ΩԸƽˮʹ罭ϣ
et revelabitur quasi aqua iudicium et iustitia quasi torrens fortis

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йеũ׼ĵĸʱڵıʵ͹ʵ

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ϣĸ˼1949֮꣨ȻڸĴоߣǺԴ89ꡰġ¼ӽǺ͹ػоġܡġҪҿ80ʼΪŲĸĸڶ֮һȫںһ棬ĸʼڿսĹ˳еһлɲ֡עĵȣǸӦðѹģԶԶĵĸϽǶԸ֮Сĸ30Ķ塣УͼĸΪһ壬ҷ໥ġ

ҲϣͳоĿ͹ӽǡ˵뻰Ǻ۹ѧһȹעǿ͹۵ʵDZʵڽṹ棬-õĺƶȵı̬壨agency棬ж¼˼̬ȡɭԣĿǰķоѾɴ;õĿ͹άĻıάȵתơ

ϣǵעڿ͹۽ṹͱṹ໥ϣԼ͹жͱ̬໥ϡĸоͼĻ/άϽǵĸ֮СһȰ-ҲĸĻ-ͼԴϤ͹۵ͱ֮໥

ҵijǶԴ46굽76¼һijũ׼ʷȰʵͿ͹ʵҲ˽ṹ塣ѡһĿΪ˽ʾ͹-ṹڵ⣬༴ЩĿǰʷобΪ͡ʷڵ⣨μɭ£ͬʱҲָǰȽʱֵıʷڵ⣬һʷ۽߿ܱΪĻ͡

һ

Ϊ˳һ,ͼʾʵԼṹ໥ϵﹲĸάȣṹά࣬άҲࣻάϲ࣬͹ά²ࣺ

Խṹ

͹Խṹ ͹

򵥵Ľṹ߼ٶṹͼࣩǾأṹžԵӰ졣򵥵־ߵĹ۵ǡǡ෴ΪоԣͼҲࡣڱ͹ڱ͹۵໥ϵУ򵥵ıȷϱͼϰ벿ǾԵģ򵥵Ŀ͹ƿ͹ۣͼе°벿ǾԵġ

һ򵥵ľ۵˼ڿ͹-ṹ塣ٶ͹۽ṹϵҪȱԵϲ㽨ΪҪ߽ǰߵġӳͬ˼ǿṹ塣һȷʽĿ͹۽ṹΪ¼ǿ׼ȷԤġ仰˵λͼ·Ŀ͹۽ṹһάȣάȡ

һ棬һ˵ı-־ֱȵλΪһĻͳľڸˡЩΰ˼Һʹš˼ͼֵж-ƶȲЩ˼ͼֵıλϷı壬µĿ͹۽ṹͼдھԵλ

Щ򵥵ľԹ۵㲻ͬƤ϶19771991Ҫסȣڡʱĸ˼Ľṹӿ͹չ˱ʱԵģԵġ׼ζһֿ͹۵ṹһڱṹ֮УΪ˼predilectionsstyleԡһ˵ܶԲڶԿ͹жѡ񣬶ұڶԱ˼̬ȵѡǣ϶ͨṹDZǿ͹۵Կ͹-ṹ塣ͬʱҲͨ͸һܵṹԼģԱ-־塣

⣬϶˽ṹ֮Զ򵥵Ľṹ岢ԳֽͱͿ͹ڲ϶ṹΪ˼ habitus)ܾʵи˵ʵѡͬ򵥵־ҲDzֵģΪѡ˼ϵĻжϣҪܵԣԣԼ͹ԽṹԼڲ϶˵ͼԶġ

Ȼ϶Ҳδӷ˼ذѱͿ͹۵Ľṹһµġں̶ܴϣͽ׼ǽ׼͹졣ʵͿ͹ʵٶһµģDz໥ìܵġ϶ûаѱʵͿ͹ʵֵ֮ܳIJһΪ˼⡣

һ棬Ъƣ1978[1990]ָӢάʱڵԵġʵ֮ڵIJһ¡ѹֵĻУԵͳԵʵǷdzͬġ۱֤иʵԣȿ͹ʵʷ塣ͨעijһʱϱʵ֮޴ľ룬ṩһ϶δṩġıʵӡ

ͬ˼ԽṹһַԺ˼Ļṹdiscursive structures󲼵϶Լǵ÷ʽȻǵ˼̬ܵԺͻĽṹʵ졣ǿ˵ṩһڱṹĶԺҪԵķdz֤ԸƶԣͼžõģµĿ͹۽ṹϵı壬ϷıԽṹ

