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ǣǴѧɼУʷϵ



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ǣҵIJʿӢԭ壨Modern China, 26.1, January 2000: 3-31ģл徭ԼУģ׼ȷлArif Dirlik һλ1998괺Աij飬Щʹ൱޸ġҲPerry AndersonĵۡҪл199958ڼḣǴѧɼУٿġIn search of Alternative Theories and Concepts for Chinese History(ΪйʷѰҲͬۺͷ롱)ֻǶԱĵһĵ޸ĶKathryn Bernhardt׿Ķ

ִĻȫȲŵʱǸڷ֮ı仯ͽ̣

ʷϰʹҵķ˼Ԥ˵۹-ֳĶ֧-ԾĶѡƺμǴ˼˵ģҪôǵ۹壬Ҫôš

Ȼ˼·õԵĻĻǷȻһĻ۹塱⣿Ƿһֻ֧Ļеһ̣˵һЩǴ˼˵ѡôĻǷҲͬѡǷԽĻ롰ҡ ͬ߼ƣ Ǹ˫ĻӰ죿

ļۡĻ˫ԡ˫Ļһխ⣬ԱһڴķΧڲЩ⡣ҽ綨Ļ˫Եĺ壻ȻҪعҪ˫ĻȺ壬ѧһԴйִʷеĻ˫ԡһһЩϵġϵĺʵӦϵ ʲôĻ˫ԣ

ԽĻΪضʱضĹϰסաȵȣĻһ־֡˵Ļ˫ָһ˶ֲͬĻĹʱԲ룬˫ָһ˶Եʹá(ۼĻ˫ԣȻҲĻԻԡ) ˫Ļ˫Եһĺ;֤һʹӢʹú˲ɱҪԸ̺Ĺ˼ά̡һ˫߼ȻҲһ˫ĻˡȻ˫ʹУԻٲǴڵģƩָƾ壨 򵥵Ĺ䡢ȣȻɱǣҲһЩбǶԵȵģʹùл漰dzͬĻںʱ˫ԱĻ˫ԡ

Ʃ˵˽/privateӢͺлȻͬ롣ӢУprivate˼ǡ˵ġ롰public/ġӦһϵеĸprivate property/˽вƲָڸ˵IJƲӦҵġpublic property/Ʋϸ˵ܹעӵġthe notion of privacy/˽͡the rights to privacy/˽ȨԼ֮˽˹ϵġprivate law/˽ʹ֮ϵġpublic law/ƶ֮privateڡprivate room/˽˷䡱private entrance/˽֮ͨıУʾֻΪijһרáЩ÷УprivateҪǰ룬ǿ˵ĶԺ;ԼֵĹŵ崫ͳ֧ŵ롣

֮£ӽprivateĶԴʡ˽ںȴȤȻҲ롰Ӧģߴ൱ӢеġpublicִУҲһЩ硰˽¡˽вƲȴӢתı﷽ʽǣϵĶԵȺܿͽֹˡеġ˽뵽ǡ˽˽֮ıˣ˽ܿ뵽Ϸ飬˽ģ˽Ķ˽ ܣ˽ͨͨ[] ܹᣩȵȡʵϣ˽ͳϵһζ˽ƽġȣDzȡġ˽ֱ﷽ʽֵˡ롰˽֮Ķʵϣ롰˽йص弸ɱضDZģһԶĴͳнΪһֵǿĽ

پһӣӢСfreedom/ɡһȱĹܻרȨ֧䡣Ⱦdzϸ֮Ķ֮Сᡱ֮ĶҲԴڹŵڸľԼֵͶ֮ٶ

ɡִ(ת)ûдרȨĺ壬֮£ֵ--ijԼԸ¡ϴʵĹڡ˽Ϊֻ˼ԼԸ桱ʵϣһѼڶʮйĶಿܷȻʱδ˽ϵһķζȻйġشӰ졣

ҿӢͺ˫÷ܵ˵ΪĻ˫ṩ˺ܺõ֤һ˫ߵȻпֿע⵽ڲͬеϸ΢𣬴ӶǵġصؼáȫڽʽӢͺʱֱһ˺һй˼ǶԣԺĻϵǷģٽص˵˫ԣԼĻ˫ԣϿԿϵͳĵӹϵι⡣ԺĻں϶γɻҲ˵ÿһɲֶʧȥԣγȫµġΪеԡ෴ǶΪһַյġϵͳ໥

