ׯȨתׯṹ
--һũѧоķԿ

  ߣ ¥С  ڣ 2000

[Ҫ۵] йũ壬ʷʱϵĽʮָӵļǾʹжصĻϵׯȨṹʹл๴رڵйǿƽƶ룬ũž޴Ǩׯ֯Ľṹ빦Ҳӱ䣬֮ȨҲµıͨĴׯƶйũεȫòӪĴׯθֻͼһָнķһ̽֡
һ
ҹũڹȨǿƶѧ缤ҵн21͵ġԴεĿ϶(£1997)(1998)ѧĪ1ʾоǶȣо·ѧػּȤȷIJ졣Ȼоʵʵ֤ΪκθеӡܱΪƬĩpĺͷʵģûʵ֤о֧ŵijɹױijֵּжңɥʧ͹۹2ʵؿʵ֤оʵϴ˴ΪоΪ֮һĴʾ˴Ϊѧойѧռ䡣
80о룬ʹǴѧĽǶȹעũ塣ȻȨΪĺũδݺӱ?Ϊĺļֵũճдں״?Ȩ֯Ϸũ?ͬʱׯںֹ±?ЩܷһѧܹԷѧ--"--"ϵΪӽǣȨΪģȨпռΪʽʽ֯Ϊ--ЩѧоĹؼ·ĸδ̽ʾоʵʵԷ룬ӶҲ͹˹۲ʵʵIJӦо͹ʵIJޡ
ڶоУͨԴׯĴڹ͵ڹͣΪ1.ׯȨĴлƷ˱仯ͬʱ弶֯ĹܷӦı仯2.ͼũͳȴŴһξ3.·Ӣ跨ԮȨ֤ԼΪĺϷԣȨʹξӢԴ沫ġ4.ڹͻȱʱ벻ͨĸƶȶûijɹDzܵġЩĽڱн֤Ӷڸ㷺IJֲ̽ͬṹȨȨܵתʽũĻ״̬ͬȨṹµĴׯƣԼṹα졣ͨԭзܵļ֣һеͽǿѧԿܡ
ŶͶλ㽭ʡ̨Ͻµٺж򣬱157Ͼ165жŶ721˿3427ˣȫ干еԱ59921Ķ411˿1857ˣԱ23478ĶѡŶͶȽоҪ㣺
1.ͬ䣬弯徭þ8000򣬵չ˼·ͬ²ͬûʽϵʽͬ˿ڸIJ̽Ǩηչ̵IJͬ·µĴׯģʽ
2.һһȻ幹ɵ壬ѪԵϵΪ򵥣ң䷶ΧϼУȣʻ̶ȽϸߡŶɺɽpɣһpɣppép½ͷȻɵĸʽ壬֣p©pҪգŶȣʷнŨҵͳʮ÷չۣʻ̶ȽϸߣṹҲϸӡ
3.Ŷϳֵƽƽ׷ӵìܾƶԷżȻ⣬ʶȺ죬һֱӵѧ⡣
ڱĵнʵũ״̬ɹȨ͸θõжԺĻʷܹɵġ÷չӾύȨķзƵأijռϵĶλ--ξӢĵλвȷԡУεۺԮȨξӢĹԻԴܲȡʽξӢIJλ;׷ʤֵϿξӢļֵȨֽ磬ϹдģʽĻʶȨṹ˫ӰµģʽʹԼΪʱ̬棬ΧƴׯԴõȨΪӶ弶֯ڽȨΧΪĹҽ˸ӵȨ--ȨȨ--ģֲΪάȨһ𹹽˴ׯεĻ-ׯĽpεģʽpȨйԼḻľӢβԺ¼Ϊ֤ϼ⣬ǽӶͬʷ״̬ĴׯȨһӶ
"ṹ--"ģʽ"⹹--ع"ģʽ