ȻǿʵҪ򣬵ƵҪŷ֤˱Խṹʵ͹۽ṹʵͬˣ͹ߺͱ߶DzȷġͼеıάͿ͹ά֮ĹϵߵĽṹĹϵ໥ģеʡ

ԵĿ͹ߺʹԵı֮価ܴԵIJ죬һļٶʵ͹ʵ֮䱣ֻһ¡ҲֻĹٶĻϣDzпԼԶԷžԵ֧áΪʵʵϵIJһ£ô˫Ҫ϶ԷԶʵԲͬڿ͹ʵ֮Ȼ߿ŶԴ⺭ͽ֡⽫ҡκһƵλļ衣

ΪǾԤȼٶʵ֮һԡʵͿ͹ʵȿһµģֿ໥ġһҪ֤ɵԤȵļٶΪˣѡйеһ󡪡ũ׼͸ӱʵ֮IJһԡͼ46굽52ĺ66굽76 ĸУũ׼ıԽԽԽ͹ʵߵIJһǿӰ˹ѡжЩѡжγһֻṹûṹĸмӰ˸˵˼ж

ҽĸʷϱʵ͹ʵ֮໥ѽڵһӡֲһԼշĸijֵ֣ĸսᡣһʷǿ˱ʵͿ͹ʵ֮ȷ໥ġ

صͼΪеĸά໥໥õġṹ塢Ϳ͹֮ӰͻķʽǶصġϵġδDZԽṹõʱ򣬼򵥵ÿ͹۽ṹ͹DzġͬڱʵṹһԻϵļ򵥾Ҳ⡣

ĵĹٷ

ĵ-ṹԴйͳ۵Īë󶫣1933ġũ׼һġĹ˼ũ׼ϵߣ͹Ӷƶũ軧ȡ⣬ũեȡӶ˹֮ʣֵũȲǵũҲǹũΪλڵũƶũ֮м׼ë1933תHuang1985£

һ־߱ʷ۷Ľ׼ͨȡũҵʣǷ⽨ͨʳȡʣʱϵ֮˹Ӷϵйũʱѿչ˼͵ĽЩ˼Ϊë¡йй֮Уƪ·Ч˸1907[1956]дġʱ巢չһ顣

ЩũǽڶũΪĿ͹-ṹϵġ屻׼жΪ޲׼֯Ĵߣй쵼ƶũ͸ũĽ׼ũƶũӦǸӦߣΪǽǸߡƶũͬũͬˣһؼԵмײ㣬Ϊڸûкܶ桢Ҳ̫ʧDZΪڶҡġȡũʹ˶Ӯô˵֧֣ë192719391907[1956]

ȥڸ-ṹѧм˼ۡһּ˵Ĺ۵Ϊũ׼ϵŵõģҲԶһԽ׼Ϊ˶ʵһС˵ıһˣѧȫйڸ-ṹ棨Huang1991Ѿ۹ЩۣͲظˡ

ҪָǣйıԽйũṹĿ͹ʵ֮ŵһºƫ롣뻳Щһԣص֮һũ15-20%İѵ͸ũеطƶũ͹ũصٷ漰ȫ43%Perkins1969Wong1973Lippit1974

ûԭһش-ø̵ӰũÿһԱȫ֮һĵũҪջһ뽻ϵȻ1949֮ļ꣬˰ձȿս֮ǰ˼ǣܵ˵ũȻôʧƽȨɸЩµũ񡪡ũƶũũ˺ô

ͨģܹ˰պ͵ͼչİ취ȡԭڵֱѵDzũҵʣࡣЩũҵʣڷָƶũһֺȫͶйҵ̡йһŵжԵĹʻֻкٿѡʱ۷ʽңʵϳΪʱ۵ҪʽLippit,1974һƻ˾ȵĹҵҲΪĵ˳жʵ֡İй˴1952굽1980Ĺҵ11%ϵʣPerkins and Yusuf, 1984

ȻͬʱũũҵȴһֱҳΪġھcollectivist involutionֱ70ĩHuang199016-710-11£Huang1991329-30ʳܲͬʱũҵͶͶӶı仰˵λͶͣͻ½ˡ廯ʱھ̶ܴЩصۺϽҷֱũҵũΪۼٷչҵͳеͶսԣϸ񷴶ũ԰ҵĹߣԼũйߵ˿ѹ