һֿԻĻͬʱֻᵼЩӡһֳɵǣ˫߾һмʹһԡǿ˵һʱصһԣΪijʻ﷽ʽѸٵسڴУҲΪܾȷر뵽塢󡢹ϸ΢𡣱ȷ˵ϰԵһнʹúӢ÷У˫ԣԼĻ˫ԣһֻϣȻȻϵģǻѧϵĸϡ

˫бڵߵص/һDZڵԶԽбȽϣҿԴһԵĽǶ˼һԣӶ߾ij־롣߿Ϊֻһַʽ⡰˽͡ɡ˫ߣ˫ĻˣпʶͬĻϵͳЩԵȴʻƶԵȴвͬ÷ͬ˼ݡ ԾʶȻᵼ໥ͻĹͲͬĹжĽŹϵͬҲᵼ´ij嶯˵Ҫдһµĸ塣һ˫пȫʶԵIJͬϸ΢𣬲пܴµĸ͸ϴʡһִǣʮͶʮ˫ĻĹͼɺйͳ--ǰ߱ΪĶ߻Ǽ--ӶγһΪǡᡱλйִ·ɡһʶĴ죨The Civil Code of the Republic of China, 1930-1931:xx

Щͬģʽ--桢ϵĻԼѧϵĸ--Եسڷ֮СȻʱֻ轫һоͼ򵥵ĹתΪһԵĶԵȴʡ漰һĻжصĹʱҲҪһзµĴʻ򷽷Ա磬private entrance /˽ͨĴʣʱҪµĸպͺеͬ͵ǡһںӢеͬ

˫ߺ˫ĻбڵһԺ͵һĻ֮ڣһDZڵֲͬԺĻϵͳ֮нͣΪߵijȻĹ۲ߣߵĽдµĸϴʡ

Ҫĺ-Ӣ˫ȺһйоѧߡʮͶʮʮлʱڵĽܳƾйѧߺйѧЩȺ֮IJȻܴ󣬵֮ͬǶ߱Ļ˫ԡʵϣЩͬȺ֮IJ͹͹ԺĻ֮ڵĸֽŹϵ йоѧִй˫Ļ

йоѧ߼ע˫Ļˡеľ˶ںйĻоǵְҵǴ˫Ļ͡˺֣йоܹйԺĻѵҲ˾˫Ļй--йǰйƲҽǶȲ̸ĻĽǶйоѾΪĻ˫еһɲ֣йоѧǸ˫ĻȺеһ֡

ʮʮҪйоĶ˴йƾѧߣǵǰܹߵȽġѧ, Ȩα馡ܶйоѧ߶ƾӵ˫Ļйġ

1949ǰѧңķ糱ٿ׷ݵ1911꣬ʱйʼмƻɳѧøѧϰʱһɳ1000ˣԼķ֮һȥȥŷޡй˵ձҪߡѧձʼʱ磬ࡣ߷꣬19051935ֱ꣬ﵽ8000˺6000֮ࡣ1ȻЩѧ󲿷ֹרƣֻмСִйоܵ˵ǶһĻ˫ԵȺ塣һ£ЩѧӢŷԣͺһ磬ĻӰ첢йĻ

ЩѧӦйĽ̻ѧУһ⡣̻ѧУʮͣ˶ʮͶʮг50ѧ˫γ̻ӢΪĿγעϿΡ2̻ѧУıҵĻĹ̶Ƚ֮йĻй֮޲ܶѧС̻ѧУıҵϴ󳬹ѧʹ йо˵Уʮʮѧֳ֮һйѧߣǴ̨ۡǰѧĺ˫Ļ˵ĺǿԿڼƵڹ֮ǨƵй֮ơ˶ʮʮ400λйѧѧУᣨǷռ֮һLindbeck,197155

ʮͰˡʮڼ䣬м˫Ļй˼йой½ѧйоĿйҵھʮӡЩˡʮѧйңϵԼйĸ↑֮ʼĵڶҲǸһѧ˳һ֡19911992꣬ѧйѧ39600ˣ󳬹ǰһ1997꣬270000й½ѧѧ⣬һһԣ֮һѧصй඼ں⡣3ǰһǵרҵҪȻѧ͹ѧֻмСһйоձԣǶĻ˫ԡ й½ѧ⣬һȺɳΪ̫ƽܱߵĺӡ̨塢ۣij̶ֳϻ¼ºǣԼйϵչĽЩ˵ڳɳ̫ƽͬסʱ伸ȡͬʱܵС˵Ӣᆵ˵ӾDZĬȳڴѧйĿγУеļ̶ййооԺγ̡ŲõĽ֮л൱йоȻҲֻڲ˫-ĻȺмСһ֡