ŶֱλϱĶŴ·ࡣʷϿнŨƷʶʹڽΪյỷ"ʮһ"(־1992)Ϊյյ˼ҷ壬"Խྭ̣Զʦpɶpp壬""õز"(ף1982)ڵؾг"ÿУ°pС֥ppϪ̷Ƽڴ"(־1992)ij̶ֳϣǰpŶpͷpǰpǰΧƶ"гͬ"(Skinner1974)弶νṹϣҩpʿpׯ"ģʽ"(ǣ1986)ǵ͵"ҩp̼֩p"ṹģʽ3еּ¼ͿʷУʿδЧڽصҵΧɹһֱռݴκĵλŶھս϶ֲ࣬ڽϴĵϣҪũֻڽ½ͷȻմȾһЩƷʶΪС̷Ȼ崦ڷ״̬δγЧνṹ
ĸʱڣ˽̵pҩ̩pߵͽڽĴ˹л̼ܺعӺ⣬ҵһͣ٣ʻ̶ߣ嵳֯ȡԭ"ҩp̼֩p"νṹһԪ쵼Ŷı䲻󣬵ʱŶӵ֧ոȻƶũ֧ӶЧϵϣʱڵĸǵطӢϵĵĸ߶һ(1991죬1998ž1999)һ״ʹоʱ䴦ƵĴׯһԼ߽ʵ
ʷϣŶijǺͶҢߴԵʷߣµδ֧34(1964--1998)˵֧39(1959--1998)ʱֵʽֱ֯ΪŶ2925־1992˵Щ֯дʱԣӦȶԺͷḻԷչʾ˴弶֯쵼ǿЩ֯95ֵĴίαת۵㡣
19954£ίˡڶίԱ֪֪ͨͨй涨"ίԱΩpΩpίԱɸ´ί׼""ίԱȫͳһ"(ļࡷ1995)ļûȡԭѡٲĴίԱᣬʵϴίԱἺί1995--1996ʮ߸Уݶ´ŸйعίԱԱļͳƣ59ռȫ72ίԱ432Ա11.57%(ļࡷ1996)ǿ˹ȨԴׯĿƣһΪЧýĹעһ1998걻̨ijĿ⣬Ϊ""ҲȻָίֱѡΧƹίĽίᰴл񹲺͹ίԱ֯ҪѡŶȨṹ˱ֲֳͬͣŶ"ṹ--"ģͺͶ"⹹--ع"ģ͡"ṹһһ"ģָ棬һȨϵڵȨСְв㼶Ժͻԣһ辭ͼְĻ۲ϸְ񣻶ȨֱǨһ㲻ԭеȨйڱȨϵһԵĻϣǿȨϵЧܡ"⹹һһ"ָ棬һȨְĻȫԭеȨ򣬴Ӷһ̶ƻԭеȨϵй򣬲ͼȫµķʽ¶Ȩɡ
ȿŶ"⹹һһ"ģ͡ԭе֧--ίԱȨϵУ֧ί˳֯ϵڴׯ֧ίʵȨġҢΪͳȨ۵ռǵıȨϵϷԵı־ŶŴõ110ӱ˳ϼǿеߣҢҲȥְԭ"뵳ϰѹعϡ"ΪʱȨزŷҢǵֻ8ԱҴǺһ"ϻ"ҢȨȨԷ"ʱ"̼߽⣬󣬵֧ӵIJȱ±ϿԵؿ֧ǻһʪԹؽҶҪȥְʵˡίԱὫѡ٣ԭеȨϵͱȫ⹹ˡع̨ҵԱСƷгĹԱϴׯԴ͹Ȩ򡣴ӶΧƾϲ"¼"ȨͼǵĴ˼·ׯӢȴԭе㣬УȨƻй߽⣬ӢðΧصĵȷʽԿڲַʽһӢѸٷѶعĹ뱻ȫˡ
Ŷλ弶Ȩѷλȫͬ½еġϵdzһ68ĵԱ׵ԭеϵ㹻˿ˣһ¾ûΪɹӢ𲽽ӽȨϵеύмȺϿɡǵĽʹӼͦɳԵȶԣ𵴺СһԺŶľ״ԶԶڶ塣
ͼ1ŶȨṹͼ