ʵʵ֮Ҫڹ۽ṹתΪÿׯ΢жľһתǿ۲ԷÿһũЧġÿһׯҪֳ׼ˣҪ֯׼ƶũ͹ũԵ͸ũ

ׯ׼ṹĿ͹ʵ

ڵׯĿ͹۽׼ṹ൱ޡִÿׯĽ׼ɷϸ׼ȷϣʱռIJбϵͳʵġȻЩϲ׻áЩͨоʹõĹٷݣڼԶҲׯʵϣⲿṩǾϸѡɴׯݣЩݱ֤ٷũṹʵԡ⣬ĸݵصϣṩһЩׯڲ¶ˡ⣨Odoric Wou1994оЩΪеġǣֱڣܹյȷʵɿֻмʮׯݣЩҪڽǰɵѧʵص顣Ȼڴ˻ϣѾ㹻óһЩڿ͹۴ׯʵ͵Ľ֮IJһµĽۡ

˵еϱڻƽԭܶׯûеҪǾסڳ֮еIJڴЩڴֻӵнٵأׯСڡ85ʹù¼33ׯֻ7ׯзϹٷڴHuang1985A1--A7

һһЩʵصĴׯõ֤ʵڿ³˷򸾵ġʮҡһУӱ䰲صׯûڴӵߣ100Ķ¡)סڡס()Crook and Crook,1959:19;ں William Hintonоɽθţ壬ͬҲûһ˷طԵĶ壬ׯֻһũHinton, 1966: 592;ۣ

ڰ¶ˡоĺϱصġǡٷ¼ȫ286˼У4Ȼ4ֻǡϵĵǾδɥżΪȱòس⣨Wou, 1994: 302-3һƽÿ3 .8ĶصĴׯĵӵ26Ķء ׯռҲŴ¡Ҫǡѡ¡Щѱɹٷеġͳν׼ߡWou, 1994: 302-3

Щеũʵϲǵҳ֮ΪġӪʽũũǹӶ38ũ100200ĶأҪֻӶ12˵ĸũֿҵ33ׯУ17ׯũHuang1985¼ʮңеǹֵصġҡCrook and Crook,1959: 25-6ͬŴ壬ũǡʢ͡ӵ138Ķأũ֡

ЩӪʽũͼԼķ1942꣬һӪ׼ӦΪʱģǷ⽨ģӦ͸ũΪһࡣΪΪʱȷ⽨ҪȽԣǺ͸ũһظܵijӦȵܵijСһЩȻ50䲼ġظĸ﷨УѡӪ鲢ΪԼ롰ҪͶѧԺ195739381

˽ũ׼ṹ⣬ȱģϵ֮𡪡ӶһǵǿġҪǣʹǰѾӪϲٷıィũĿ͹ʵ֮ȻŲһ£ǵƹ㣬ôڻܰѹӶľӪȡϲΪȻһĴׯڴ

ڳޣͬνʵ֮ƫ롣8ϸѧĴׯУֻ2ׯڴ󲿷ֵܾǰס˳򣬳Ϊڴζţȷʵڵ͵軧֮ijͻôһͻҲǴׯڲģǴڴׯĵ軧ĵ֮䡣

ϹҲͼӦʵжڳޣ淢Ⱥ֯ġÿһĿռ䷶ΧȷʵеɶȻֻȼɽصĻŴȺԵᣬ¡ͬϽڵׯһеġٷϣַͨʽֺÿׯʵʩķ⽨Ĺٷʵϳ޵ľׯûڴһʵ֮ƫȻֵȻΪλУÿׯжҳӦġ׼ˡ

ϵ֤ݱڻƽԭͳޣׯǴ󲿷֡ṹDzͬڹٷġǰоУHuang19851990Ѿָ͹ӶͨǷڵũũƶũ֮䣬dzũƶũ֮䡣һũܴһũϼĶأٴijƶũͨݻھӣϸѶ̹һׯĴԱʵǴƽȵĸߡ

⣬йׯġũԼ˺˵ַdzСϻָЩ˹˹ڴׯǴڴԱũߺסԵ֡ϵ󲿷ֻѺ֮䡣͵ҵûаѷɢĸΪһ׼壬ֻǴ˴ׯúھHuang1985220-2Huang1990144-6ھİУй˶ֻ֯˵ݽׯ

