִȨǸ˶ΰԭҵʵ֡ ڶ̻ᡣϵ۵ּҪɼ̻ʽͳһĻôĴ𰸾ȫͬˡϵĺһһ˵Ǽ¡ֻͷխ˲ŻʮͥŭҪάִͳһԸе̻ͳһǴڵģչĵͼ׶Σͬ˵Ƚ١𽥷չֶḻʵʽɱҲᷢչǺȻ¡ˣǾͿɼ̻Ὺʼѵʵûһܹ־ԺһĿɼ̻ᡣ ôʲôأǷҪ˵жЩ̻᣿Ƿ֧ijһ̻ᣬһЩ̻أӦжϣѽ̻ĸɿǻ̻ڵϵܺأ

ӼӶĹ۵DZ֧һֹ۵㣬ⲻdzһԣҲǼӶ桢޶ԣΪ߱жϵ֤ݣΪÿһж϶̻ȨȻĻͳ·ڹҵˣǼӶԵģƵĹңһ̻챻ΪģͿܱɼٵģΪжǿͶƱġ̻֮ĹϵûԿԡ Ӷ¸ҶΪɶΪý̻ԼķȨ·ѧǵͬӶӻΪ̻Լľĵλ׼ϵ۸ġԼ֯ԼԼסˣ̻Ƿ̻ǽ̻ԼȨľ

һϣ̻ԣսκˣڣҪĽý̻֮ķǿɱĽжʥ֮ Ϊԭ򣬼Ӷ߾ܾٲáһͥɸܷϳͥĵλȨȨ޵ģܸ̻ȨDZСģֿܹͽ塣ŷϣӦÿǵʱʷһƬյϸ¥Ϸӷȫ¡

ȻܷϳԭǾؽ̻Ķԣֶǻڵϵν̻ıʽظ̻ɺǵȨ̻ԸԭϰԼɳʱ򣬽̻ķչͺ˳ⲻɳʶʽڽ̻֮ϵͥҪڽ̻ᣬҲ·ڵķѧǶԹڳϵҪ󣬸ǷʽڽΨһɹɽ̻ϵǼӶصġȨ̻Ȩͬڣ໥Լ Ҫ̸ĵǰȫͬǾڶԴȨϵΡ۹ĵڶѾᵽӵԼĶȨָǸ˲ǼͥΪͥŦϵһһЩɣάزڵĻο ÿһﶼоȨκϽơ󺣶ԣijЩ˵ÿһ˶һȨĸ壬Ϊÿ˶Լ룬ϵ֮⣬֮ϡ

ЩҪǿ˵ɣڲϵĻһζǿɵˣҳַ̬ȡȻһиɵıϣһ˵Զֻ˳ȫϵ֮¡

˵ڳĹڳϲɿֳܵһˣΪɵԭʣԸţΣԼڹȥٶʱǶڡڽšĵֿϣΪڽȺǶֱַڴϣΣһʹ̻˵ɡڶҲ˵Ȩ ̻ȨڸȨܵȻƣ̻ԼķھȨԽ̻֮ûκȨںδΥһԭԽȨ뱣ÿһλÿҲȨԼģڻ뿪ijһ̻ᡣҪ̻ɵͬʱԼҲÿһλɣΪÿһġɰȨ ڽ̸ĸӢ¶УΪʹһרƶȵѪ˺ӡκһڽ̸ĸĺǵһɾڼ̤Ҫգͱߵĵһ˺ɵĹԼƻԼ

ʹұųϣ˵ǵȸûɵԭʵɡɣҲȫǼֹϲ鿯棻һвĨɱһʵۡ˼ɶڼӶĺһγɹʵֵġκһƵˣڼӶĹϵһɺͳɡˣΪףɺɱ綼dzڼӶ塣 Ȼ̵ĹϡϵרնܡҲм֮ijϣٽɵĽ̡ǣκһ˽ʷ˶֪صĶͷ̨ϣΪ˲ͬ˼ԭʶԴκһǵЩԸΥ֮ĵαɱģκһһͱŷ޴½ģҽȻڷľרбˣòϣӶ뷨¡ ڷζÿһλͽҪͬŵĴڼӶʹÿһ˿ԸԼԼ·ϵۡ

⣬ԼӶġ ǡն˹

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߳һСɽϣи˱Ի̡

ֵǣ˱չΡĸ֮ǰ͢Ի̣̻µ˲ϸԽˡŭ֮£˸ˣд飬ʣµֻɿڵ

ε˷Ǹˣ˶ά˹ľƼӶģǹ֤ˣ񸸣Լѧɵģ̻ᡣӶһڷϵѧҵʱĸѧϰʥʮ꣬ת˶ʮʹϻ̼ܵĶ ά˹˵λͳͷ˵ʥҲһλһ֣ҮˣĶӣʥҲжλ񣬶ϵ顣ʮ꣬ЩԵ˼д档ӴԺǵע⡣..