ڶԱߵıḲ̌μͼ1ͼ2Էֵ֣ľ޴ŷdzԼԭȨṹǨίӵĸıУ60%ξӢȨϵΪҪǽϵ60%δйƵξ飬һһƲϵǷdzҪ(Τ1997[1974])ڷнͳ۵Ȩ״ƣǾҵαﲢδµȨһ""ռλͨʶϵȷλ(Тͨ1985a1985b)ûȨʷͼиȨߡȵȨĩ----ʶһʱȾˡԣҢ˼ϼְ
ͼ2Ȩϵͼ
ԭ"뵳ϰѹع"ô£ʣϽׯ쵼ɱͨ;κӡҲΪƵӢƳͳȨΪ˷ʡȨУЩξӢ̨ʾμıѡǰãҲʾ˹ҵׯԵ롣ղϿЩˣǻʹţ̨ʷ˵񲢷ΪͶǵƱΪԭ弶ŵIJͨθԴطָɢˡﲻڴ弶ȨϵЧոԵʮ㯣Dz֪Ӧ֧˭(С¥1999)ȨҲЩͨϷ̨IJ̬û̫İ취
"Ǿʹ--"ҰеĴׯ
ϵķУȾȨһЩ飬ȻЩӱݲȫġ"⹹--ع"ʽľ仹"ṹһһ"ģʽĽ䣬ิӵءΪǿƽƶȺĹңΪҪءΪˣǽҵάȣׯıǨ--رǹкʹׯƶǰıǨ--һ ִҵı־䲻ǿ͸ʹ֮ڴͳ(˹1985)ܶйĹϵڲͬĿǹҶڴׯԶ׼ġǽׯ1986(ڴ""־Ŵׯ""Ļ)ܴйϺͷ̸104¼࣬ع¼IJʽٿɲͶƱȷ50¼࣬4Կɴ19ռ36%31ռ64%δ()7ֻռ14%ɴ˿ɼȨԴׯľ޴áЩ¼漰ũؾ׵3ռ6%漰10ռ20%漰弯徭24ռ48%һڲϵЩıһǵطһ˶Դׯ¼ĺϷȷϣȿ׷˵ĶԵطȨĺϷȷǰһ(Kuhn1990[1980])һҶռʶ̬ϵͳ(William Row1984)ľȾƣׯ÷ǾʵĹׯı߽ϴׯ档ҽׯͬģڴׯֺģʽ--ź񰲵ַ(ź񰲣1992)ŷĵģ˵(Kevin J.O'Bren1994)µĶַ(£1997)--ׯǾʹһҶλҹ졣 ̽Ŷ"¼""¼"Խһ˽ׯϵ໥ùϵν"¼"ָŶΧƶسаĶŹ¼1999ŶĴίԱѡȫسаͬʱСͬŶȨṹڽϺõĴлƵõ˼ǿڴί֯뵳֧УȻ⣬ѡûгκϷԵij档̨ίͶ˶سаľϡݶָʾҪȫʵ""ɣ ʹ󻧼УרҵؼУʵũҵļԼͲҵũԹɷֺ档ھIJϣΪ˽Լʱ䣬һɣιɵͲʽȷֵˡ½ͷpépũڳле⼶ϴ󣬹ʽǰˣɣһpɣpɽ΢ƫԶũ֡ǷִΪǵ֣ǴίƵļ֧ߣ֣ﶫһӣڷŹ¼֣Ķõ֣ﶫˡɳѸֹ˶Źߡ൱̶ȵ𶯡ݹߣɣһĹƼƻȡˡ ¼ԿطΪҵĴˣִߵķʽij̶ֳȵı졣ߣسаָ"ᶨƵع᳹سаӳʮ""ʹȨĺתҪԸpгԭУκǿũת"(ձ19981018)ί弶֯ȱԣȨʶŹҵִģʽһֱׯ͸ǶԴʱߵͲȡжڷһµģھķʽϸҲڸԭƫҵĿģʽڴׯ˵ṹȶģȻԮȨ֮ԿʱȨʧȥ˺ϷԣίЧҲͬʱɥʧǣ"ṹ--"ģʽµĶŶѸٵ֧ίӣ֣ȥְ񣬰ͬĻ򷴶ǿҵļĹƻǼ߶ϵʹڴׯĺĶλ