ġѡ

ܿѡЩ͹ʵҽظĸһׯеȺжֿϣȫÿһׯչ׼Լ򵥵͹ӶΪǷҾصٷ䡣ÿһׯԵ͸ũȺ˶Լ򵥵ظݸ۷ʹȫΧڸıеϵ

ûѡ񡣳ڸָԭ򣨲ԭǽںԷеĴׯ﷢׼׼һϷԵжִšơĸ񡱵Ľ׼֮ĶԿ

һѡ󺫶1966ġij֡ⱾұΪһׯеĽ׼дʵ¼ǸׯũԱĵũʶĸũ͸ũΪĺͰԵģΪϵλãΪDZ˵аͼֶΡͬʱƶũ͹ũΪ˽׼͸ȳ

ȻⱾԼṩ֤ݿԷ֣Ŵʵֻһũûڴϸ飬ǷŴҪìܣ˵ǽ׼ìܣ˵ͽͷͽԼͰ֮ìܡһȽټľõĴׯҲһĿձ˺͹һشIJпսĴׯ⵼˴ׯڲͬѰļͼҵijͻЩںﶼˡ׼1966

йڣڴׯڽ׼ⱻͬʽһǶġ̫ɣɺϡΧˮʹ壨ӱ¹أĵ͡ԡǮĹչʵϣǮֻʮĶأظĸ﷨ı׼ֻǼҾϺõũ°ԭĽ׼λ͸˵˼ʹϵǸЩΪ͵Ľ׼λ󺫶ġһҲУ׼ˡĸҪһԺ͵ԵĸһǸԷ루19498451-3

ξ,ʹıҪÿһׯÿһũݳĵϷԽ׼Ҫÿׯ׼˵ľ޴ѹʹǰյԼı׼ûеĵطȷĽ׼λڼ򵥵úձԵʱ᲻ɱسָѸũΪũΪũңǿҪ׼͸Ϊ֮򵥵һһӦ

塢ظʽ

ĵĹ̿ԸݲͬĽ׶ηΪʽһ1937굽1945ĿսʱڵġϽʽڶ1946굽1949սʱڹսʽǽ1949굽1952ġ½ʽÿʽ˱ʵ͹ʵ֮䲻ͬĹϵ

1Ͻ1937-1945

ϽۺжֵΪͳһΪʹˡͳһսߡġϢߣ37.5%Ϣÿ1.5%۽˰ƣDZҵĽ׼ķڴׯڲûгո׼˵ѹʵϣȻûдڵĽ׼ͨϢͶԵĸ߶˰աԼṩƶũضΪũĻᣬϽѾij̶ֳϵ⡣磬ڿ³˵ġʮҡУƶũΪũͬʱڴԼ100Ķе30ĶCrook and Crook, 1959: 49, 74ff

ͬڰ»Edward FriedmanƥģPaul PickowiczԼˡǣMark Seldenоĺӱء书ڴIJƲ36ܹ203Ķٵ4676Ķͬʱũشܹ262Ķٵ180Ķһ棬ƶũÿƽ0.9Ķӵ2.2ĶζţͨĸʵԵ⣨Edward Friedman, Paul Pickowicz, and Mark Selden19918486

2սʱڣ1946-1949

ڽսУʶ̬ũʵ֮Ťﶥ㡣λڹ͹񵳷Ĵׯɱսֵѹ·ׯڲļҶͼжӾ²ԵĽǶ˵һ׼ֻĴׯṩսҪԴ׼˳Ϊսһָ׼ֵģҲ˲ظĸ﷨еϸ涨ǴԵġϼ´Ķ֡

ǿԿ书壬ィ͹ʵ֮ƫսֵļġ46ġ˶УׯĽ׼Ȼ͹ʵֲһ¡Ϊ36ʱȷʵǵǵ46꣬ϸ׼ֻǸũΪÿֻһ͹ۺʵƫ뷢һ֮ļ֮Уʱʹ˰ϼָн׼ֵİ취ǣ387Ĵ70ũΪũΪFriedman et al., 1991: 92-8Щжһ걻ΪðȻˣÿׯ׼ĻûġΪ书ĵһ48괺ݳ˶ȺڴᡣΪûĵɶøũ档ġԡӭޡΪκĥѾһϢĶӡ֡档ֵϡ

ЩжУõķ⽨ĵʱĸũֱ֮ȫĨɱˡũ򵥵غ͵Ϊһ࣬Ƕǡ׼ˡҪǣͬڸﱻϸ۵Ļֽ׼ʻҲλϵĶ׼ǩȻһϲδ׼ļҺͲпᣨFriedman et al., 1991:105-6