󣬻һҪɵĴɵĻȺ뵽йо ԼҪĽһѧϰǽӱƽСĻԪγ̣multiculturalism»Ҫۼһ㣩Ӱðо

Щ˵ȻҲǹ󡰻ȡ4˳һ֡˳ʼʮͣʱǡ굼ʮ˶̫ƽ˿ѹ͹Ҷ˶ʮ;ʮ3000ᣨϵģں⣬ۡź̨岻ڡУ1505һ˵һڶ⻪˶кǿ˫Ļ˵ĴöࡣЩϵĻԪʹԽԽĵĴѡййĿγ̣ǵеһСֽйооԺγԼڵĺѧϰͨйԼййصĹ̶ͬȵسΪ˫Ļˡ

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ʵϣһɷ룬һΪĹ졣ġʻ ɵڻڱһЩҪĹԡֻעDD ʵϣսʱǾԡҰȫΪڵѹ DD ôйоͷ֮IJ֮IJûʲôȻ˼άϰߺһʵڹͬĻ˫ԼйѧĿ꣬Ⱥĸͬһھְҵ֮ͬнЭġճеĹԿ˵ȹϵķɲҪйоdzڡҰȫĿǣ̶ܴһʼһԽҵ

йִʷϵ˫ĻĻ˫

ǿͬ˼·йִʷϵ˫Ļˡǵ˺ǶǵĿͷ۹ʷҡйڷ۹½еģҺձ-ϵ֧䣬ҷǵĻ֧䡣ʷ£˫Ļ˾ЩΪҵЧ͵ġ족ζų߱ʷĴ˳ڴʷѧҿˣִйɻҪͨȺڡũ--ٽӴĻˣȣִй˫Ļƺء ڵ۹ͷ۹ԪйĻϵܾĻͻʵһĻȻսʤһĻ۹ij嶯ǽĿ⼯ڵ۹ŵϣԽִľܳ⣬ӶսĻ֮¡ִΪǵ˶Էܵij嶯ͬʱֱһΪйӦ룬һǿйѽ۹ļһۼΪִձѭģʽӶִйķ嶯Ϊƫһйڳォʮʱһһεط˶ĻӰĹ ۹뷴۹-ʶ̬ϵĶʹǺ侲˫Ļ˺Ļ˫ڽִйá˫ĻӰµйϱΪֳء--ϵģĻϵģͬʱ˫ĻҲϡ족京߲Զߣʽģǡ֪ʶӵıǩܵų⡣6

Ȼʷǣ˫ĻйִʷϰżҪĽɫЩԵʵӹ׸1949ǰִйĴͷ˴ڴѧһ˫ĻȺ壬˰ˡʮһγ֡ǿԤϵģΪڼϱȽȽʵһЩҪҲˣȻô

ɽǽִй˫Ļˡʱȥģʮʮ꣩뵱صһ̻ѧУ飬Ͷ۵ĻʺѧԺQueen's College˺۰˿AliceҽԺҽѧԺҽѧʿѧλӢͺͬ磬һȫϵ˫ߣBoorman1967-19793/170-71

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лĸ߲쵼л˫Ļˡ뵽⽻бֽܳһ͵ӣӢʦʸйʮͶʮҪ⽻٣ոȨ˶ҪãAWAʷµ䡷,1959-1962 6/375aһܳdzʵļߡԾڶʮʮĹάȺйĽ̻ѧУʥԼѧԺĸױǴѧܽͬ,1959-1962 3/184b

ܲ⽻ôעĿɽͬҲ˫ĻˡʱڳΪйķ˸ҲҪӢŷԵ˲šƩ͢¼£ۣʥѧԺ St. Paulsܽ׶ֿʦᣨLincolns InnܷѵCheng197681-85ʱΪղ󳼺ұһĸ﷨ɡһݣʮϵġйϯѧҡ񷨵䣨1929-1930Ҫˣ۲ڵؽ˫Ү³ѧԺ7񷨵һҪˡʮĽܳѧҸҲ۳Ⱥʥʷ˹ѧУ (St. Stevens) ۴ѧѧרҵʵ䡷19911158

ڽִ˵Ҳ˫Ļˡ磬ʥԼ̻ѧͶġʡѧԺķ֯ҵǺͬҲDZҵʥԼʣڶʮʮڼ̳ˡ۴ٵIJҵʮٶ𣨡AWAʷµ䡷1959-1962 9/267bХ1994йǵ䡷1994519-20һΪйʱ͹ҵķչȷá