"¼""ȶԿ"ĵ͡Ϊųл뾭÷չĶŴá1993궯19968ɣͶ3ǧԪɺʹ徭ظծͣͣҡ"¼"棬һǽĿиߴ110Ԫİӣ30Ԫ޴Ӳ֤ʹԾ޴IJǶΪҹԱĶ˳ѳִý϶ԴǴ弶֯ĺϷܵɺͳʮϷúΧأÿж߽⡣һ¼̷ӳ˹ׯĸӹϵͨ쵱ũһ¥ΪμЧӶǿִԴׯǻעʽݴ֯ĴΥΪҹԱ˳һǶȣѹȨׯIJĻ--һͨбôׯ棬õصķ㣬һͨڴׯռʽ֯λӣúϷλӶֲԼ档ׯΪܸػõָֺ֮ģʵϽϴͳȨֻƵĶڸ˵ĸӡΪijɱ޴󣬴ׯɹڻȶЧְٷΪĴ--Ͼ˳Ϊʽ"Ա"ݳδ嵳֧Աġׯ󣬹ʶ̬ԳԽĹעµļֵۣˣܵ˳ƶȽ⹹ԭеȨ֣ʹһȨ˳̨÷Ȩׯǣͨ;ǡǡǹҰŵ ¼ʾ˶һǹǷǾʵģΪطΪ벢ȫغϣڹҲ棬ϣָͨԻļأˮƽׯij̶ֳȵĶԿ(Daniel Kelliher1996)ƽƶȵҪԭ֮һׯͬҹɻϵҲͬطɸΪǿҵĻϵطׯ"߶--ͶȶԿ"ʱߵĻϵУʱׯطɴ֮ͬ"ط"(Тͨ1953Shue1988)ط"Ͷ--߶ȶԿ"ʱׯͼԮҵĻϵųط򣬴Ӷعط塣ֱǶŶĹؼڡȻطܵһϵҲҵ""(˼,1960[1845])طȶԿҲвȷԣջһ̶ϴЭתͶȶԿڶԴĿǰ״ĵϣ74.1%ĴΪǴƵλ81.52%Ĵϣ쵼ܹضԴ£95%ϵĴΪ¼֮Ҫ""ԷǾʹׯػϵ֧"--"ȶṹִлеũ岻ܱκη״̬ʶִ̬زׯׯڲΧγ˼ʹϵ봫ͳ׸໥ײȻȨҲӦ仯ʱĴͳṩ㹻֧뻰ռ䣬ׯҪⲿĽ룬Ӷµ˼άᄈοռ䡣"ȶԿ"ʱڣκΧppıp߻跨Ԯⲿׯ佹ǵûй--ʱǹҲϽ--޷ﵽıׯֵĿġ ͬʱֻϵںϾ˴ׯı߽磬ҸӰŴׯڲμֵpɩppִȵȣ糱ˮӿׯαеý˽ںͻϡһǾӢײĹĶӦãͨȺھ;¼""(1993)˶γɵͬμɱׯӢѧϰã֪ʶȱЩ˵ͻռ䣬ʱɢ֪ʶӰ쵽дģͬȨй򡣵ֻϵ˼ʹϵĸ£Ӱ칫ݻȡʽĸ¡ݹϵһ̶ϱѪԵѹϵ𶯣ǮΪҪԴڹϵеĵλҵһµƶȻʽ㷺ãӶǿȨõķԺȷԣηΧʻʧȥ˴󲿷г
ġ"ׯ"--һԿ
Ƿ֣ϵũ5ʷʱϵĽʮָӵļǾʹжصĻϵׯȨṹʹл๴رڵйǿƽƶ룬ũž޴Ǩׯ֯Ľṹ빦Ҳӱ䣬֮ȨҲµı֮ǰҪĻ϶ԴׯһԱΪܵһֵļ
1.֯ĻҪ
1.1ׯĽũ֯漰Ŀռ壬ŴׯĵͬʱҲҵ໥бֳСԡׯҪͽ֣γҪȡڹʽʹׯʷͳǴׯռӪǴׯҪɲ֡ڹȨŵʱڣׯĽԽӲλռήׯҵ໥ڹȨʱׯӪռȻ(죬1998ž1999)ڹȨʱׯĵǿҵĻǿھûύΧ󣬸ĺҲȨΪƶĹߣõȻҲ⣬ׯԴıֻڲܳׯĵĵΧҲ۽ѧ֮һ