ʮҡҲ¼˴ׯڲͬðڡ⽨β͡˶Уװʹ˿ȵı׼丸׻游ǵũˣΪ˱롰ȥġβ͡һ׼78ũӽУɴ˴24ӵ100ˣׯ400˼ңCrook and Crook, 1959:130ff

ͬĹҲںŴ塣ʢͺ͡ڵһν׼бɵĵʵӦڸũǹӶľӪʽũܺĸ硰棬ŹHinton, 1966: 29-32, 34, 131-8˶ļ̶ȵļӾ磬ィͿ͹ʵ֮ƫҲ󡣾ܺûṩðʱڣΪũľȷ֣48ָũũȷһЩϸڡΪũͥһϣԡ˵Ϊһжϱ׼ȷӦãǰũΪð˶Hinton, 1966: 400-10ṩļ㷽ɵϸ΢֣ʵζdzΪ׼ѻDZɱĽ׼ˡ

3ź1949-1952

49þʤıñȽº͡ȻְһȨϲķӶΪͬ͸ũһĽ׼ȻڡһЩϸ˵͸ũɷԶҲ˶ںӱ׳壬н˽׼ʷϸ216У11ıΪΪũʵϣûһ⿿ȡǡظĸ﷨Եķɶ塣11е8ʵǸũΪǹӶͶͶ룬3ӶͶʵũ

11е7֮ԱΪҪΪǵصĻǵľõλһǹ񵳵ԱŮɷǹһõĸҲǹ񣻻һͽǹ񣬶Ҳ֪صӹ壻һվռʱ죬ҲԹ7һʣϣǾʹõġ

4˱ԭ򣬸ðĸȶοǡǹѸũһûµظɻΪѸֻù˸Լءһ·DZΪΪׯӲִһжϱ׼ЩμҪũҵͶĻǵʵֻǸũΪӶ˶ԼͶͶ롣һһ33Ķأһ˰40Ķ

6ΪũУ5ʵǼҾϺõũֵˣһ13˵ļͥȫҷֱ[ɾֱ]Ӷһȫij͹5µĶ̹70ĶأҲֵܣȫ4ˣһ79ĶءΪͥͶڹ͹ϸؽӦũһͥΪũֵе澭̣Աȵ࣬Ҵ绹ǹ񵳵ԱһͥΪũԭеһֵǹ񵳵ԱDZȲμij֯ũӵ50Ķأһ͹ʵҲӦԣũǸ񵳵Ա

У׳ٿʽԵȺڶᣬȻЩûнսʱôסôҲпᡣ11е5ɨسšǵغͷݱȫûգ3ڶϡûһ˱ɱ5ֵһЩأÿ2Ķͼݷʣ6ѸǶãԼһغСһַ䡣6ũҲܵͬĴ

ڽܿˡأJack Potterɪ˹أSulamith Potter1990оĹ㶫ӵ¬Ҵ壬ı׳Ҫпᡣ5Ϊԡк͹ϵǹˡʣ3ؽ˼ڸġߡ壬һӵ10Ķغ1ĶĹѸΪΪӺһ͹ԼӲµءǿӸѹ£ɱѡ񡣴ɲº̸ʱ˰ɥѱ˼ʹڽźĻʹ˱ģPotter and Potter, 1990: 49-51

ҵĻŴ壬ûһϡظĸ﷨е͸ũı׼57ũʱũƶũﲢûٷôʡƽġʾôƽʶ̬ѹʹɲȥѰҽ׼ˡǷصũ½ͨΪũΪ׼ˡӴˣ½20һһεرֱ79һٷƽһǸ꣬κα׼ܱΪũǸ߶Ƣ꣬dzΪijӶHuang1990167276-7

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⣬ǵ֤ݱ׼λúѡ֮Ĺϵ󹲲Ľж϶ֳ򵥡ЩվڹһߵģȻǵ͸ũũ׼ũ񡣵͸ũͬȻֹ֧񵳣׳ߵ޹ĹѸ˵й쵼ˡũë󶫣Snow, 1938: 123-4͵Сƽëë199330ĴʹõĶͽ׼ǩûиЩģṩӦĻءڼ˵Ŀ͹-ṹ۵У׼λúѡϵΪȻȷɵġ