˫ĻҲڸߵȽԼʶ򡣲Ԫѧ¹ǰھɿƾƶ»ýʿʱ23꣩19161922䵣ν汱ѧУAWXʷµ䡷1959-1962 4/6b-7aŬ£ڶѧѧձij¶㵣ν񳤣ڸױǴѧòʿѧλĺѧڣͼݹݳѧձ絾ѧʵ䡷1991253-54Ȼ³ѸҲǴձѧЩǡġʱĻ˶

ȻڽִйĻ˫ԲһЩܳĸϣһڵĸı仯֮С˼򣬡ġ˶ģֲĻ̵˵ʱһ˼ǡڷ֧ŷͥϵִȫڵ¹ձӦйʵĹУγһʮ˫Ļ汾8ڽƶƵͼȫʽģкܶҲǾձܵййᱳ֮γɵѧУʹѧ˵Ҳ˫Ļʽġ

1949һȴйʷ̨˫Ļ˺Ļ˫Ȼżʷ֮⣬ֱ1978ĸ↑šʲ׼֪ʶӡЩڹܹѧӰоӢӢѧͷѧѧƣˣ1957ķ˶19661976ĻܵشǣѧУ˾أԼҽеġʲ׼ȴǡǡ֤Ļйž޴Ӱ졣ʵϣܡĻǿҵĻ壬ʶ̬ȨȴǸֲڱĿ?˼

Ÿĸ↑ţ˫Ļ˺Ļ˫Ѹٻصʷ̨ġܹʽĻܵȺ֪ʶӺй쵼ˣ»Ȩ͵λ

йľУ˫Ļ˵Ҳκʱ򶼸ҪǺĻҵңǴȫֵ߲ش۽й½ľãһЩ˵ȱǾں˫ĻʱҡЩе˫Ļ˱һЩѧ߳Ϊʱҡdiasporic capitalistsƺ⣬ǡĶʮΪйɫľ÷չƲá˹Forbes־Ƹ199435λ⻪ʮ̣ȫ350λʮ̣еĴЩ궼йдͶʡ9һǵļҵ˼гؾһйΪṩڹͶԼԭϺŻݵͶ

ЩҵңйͶʵĺ˫Ļ˸С͵ҵңͶʹģСͬʱ-йͶ-ԭϽԳֵáǺЩעĿҵһ𹹳˳ʺͺҵĺIJ֣ڹȥĶʮⲿҵͬҵʹйʮĿķչĵ·

ģʽΪʱڵͳٶ֣Ժƶȸˣ½䲼ķ䲻ȡڽ棬ѧģʽ»λӢٶȳΪҪʶ򣬡ġ˶ᳫȫҲٴγΪһҪ˼

ִ˫ĻӰ

УΪ۵ķ㣬ҰѡĻ˫ԡҪ޶ΪӢͺĻڸϵijֹ棬ٳ˫߻׼˫ϵ˫ԡǣDz˫ҪԱ֮ԵȺ;ۺϵij̶ȣֻע˫ĻӰĹ棬ô۵Ȼһ޶Ҫö㷺ö

Է硰ִԡ˼Ŷ·һĿأҲʷон綨ִʱڡõı־ͨΪйġʼѻƬսĻĻĹΪ۹-ϵšŵ۹սᣬֹʱȫ򻯺ĻµýŵĽ ʵϣϵķԣĻǿڳԼɴ˶ִĻ롰ͳĹͬڳ˵ǡִʱٵĻʵ֮һҲ˴ִĻʵʱ͵żĻÿһ䡣Ļ뱾ĻĹ治ѾˣʹĻԪΪִʷ޴֮һ

Ȼڽִй˫ĻӰԶֹ۹ĸ˫ĻȺ塣ѧ̻ѧУҵͺ⻪Щ˫Ļ֮⣬ий˾˫ĻӰ졣˶ʮʮסй˳300000ˣ10ҪֲڸݲƽԼŵĴԼ90ͨ̿ڰϵейڲ̶ͬϴĻӰ֮¡ʮ;ʮĸĸ↑Ŵ±仯ĻйգҵõԾķչʹÿ¶ǧƵӶЭȹϵҵϰҵͨӢӢĻԼμ1949ǰһЩйҪٶȫӴӰ졣 ҲΪ˫ĻӰձȻ˫̬Ļ˫ԣйеĵطԺĻͳԼƽɫķʽľ档ǣҪȡһܹĻ˫Եĵӽǣ˼ĻͷĻڽִĹ󡣵۹ʶֻ̬ԷǴ˼˵ĶԪַ˼ʱ򣬻ӦÿĻΪڸ֮С11˫Ļ˺˫ڴʱĻԵĹܹӦ磬̶ܵͬ˫ĻӰҲճѸٵӦĻ硰ֳء򡰣ʱ֮ĸĻԤһ֡й롰໥ųĵжʶ̬˵ճʵûж塣 Ļ˫£Edward SaidͼȣClifford Geertz