1.2ýṹ֯ҪݡýṹıǨ̵طӳṹı仯֯ṹĵϡڴͳȨδЧضũֱҵֻܱǿʱгԽܵĻȨ(Jean Oi1995棬1995[1988])۹ͳεĹؼij˰ռȡƶȣӶ֤۹ȻⲢζũܹγijʽĶȨģׯȨֻ佮ʹͬʱ֯Ҳֻ侭״ӦıСũ֮ҽIJȡƥƶȣԺΪ칤ũƷʹũҵʣҵתƣĴ֯Ľ渴ӵĶüԪķ䷽ʽֱӵĹǵѰ뾭÷չ״ƥ֯ʽׯҲ̽ڴ飬ׯ跨ʹ֮Ϊһ"弶˴ί"ӶʹׯӵиȨΪ˹ܴƷգܾһҪȻũҵΪƲҵȻгϮũ̼֯ӿԽ߽Ŭȴ޷赲Ϊƴׯһԣּۻ۵Ļƽһǿ
1.3ׯĻ֯ܵĻĻڹҴͬĻϵͳũĻͳԼıԣȾص㣻Ȼ÷˹(Thomas Meadows)˵ģйĹң³(Lucian Pye)Ҳ˵й˵ξҪΪȨİư6Щ۶жƬԣܷӳй˾ĸԡҪũͼͥڹĹд״̬"Ⱥһվڹǰ"(ǣ1992a)֯൱ȱʡģĺ˸ȱʧ״̬ԼIJʹҵ㷺䶯ԱüΪסһ״µĴׯ֯ر֯ĿԣԺ֯Զǿǰתг̣ijɳཻ֯ũִһ൱ӵı
1.4ӢжʽǨ֯ܵ巴ӳׯΩp๦ܵ֯Ľʽʮַḻģܴ൱ŨѪԵ͵ԵʵϽһͻĻϻơڲͬ뾭ᷢչ״£ɹǿͬһģʽĴίԱ֯ϷӳȨйɵȫֻ͸֯ľӢжĹ۲졣֮ũׯӢظо˹µ"η"--ppѡٵȵȣԲԤλڴׯελһУڲͬpĻ̩pδͳʵȨĺͬ"߶--ͶȶԿ""Ͷ--߶ȶԿ"ȴׯ͡ǻ㣬ͨʮָӵĻɼжָӵǴׯηḻԵĸڡʱͨʶ̬ij̶ֳȵںϣִǶׯӢжԭģصԭŬڸķΧչԼĽռȨ
1.5ԴׯԴЧԤ֯ǨķҶԴȫǽȼƹϵľûӶϵųpѹƩp˷ׯԣԼǿũ֯ʵǶԴͳСũýĸλŹ𲽷˶޿ƵԴλعׯֵȡԪʻׯԴķֻʵҪΪƶĴׯ֯ر֯ǰ档֯ϷֱԴԴׯԴ--徭épةpׯеĵλppڴҵҵpӪȵ--ԼЧõԤڡԤں̶ֳϱƽȫں̶ֳϱ֧֯ǨҪءҲϣڱƽ⣬ɹϵȥֱԣν"С²壬²"η롣ʵϴԴЧԤڼ֯ij̶ֳȵһԣҲܹijһϴʶ
2.ׯȨзʽ
2.1 ȨӰļԡȨεĺݣׯ֯ıǷ׷ӵ¼ʵЩ¼ȨַͨʽСׯһֱͨȨתΪȨķʽƶִԼʹȨַʽһֱԱΪεʽ(1993)ڶţִԼƶ׷ݵ念䡣Ŀǰſ72ƽӵд弶37ɴ˱ȽܵԼϵҪԼϵǴϵ֯ʽֻǹ淶ȨϵȨ硣ɴˣ֯Ϊ˴ﵽʵЧ÷ʽȨͨữȨתӰַʽϰԣׯĻͳԼض¼ò໥Ӱ죬ӶΪĵģʽûдﵽ͵ĵزǹũȶҪԭ֮һ