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˹ٷʶ̬˲ִĽ֪ʶͨظĹ̺鹹ѹٷΪԼ˼Ըһ֡׼ԺͶԵĸѾΪһʹõճԡٷʶ̬ӶΪռݰȨλĻ

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׼׼ݡ׼׼ˡЩȫ͸˱׼ճԡӵϵеϸ΢׼Ѿڡиеĵ˶ϲɽ׼һ룬Ǵ˾е˻ҵʵУչ˹ڽ׼˵ͣӡĹأũӣﷸ ĹУΪĵˣ׼˵ΣҪﷸЩΪĸҪսںš

۶ĿǵϽ׼ˣǵڵġɡ½׼ˣĸʹõԡ˼롢жʽ඼Ǵġĸ˼̸ʱʹõԣӡǡࡱʶڿȺڶʱϸñǰϱ衢Ź򣬵ȵȡЩʹùļ

Щжֱӵؼ̳ũظdzе巴˶Ųʲ׼ܵ˲ͬڵ͸ũĽ׼˵ԴΪڲֽʲ׼ڡ塱еһ׼DzDZ׼Ķë19401952йҵҵʱ巴˶УָǰʱΪطĺΥ֡߱ϣ5%ʵϣйϺϣеժҪڱΪ999707ҵҵУֻ1509ܵ˷ɵijͷһ1993һ173178ĶյԼеĹƱծȯΪʮꡢϢ5%ķֺ졣֮ʱDZ˲ͬıǩӶءֿ

׼Դɲ޲׼׼ǣëĸеķһ˶ٷ޲׼ĻһͬǴΪʲ׼һֽĹ۵һθԾǿһԾĸĶĿĵĶĿϵ仰˵ʱ·ĵȨɺ;ɷ⽨׼ϵһϵΪĸзĵıṩԡ

ߡΪǰ

ǶȿǣӦð忴ĸǰġĸڳУ뱻Ϊڶġּ·ʮǰеĽ׼壨˼롢ʶ̬֯ã˶ء 196530ѧ¡磬֯һεķԽ׼˵Ľ׼ڻŴ壬һµĶζ½ͨ͸бĽ׼ˣһε½ȺڴϱȡϡԼġСͬʱȴܾѹHuang1990276-7

׳壬ҲͬһʵظաΪ˽ĵľ巽ĴѧǶȫÿһϵͳٵ飬׿Խ׼ȷعǰĽ׼ʷбΪ׼˵кͽ׼

طĽ׼ĸǺͷԴɲĶΪһġAnita Chan ĴʣRichard MadsenͰ꣨Jonathan UngerоĹ㶫´壬13ɵĹũëսںšǧҪǽ׼ָ׼Ȼ鲼ΧεֶӰɲΪµļӰѡìͷͬʱָɽ׼˺ʹׯɲΪ˶ԱʹԼڽ׼ܵϵͳ˴ÿһĽ׼ôƶũռķԸɲϢǿȸɲǽܲϵġ顣ȻеʽС桱ĶᡣչԤȰŲ쵼ġ߿ࡱChan et al., 1984: 47, 71-3, 洦ɼ

ڱСŴ壬ͬĹӷϽ׼˵ĶƵľ׼ʶ̬ͻ֪ʶ˼άͳγ̶ȡֱ˾Ǽǰķ˶ܺߣȻԸμ˹ӣڹСʶУɲѾܣؽ˶ϴϽ׼ȻķŶռһһͷĿ׵ĺڲзҪãȺһͬͶԻȡΡṩIJϣǸѸﲢʾڣYue and Wakeman1985133-44֮ԿԽһв룬ҲΪʵũ롣зζͱɫʵǣֱ֮˾ͳΪͬ˼ͬķܺߡ

һĶԵشеľĻ¼д˶Уÿһض˽һɲʦѧũͬͬԡͬסͬͶƶȺڽ׼119-201135-6ڵĸ߲㣬ë󶫺ŲͬʶëְìͷָʱӺϽ׼ʱΪ˶ĿӦЩIJ塱ĸɲҲܻڲìܡζźƽĽ֣͡ìܡȻζűij֣IJ𣨱1993ڶ1131һ˶ð䵽ɲһЩȺܵĴͶԴ 1993ڶ1136