ѧ۵ĽڷչȻij̶ֳǿ˷ʽִΪǵзζǣǽǿķǴ˼˶ԪEdward Said1978ķڿ˷ŷ--Ϊ۹һĻ󡢶塱ĺġŷָ塱۽жĹҺΪߣthe otherֽͬйԤں۹šSaidѧ߲֮ͬڣעĴ-µ۹תˡĻ۹塱Said1978

ͬʱClifford Geertzᳫġط֪ʶ͡ҡŷʽʵ֤GeertzΪִ뻯ִѧоѧоʹлῴ֮ԵĻ֪ʶһͼGeertzţDZڡ[]/thick description)ⲢζŶʵָܼһ֡ԵѧܹʲôDZ͡ĸṹԼǵĽ͵IJ졣ͬGeertz˵ġط֪ʶ(local knowledge)Ҳ壬ǵָijһطһ֪ʶָѧΪǰִǰԱĽԳ壨Geertz19731978Anderson1995

SaidGeertzۼҵӰ£йоIJѾʼִǰԵġ˼Ϊɫʵоļ˶ɲ֡µоټٶйΪĴתȡ̬йͬҪЩоͼ־ǰɫʵձԭǿй--ΪDZϾֻĽǽԵؽйĺʵתǣⲻйĻʹйоѧ߻һԵӽĻ12

ȻЩµδܳԽȥолķǴ˼˶ԪṹȻµĻоٷΪ䷶ҲӷΪԵġߡǿƽĻ塣ǣǿһĶԪҲһֵãתԳԽġȨSaidΪ1978DZʽĶоĻ۹廰з˼УһվܺĻȡ֮Geertzţ19731978ñ֮ġ͡ط֪ʶȡ/ִۣԼĻ۹壩ͻִǰѧǶλ˵ѡȻڷǴ˼˵ĶԪġ

GeertzʽоԽִʷȱעȻĿͨ̽ͬĻΪִΪǵۼٶṩһԵľӣоصȻѡӴǰĶǽӴķļٶǣִĻ۹Ӱ£ֻȫ֧䡣ȫִļٶִȻһˣĻͲΪִĻṩһġԵĹաˣGeertz˼տڲ̸ĻӰµ׾ʲôı仯Ͳ仯ֻǼ򵥵ؼٶDZȻĴԡ

ǰִ壨˼Τʾִ壩ѧߣ SaidGeertzհһִ/Ļ۹/۹ŵķǴ˼˵ĶԪ֮СִĻ۹򣬷۹߱ѡر뿹ܡڵ۹֮Уֻܴһ֧һĴĻ˫ԻĻԪֵƽȹ档 Խִйо

ڹȥĽִйоУѧۺʶ̬еķǴ˼˵ĶԪṹӰǿЩԾطԶ彨ѧ߶زˣһѧߵĽΪʲôйδִҲδܸһЩоһѧ߷ǿйʵйijвģijƷйҲСִѿʱڣIJ첻ʶʱ--йֻͺһ͡13

ͬʱԵ۹ļҲǿֶԪṹʮʮʷѧ쵼˵ʱ۹ʹе۹ɫʵִʽ˶14ǵʶԴȪҪ˼壬һЩǰִʱũʱҲˡʵ塱ʮͰ˾ʮĻʷѧҽԵ۹дתĻǵʶԴȪSaidġ塱Geertzġط֪ʶijЩ˵ֳ塱postcolonialism; subalternism)Ʒ15ʼգй֮ĶȻ