2.2ԴȨõֱԡׯܴﵽ͵һҪȨԴֱӵģġׯڲĴԼǹƴԸΪ꾡Ĺ涨ԣڴ¼ʱҲĴӶﵽһͬʡʱȨͿֱ۵رֱڸˣȨзʽ൱ĸϻijֲʹΪԼģȷũεһص㣬ׯ鷳Ҳׯḻ¼Ϣ԰ʽũĸʹ˶Դ˽и۳Ϊܡ 2.3ԹȨԮԿԡ弶֯ξӢȨڴׯڲĺϷԣֺϷһûмЧӦСںѳȶܵսԴξӢ跨ԮȨԼͳΡԮʮȷķʽУڹʹ֮ijƽ⣬ΪξӢĽɫǴׯıijϵĹ""(棬1992[1988])ǿʱ򣬴ׯΪڹ֮컺شܵزԿʱξӢĺϷȻͶȶԿеúҵʮ־޴󣬶ҴׯҴƽ⼰ԴξӢֻεIJԽηա
2.4ȨĵIJԡڷǾʹڼׯΧĴУڴʽʽȨׯϵʱĻͳʶ̬㣣ׯѡӵIJ֮ģԲͽׯƸֻͨ˹ȨйأƵıҪΪ֧ţǴׯģҲǴׯġֳȱ־õӦⲿұ仯ʱIJԾͿʧЧĻҲͱˡ
Ļϣṩ"ׯ"ǣ
1.ѧϵĴׯҵ໥жԼʵĹ涨Եġ
2.ׯĽpׯ׼֯pׯȨԼһϵ¼
3.ȨǴׯĺģڹʶ̬ĻĽãҲڸӵȨ͵ͬʱ̬ڣׯȨǷεĽ㡣
4.طαλоı󣬵ĻҹϵУʾĵط淽ʽԼʷͳйأݱ
5.ҽׯĹγɱȽȶùϵڳʼ׶ΣƶȵƽڹҲǹֵũ壬ũ˵ǸȨṩһµĹߡ
6.ЧڿͼʹΪʽ淽ʽӶһȫµĿռ䣬ȻһռӪҪע
7.ׯֵһϵ-"߶-ͶȶԿ""Ͷ-ȶԿ"-ׯ͹һļҳ̶йأҲׯӢĸΪйء8.ִ̽ׯѧڷ๴ηչ״̬ӶڹƶȲʾֵڣڼֵȥ乤ԡ9.ӻ̶֯Ͽ֯ǿ淶н֯γḻƶڻֲˮʺϵĹؼء10.ӹϿȨ֯ͨijֳӢֵͳһЧ; 塢̵Ľ
ڲϵŴׯһׯڲϵŹҡͨĴׯƶйũεȫòӪĴׯθս˶Ķйũѧѧоijɹֻͼһָнķһ̽֡
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1 ЩϸԲο£йũΡʦѧ磬1997ź񰲵ȣũȶ뷢չ人磬1996ϵʷҰейѧۣ1998^˹ءp⣬йøĸеĴɲΪù磬1992žصĽѡٹ۲졷ʮһۣ͡12ºţ1998Ծѡġʱ19995ºź˥ؽս 6 ڣ1998ӡ""ε𡷣ս1ڣ1999
2йط۵ۿԲοо뷴˼ѧ磬1998С"йũо빵ͨ"ѧҪо19984ڣžȨ--Ȩ⡷""֣㽭磬1999Լƽ"-¼"뵱й-ũϵʵ̬ء廪ѧۡؼ1廪ѧѧϵ࣬20006¡
3ǵۿɲμ1992b1998
4IJ̸ܷδɲ37ۣ趨׼עشׯξӢʷperception(о)intuition(ֱ).