ëȷذµġĽ׼ˡ磬ɲϵġĽ׼ˡϵһΪ˸衰Ľ׼ˡʵʵݣëٽҷЩб©Ľ׼ˣ˶ϵͳصЩеġ©ӣ1993ڶ1131Щָʾڻš׳´СŴĹԱĻṩ˳ԡַͨʽеڶֱܽ鵽ظĸͽ׼

ʱЩͳΪȨƵĿɫdzΪһIJΪɵģȻһʵ鹹ĻṩһʵĿĿǰĵȨɺ׼ͬǣëѷԵȨϽ׼˵ĶϵһʱͿ԰ѷԼֵζתΪ׼Щ޴ĥͷԵȨɵжĽϷʽΪĸƫ

ˡũĻ

뷢ڳеĻȣũеĸֻһָ˶ڻŴ壬½ͨһα飬һԸׯɵġķݱѲ飬üҾ߱ûգǰҲжߡԼ˫֣ͷñƣںνСʱֱѶҪٴγЩСգꡣͷźһ׼ˡ걻ලͶζһϹһ¹ڱϢʱҪͶֻܵõ9֣DZ˵10δ쵼׼һͷ79ֱ꣬ǿӸĽ׼ǩƽHuang1990276-8

½͸һܵǣŴĸвûзIJҡҪڴϣϵĹ磬Ȼչɽظũֱӹĵӵ쵼ûܵijԾũ񣨳ЩϽ׼ˣԶ˷ڸȼͳеη籩ũĸijĸҪжѾתƵ˳С

´Ͻ׼ͬٴα˳ڵ͸ũļѰ⽨ϺͿܲμӵ߸֤ݡ˽׼˵ļҾߡ鱦·ֽChan et al., 1984: 118ڡ׼ɷ֡˶Уһξ˶Ͻ׼˵ȺڶᣬһζܻӭĴǶ϶ǵݣChan et al., 1984: 162-7

´һЩѧij֪ʶijֶø쵼˶Դ֧顰췢Ĺշ֧쵼¡֮ӵȨӺͨũȻ˶ĸз״̬еĶڹ缰ϣChan et al., 1984

Ӵӣ˴򣩣ͬҪȻׯϵĴһӺʹȺڶԴ˱ĮȻĸﲢûũij׵ıɧҡPotter and Potter, 1990: 83-94, 279-80

šĻеı

ڳУ׼Ӱʮĸдﵽ塣׼еĻѧҡҵʷѧҺѧߣӹٷͨѶ絽ճ̸ӹҷɵ˶żѵѡ񣬵ȵȡȵȡеĴͳ̬ȱԴĻ

ǽ׼İȨĻǽڱʵͿ͹ʵ֮䲻ĺ蹵֮ϵġЩũġвϽ׼ǣʵֻһȺ޴һһα򡣸û˼Ϸ⽨͸ũڵʻʲ׼ˣΪǵIJƲʮǰѾлҲɥʧڵʻʱӣҲ1957ķ˶бӰҪλȥΨһʲ׼˵Ŀ͹ۻЩӸλȨĵȨߡĸĿ겢еĵȨɣֻЩΪǷëʱ·ˡʹý׼һȫ̬Ⱦκʻ޹صĶǣԼٶ޲׼Է⽨ʱ׼˵Ľ׼ĸʵĹŹֽҲͲΪˡ

һĽԳΪΡΪ˶ľɱǩ֮⣬ʵвĽ׼λãʶõֻ̬ȺΪΪĸȺڶı£һ˵̬Ҫɱ˵ĸ֪õһ˵̬ȱ﷽ʽʱ˺ѵΨһ׼ڱ

оܳ˱ィʵ֮ƫ룬ȻжϱĿ͹ۼ飺׼ֲʲƲϵһϵڡظĸ﷨ǵõ͹۶ġһ͹۱׼ԾЩıǩʵ͹ʵϵܵߵļ顣

ĸﲢˡʵͿ͹ʵ֮ϵˡΪ׼˵ĺʱһأͷ˶иΪ¡ĸģıĵıֶεĽϡ

ĸңʵͿ͹ʵ֮IJԽԽ󣬻ɺͷˡ֪ʶ֮Уýı۲ʹõķʽȨֹIJ²ϰߡַȻй͢ʷ֪ʶ̸ֽ֮ҲʾԹٷߵィͻɣΪμΪʮ˶ȨIJݡ

ũУһֱǼŷԺ͹ٷ֮𡣶ũ˵ٻǹٻȻٷΪͨͨҶԻŴĵ飬ũķں̶ܴϱڽ׼Ķũ׼Ǿڹٷڿͷũ໥̸ķҲ߱ٺ壬͸ ϵ·ߵĶΪˡ׼еij󷶳볣½ͨ͸ľϵںߣdzǸӲͷָȺڶѹĿǰһݱзԹٷζHuang1990276-7