йѧֶԪṹӰ̶Ȳŷ޵ѧߡΪ˷˼ϸʽĸëˡʱѿĹ۵ йķչͣʱ۹ıйеʷ̡йѧߴӴͶľ֤ʱڵġʱѿƷʱӶͶϵ16

йĽִʱڣЩѧǿ۹ֳ͡塱µִйѹȡˣйĸҪѷ⽨ļҪѵ۹弰йγɵİֳļֻйܻصӦеʱ-ʷ·ҲάصԸĻ

Щ˫ĻӰԵġδġŶֿԵĹ̡Ļ˫Ըû֮أڵ۹ı£ֻζѹȣƽȹ棻ִйҪôһйҪôūµйܴͬʱĻĵѡ񣻻ع֮Ȼһ˽ž޴ij--ǿɺ޵ֳIJʮййȱлԡ

SaidGeertzĺִھִܳ䡰Ļ۹塱ͬʱǿ˹ȥозǴ˼˵ĶԪṹȻ־ܳԴһֵ͵ĶԵ۹弰ԼΪǵִ̬ȣǣȻǻԪȻȫִܳҲͽڳǰִʱڱĻ֮ûѡľء

Щоִ֪ʶӵ롣ߴ󶼼ȵҪԼᲽִ̣ܹõǿִձĶߵͶʡѹͷصͶнѳɡõҽƷ񡢸ߵӤʡ˾ֻΪ˲ܵ۹ҪǿľǿִܳİõִGeertzʵֻdzڶͳŹϸ֦ĩʽĽֵ֮С17

˫Ļ˺Ļ˫Եʷ֤һֲͬķʽִ֮ĻӡڸIJϣڹҺۼҵʶ̬IJϣ˫ĻӰܹͨdz׵档ڱȻ֧-Ĺϵʶ̬ܻҪڴͳִԡйġ֧֮߱Ǵ˼˵ѡ񣬵ǶԴ˲һᡣ

ͱŸʶ̬ĹҲͬճеǶԼġйԡ൱ţйΪʺĶǡйġйĻйһijһɲijйһʱкʹõĶ18һϣйڱȻijͻһ˿Լִйˡ

Ļ˫ʹdzϲִ˫ĻӰʵ˿Ļʹǿ׿ʶ̬Ĺ۵㣬Ϊһֽδʷ⡣ڵĺ۹ʱĻӰ-֧ϵһҲᱻתΪ⣬˸ҪǿĻ˫Թһdzͻһ档

Ļе֧-ϵ

ϸµһ¼ٶĻͱĻ֮Ļֻܵһһ֧䡣ּٶԴһԴԸҵʷӽǣִҵŵȷʷԵص˶Է֧䣨۹ֳ壩һԴClifford GeertzоСѧۼҵӽǣִҵ֣ŹҵͳлȷʷԵصˡǰִἰĻĽ壨ǾֲĽ壩

ȻЩӽǷйĻأҪǵһʵǣ۹Խִй֧Ǿֲģġʹë󶫵ĽУҲֻǰйˡֳءֳءйִʱڵĹʷͬһֳعҵʷ ҪǣҪֱйĻΪʵйҡĺԼִIJ̸֧-ϵǽͨģǣĻ˼ҲƵĹϵ

ҺִȷӰйĻңŵȨ߽⣬ͳġй˼ϵ˼룬ΪһͳԵʶ̬ѾֱǣЩػᵼйĻڴĵλȫȻ

ٴΪṩһЧ;⣬ΪһĻϵıʽ֪ĵҪȵȨʶ̬ǿöࡣйĶͯԻгɳйij˼ܵءϰԵʹͬȫִ֮ŵ人ȷ˺ܴı仯ǣݴ˾ʹ̸ӢġԡǺܻ

ʵϣڽִʱڣԶԺӰǼ޵ġʾʵĵֿƩ磬 ѧڡġʱݵʵʽ֣ӿ͡˼ܿǾͱмеĴʻȡǾִǰ̸µ͸ʹǶ͸ķ룬ɱػйĻӡǣ硰ɡ֮ڡfreedom

̸˫Ժ˫Ļĸ˻ʱӦúȷй֧ʹϵĸڼ޵ķΧڲõġǰᵽӢ-˫ԵĹϵһֵӣһϵĻϣһֻѧϵĸϣ֧Ĺϵﱾں˼άʽûӢֵߡȨǰʧȥҡ

ܻж߷˵ⷽǶһ޶ġǣǿձΪĸԸؽ͸ʣܶսܵռ죬һȫµƣʵǣձ-ĻȻŶԺԡӡȺֳᣬӢﲻֳߵԣҲΪӢʽԣԺĻû߽⣬Ȼ˾󲿷ֱ˼άʽںӡȵӻһӢֳαתΪӡȶصԸĻý飨Chatterjee1993

ʵ˵ʷϵĸԺĻϵ͹Dzźܺ;ǵ߽⡣ʵϣһճʹúмŲҲϵֻҪĸǼñԽԼĺӣֻҪһеijԱԽнǾͻһԶԱĻġ͸ﵽ-Ļ˫Եij̶ȣҲᵼһַǴ˼˵ĶԪij֧ϵǽδִԵĿܡ