5Ͽ︣.<<ʮͰ>>Banjarһʱʾĵطιͬ"ׯ" Desaһʱʾ""""(ȣ1999[1980])
6תԼ1998ߵǧһʧԸ""Сۣ,ž࣬ᡷ㽭硣
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1.˼19601845˼˹ȫ3硣
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3.¬Ӫ1998˽÷ﱳµʹΡءʦѧѧ19982ڡ
4.1999ũ幤ҵٵսءѧ19993ڡ
5.Ӣ1997תʱڵҡ人ʦѧ硣
6.1998˥ؽءս19986ڡ
7.ϻ1997ίԱйũηչءѧо19975ڡ
8.죬1998--ƶоġ
9.1991йʿ𣺹19йеõоϺϺѧԺ硣
10.ź񰲣1996ũȶ뷢չ人人硣
11.ž1998صĽѡٹ۲졷ʮһۣ͡12ºš
12.2000Ȩ--ƶ⡷ݣ㽭硣
13.£1997йũΡ人ʦѧ硣
14.Тͨ1985a徭áϾ硣
15.1985bйꡣ
16.ǣ1986Сũᷢչл֣
17.1992aСũͥ巢չл֣
18.1992bйʷе뵱ǰĹ淶ʶΣءйũĹִܻ淶ʶΣ·ϺϺѧԺ硣
19.1998⣺ıʵйѧ硣
20.Τ1997ᡷӡݡ
21.棬1994ĻȨ--1900-1942Ļũ塷Ͼ硣
22.׷1990۹Ҽˡꡣ
23.,1999,ʮ͵İ糡ҡϺϺ硣
24.1993ۡ硣
25.ļࡷ1986--1998
26.ס1982Ǧӡ塣
27.ס1992޶
28.־1992ٺз־졢࣬ڲб
29.嵵ࡷ1986-1999
30.Ŷ嵵ࡷ1986-1999
31.Daniel Kelliher,1992,Peasant Power in ChinaThe Era of Rural Reform,1979-1989,New HavenYale Universty Press .
32.David Strand,1989,Richhow Beijin City people and Politiccs in the 1920s,BerkeleyUniversity of California press.
33.Giddens.A,1985,The Nation-State and Violence,Polity press.
34.Jean Oi,1989,State and Pesant in Contenporary China,University of California press.
35.Kevin O'Brien,1994,Implementing political reform in China's Villages,the Australian Journal of Chinese Affairs,spring.
36.Rowe.W,1984,Hankow,Commerce and Society in a Chinese City,1796-1889,Stanford University press.
37.Schoppa.K,1982,Chinese Elite and Political ChangeZhejiang Province in Early Twentith Centry,Cambrige,Mass and LondonHarvand University press.
38.Shue,1988,The Reach of the StateStreth of the Chinese Building.University of Chicago press.
39.Skinner,1964-1965,Marketing and social structure in rural China,Journal of Asian Studies.243-34,195-228,363-339.
20001114
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