ڼά˹ʱæдһ飬ԼӶİΪҪΪҪ½Ļ̻ᣬά˹дĽָΪҪ߻ٻ̻[עѩġ̻ʷڰ˲ᡷ]

ά˹Ϊʲôڷͥ˵ȥòҽ·˵ءǴάҮɵòķߡԯ޵ѽòӳĻ̣ΪʲôܵأDzλӡķŵɸ˵Ӷ鷳Ƿ֪ӶĵĵһֱϣƵӶģǵģ֪ܿЩôǷҪЩ֧ǷɢԼĽ壿ֻ·źĶѣû֪ԭ

Ӷһ39ϵļͥ϶˶£ʱۣ֮ʱıۡ ߵķŵǺܸ˵վϵһߡСרϯ֣һλŵ䲮ҮҲרԱά˹ǸάҮɷͥϱϥֽֿеά˹˨DDܽԼӶIJФһˡȥгӶΪﷸɱ˷桢ƭӡ޴ĶѵΪԼĹסٵĶ𡱣ƺӶij˱档

Ӷһһ֤ϵĿߡ˼ۣϵĻӣӶ˵Ҳŭ壬ǿҡĻ⵶֪ܵطϻ˷ӳŭ𣬴˽ؼ˵ģӤӦϴԼϵ۾˵ľꡣ سǧŵĿڻͽDZʱѵôң𣿶ά˹֮ԷʱķĹ涨ʥ۹ķϰֽдλһ̷̡

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ά˹ܲʭȻ£Ǹŵɵ˺ϢϵȴżӶĵĵǻԼָտɴ󵨵дŸС˵ǣҪϳǸҵˡIJƲӦиΪ⳥ҲͶֱȵоһȤǣά˹ԼڴŴ˰о̣ûϵĽԼ

С᲻˼ӶĵķԣеĽ̻ᡢСƵҲõĻشǡºʹáεĻشҲǡºʹáǴͷά˹

ѩɭĻش----ʵϣڷŵ˵Ǹ𾪡ûһشº͵ģһһᣬһ̻һ̻ᶼǴϣָ±뱻ֹ˺Ľ̻ᡣ˵оǻ̡

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λһ壬Ӥϴ̵ִҪɢ޹˳Ⱦʵ㶨µод˶ά˹鼮Ի̡СоһȫƱͨоԷŵͶ޳ƱΪ֪ĸеһӶһоСὫ̸ijɿͷСѸٷ

ҲоȫϵĽʹһغֹͷڰǫԼԼŵĶӶȥά˹ˡӶĻشȰһǰģңҴδΪðҶҪ׷ΣǷǵʮǰðΣڰڸԼΪҪӮЩ䣬ѵûһдȰǵ֮·ֱ㿪ʼ޶ңֻΪҼᶨ̬ð㡭ǡӦµˡĶӡλͺá

׶ҲߣҲΪ󡣵ԱԻ̣Щʿϲֵϻ̼ܣʱ£ԼԼŵģ޻⡣

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ӴԺ˵־ԶӶĵһһԭΪ̣ǼӶΨһʹû̵ˡд̵ľȨڼӶҲǿӰ޹ءСʿóеȰ֮ľЩʵˡ

ӶȷʵϵзݣҪϣϣС˶εıۣ֤˵вĽ̻ᡣȻоʱӶûвμӣȷͬġʹụ̂ӶҲдһСӳΪǸȡġ˷ӡΪϱ绤

ĿҲ̡ͬºͣһֱںƽЭīдŸӶ˵Ľ̻мĴߵľȫһзɡһ̵ʱһ˹ǵεʱ

죬ϸ̵ɽһʯǶӶĵģ÷Ŀ֣

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