ġоٵΣ

Ļ˫Ժ˫ĻӰĹ۵ܿṩһ;ɸйоѹȥظЩʽִ弰ġҰȫǣҲִ弰ʷʽľܳ⡣ܰǴӵйоΣҵһij·

սйоDzڹҰȫĿǡͨͶԼͨػֶ֧оҪdzս͡˽ԼĵˡĶѧϵijɹǸƷDZĿġʱգ˺󹲲ͺս磬ѾʧȥĽԡ

ͬʱѧеʱҲвоѧ򣬸ѧģȻѧĹУͣءӲѡ۴ѧѧձǿ-͡-֤оģʽо𽥱һִۻļĹʽݡִĸ֡ԡ硰Ϊԡ緶ΧڳΪѧоձָԭйزͬĻĶ֪ʶܵءѧѧѧϵԽԽԸרңΪȱѧ۹ףȥйѧйѧйѧѧߡ

ҪԾϵƺʷѧĺִߵġĻоԶֿѧʽһľáҲȷGeertz˱ͼ--ǿҪĻԣԼѧоĿ͹µĻԡԡط֪ʶΪѧоṩǿ֧֡

ȻĻĹȼȴѧѧ֮˼˵Ķij̶ֳҲڸѧڲ˶ڷĻ۹塱̬ͷоʶ̬£ԼʹõʽлУĻ崴һΨҶ磬ûûԸ͵۽нԵĽGeertz 19731978ġط֪ʶ͡ᳫһоʵȴһխöҲöĺ壬Ҫоǰִʱڱġṹͼȡձ·ѧнԵĽ

ѧ֮ѧڲɷѣַ෽涼ʹǰִۺͽ۳Ϊ塱ĺִ֮ĺ蹵ѡ񡱷ִķһһַ֮ĺ׼ı׼ѧоʵ֤ʽIJĻ巽ЩǰԴۺͿѧٶѧƽĿת֮ͬʱϻʶ˫ĻǶȳоðűΪѧΣգձػ˷Σҽˮ׼ᵣһִ߻򡰶ߡɣҲǵ۹ߵɡ еٵۼңۼңռѧ۵̨ЩֻʵоĴ󲿷ѧΪĬĬŵġĬĴ໥Ӫ֮䱻ȥ

ĻԪֱмֵġӳṹɵҲ뵽ѧѧͺִֻ֮ڻӦѧʵ֤۵ĹУѧĻԪԽԽĻ塣ȻȥĻоִܵ塢塱۹ӽǵӰ죬ڶĻоڡԼ˵ڴѧУ亭ȴݱйʷγ̴йѪͳѧѡޡձʷγ̴ձѪͳѧѡޡ¹ʷγɵ¹ѪͳѧѡޣĻԪֳIJġʻijԣ塣 ѧУӲѧʵ֤롰ĿѧĻ֮Ķʹо򼸺ﲻʲôʶͬʱⲿĽͲȷʹоɥʧҪߡѧ߲ʼֹԸоĵ Ļ˫ҲԵΣijáѧĻ˵ͬڸ֡ѡۡķΪִΨһԡҪ׵˽һֲͬĻӶһֱȽϺеӽǡͬʱҲͬĻ壬Ϊij㲻Ǹʽ˫ĻִӴʵͨ˵УĻĹͬڳ۹ʷ֧-ĹϵǻγһƽȵöĽδŸִԵĿܵijĹϵ

ĴѧУĻ˫Եļֵݵľ档ǵĿԽԽѧ˫Ļһʵǿмֵġһ˫ĻĽʽĽĻԪ塣෴ѧѧϰĻͬʱҲѧϰһ֣ģĻ˫Ļ˵üĻѧųĻҪҲҪǶԼĻԺвֱҪǣĻ˫Աͳֵ׷Ŀ꣺Ļ˫ʹܹԽȽϺеӽǣҲΪĻ˫ԣſĻѡ˫ĻԽԽ˫ĻѧͬҲڵһĻѧ

Ļ˫ԵۣĿIJҪһµġ塱ȡʲô塣˵Ļ˫ԣָЩĻԽĸ˺ȺľʵǵľǣĻܹǢع档;ѵԵһضʷһʶ̬ġ塱

ϣǿǣĻ˫ԵʷĻĹͬڳҵʷԼĵִִ彨Ȼصµ۹֧֮Ǵ˼˵ѡ෴ճϣĻѸٵγɵ--ûַ֧䣬ҲûƭѹȡڽִййоУĻ˫Ժ˫һּеķʽչʾĻ桢ںϳΪijġǿԴеõͬĻ໥ͳҰʾ

οĿ

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ANDERSON, BENEDICT (1995) Dojo on the corner (review of Clifford Geertz, After the Fact: Two Countries, Four Decades, One Anthropologist. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press, 1995). London Review of Books 17, 16 (Aug. 24): 19-20

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CHATTERJEE, PARTHA (1993) The Nation and Its Fragments: Colonial and Postcolonial Histories. Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press.

CHENG, JOSEPH KAI HUAN (1976) Chinese law in transition: the late Ching law reform, 1901-1911. Ph.D. diss. Brown Univ.

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Х[]1994Ϸ֯ǺࡶйʱҴ10ʱճ硣

HEVIA, JAMES L. (1995) Cherishing Men from Afar: Qing Guest Ritual and the Macartney Embassy of 1793. Durham, NC: Duke Univ. Press.

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ͳ˾ࣩ1936ʮȫߵȽͳơ[1934]޳洦

׷ƽӡȱࣨ1994߳ййѧ硣

LEVER-TRACY, CONSTANCE, DAVID IP, and NOEL TRACY (1996) The Chinese Diaspora and Mainland China: An Emerging Economic Synergy. New York: St.artins

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WOODSIDE, ALEXANDER (1998) Reconciling the Chinese and Western theory worlds in an era of Western development fatigue (a comment). Modern China 24,2: 121-34.

1983йߵȽʷ죺硣

йǵ䣺ε쵼ﴫ1994ij硣 ע͡

1 ȷͳݺȡá19291934ƽԼÿԼ1000ˣܹ3174ŷѧ1089ѧͳ˾1936 284ѧʵٻо (Huang, 1972: 37, 41)

2 1924ֱ꣬300000260000ѧڻ̻ѧУ̻ѧУעͶ, 1983: 4021998ڼżһ¶ӢҲڽ̻ѧУܵĽ

3 ԡ±19976/1919911992ںѧռѧ59% ׷ȱ࣬1994174

4 Ӣдиʹáoverseas ChineseһԶӦڡȡádiasporic ChineseߵĹʷʵضӦųڱȺʷ̫塣

5 ˺ ó1645000 (1994: 405)

6 Prasenjit Duara Ѿеط˼ִʷѧҺʷڵģμDuara 1998

7 ߷Ժ١˾˾ԺԺBoorman, 1967-1979: 3/376b-378bͨ1900¹񷨵ΪӢġ뱾1907꣬Ϊ¹񷨵ı׼Ӣ뱾 8 ҹƣ1930ÿÿ200ͥһ漰ʽͥϡôڶʮ--Լ൱ڴׯӳЧڣÿ10ͥ1ϣʹִͥϵ˾ϵͳÿ˵ʶⲻ˿ڣˣHuang, 1996, 178-8119501970ڵĸ߶ʶ̬ʱڣ½Ȼ1980ں1990ִʽķͥģʽֱݵлʱڣʳ1930磬1990ÿÿ50ͥо1漰ʽͥϣHuang, 1996: 180; ǰ2ϰ4ϵˣ12˿ڻ2ڻͥģʽķɺͷͥٴγΪӰÿһйҪء

9 ۵γϺGordon Wu¼ºǵKuokֵܣӡǵRiadys˵IJϷݾѡѣΪԼ̩Chearavanonts (Lever-Tracy, Ip, and Tracy, 1996)

10 ȷеȡáǸݷĹ㣨Fairbank, Reischauer, and Craig1965342

11 ¬ ָ͸С񡱵ճͻֲܼᷢ򵥵ԡġ͡ͳġ־ɵĶԪķʽʮ͵ϺLu 1999

12 ЩĿJames HeviaкųҪﵽģHevia1995οJoseph EsherickⱾ֤ݻEsherick1998

13 ѧУֹ۵ҪWilliam Rowe 198419891990ӰѧҲ

14 Esherick1972ԴдԵĵۣBulletin of Concerned Asian ScholarsAndrew Nathan1972Ķ۵ͬʱ

15 Barlow1993µļĻоӪĴBarlow1993

16 Arif Dirlik1996ָ塱ֻǡʽġߵĴ죬ܶ彨Ӱı֪ʶҲܲȡһ

17 Woodside1998

18 α馣1998֤ǶԺĻԹˡлľ衣

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