һЩòͬĽɫԸһµʵ[][ɾ]ĸ֮ǰҶϢĴѾ[ʼ][ɾ]ּƣЩⱨģЩͨģЩڲļڲϢЩǹһܡĿϵͳ֮УѾϰڻﰴͬIJº˼һЩÿһʵзֱֳͬĿʹͳгڴڵĸ֡ӡʵĸ֮ͬһ˿һֽɫμѧϰ򿪻ᣬԼһӳ֡ĸУʹöؽɫΪη籩άķ֮һ

ֶؽɫķڸ ֮ûֱӳͻ֮ǿάֵġڳ֪ʶ˵һʱڣΪDZȽԶũǿԱũũ׼ͬʵ֮䱣һ£DZ޶ԡĸ˹ٷͳʵǸܵʵ֮ǰδеľ޴ƫĸһ˶ȴ˸˽ֵַδʵǾıַϾһ˶Ŀ겻ǵʴڣǵľı﷽ʽͬεʵ֮ԼǾıԼIJͬɫ֮䷢ֱӳͻʱ޴ľѹ֮ˡ˵ӻǣһڽ׼ѹȥ/Ӱˡ

ǷƶĸĶڽ׼ο֮ϣDzͬεʵ֮ijͻļӾ磿޹ŵǵȳױΪȵķסٷλĻɡٷʵʵʸ֪ʵ֮ijͻԼҪݵIJͬɫ֮ìܣĸһЩ˸˺绯ĽһȳĵĹũ׼ʵͿ͹ʵìܣĸյ֡

ĸĽ׼ﱻʵǡȡżȻġʵǵҪԶԶľ塣ʵ¡ζٵʵǡҪǷǡʵdzΪĸ֮ҪںһʵǶĸбʵͿ͹ʵ֮ѷ̷ʡʵҪʵ͹ʵͬһ

ʮĸѧо

ȺɱķΪ˽ĸ˲ٹף磬Lee, 1978ЩΪ߽Ϊѧõĸ

ǣĸصDZֶѧĹɡѧǰǴҵĶƩ磬˽׼ΪԼͳȨָHuang1993һҺĶй˼мڡĸеȺ˶dzͬѧȺжĸȺ˶ij̶ֳȴȺɫʣӦһϵͳߵĺٶжģǷȨģͬʱĸȺ˶ԿҵıͶһЩ˵ĥΪصģһصΪκɱ͡ʵϣṩĽͽһַһʷáҿĸﱩ¶˴ͳ-ú-ηľޡ

һЧӽǿëĿ˹ԽɫԼ׷ߵļڽʽĿȡ磬֣Chang Jung 1991ԴС˵У¼ˡëijݡӰ쵫ָڷϵIJ˼Ӱ졣ǵо1990ġʮ£ũ壬dzԵذĸһڽ̸˶Щ׽ĸijЩ塣ûнͣʵij֪ʶӣijһʱڣԸ޴ʩ˶ʱǵԸĸԡҪǣDzû̽ĸµαͶ֮ǿҷС

ǿ׼İȨĿģڽЩ¹ʵ֪ʶĸеԸ룬Լһ˶ıһ棬ʵ֮ѽڣ¶˱εĻ֮áԼĸﲻľգĸ룬ұα

ʮһ

ѧԱʵṹԼǰͽźйĴоǷֿеģΪ֮ҲǷġÿһάȣȴ֮ĹʹǿЩά໥úֵһЩҪ

ĵʵǼ򵥵ݴׯĿ͹۽ṹ廹ǽṹ棬ɱɿ͹жͿ͹۽ṹ֮нõġŽ׼ִÿһׯĻѡÿһׯƶԵĵϷݵĽ׼ͼԱеũͳ֪ʶֵ֧ľһ˼жʶ̬ʵһĿġ

ѧоûеõ㹻ӵĵһƶ׼ΪȨУҪá֪ͨʶӲ뵽ũ׼ѽ׼Ĺٷʶ̬תΪһ˵ж˺ͨԱڶ֪ʶӲμӵͬڵڶĵ˶ڵë¼˽׼ʹ֮ΪĸİȨЩԻݵ֪ʶӶԴׯڵĽ׼IJ롣

һѡͬշ˱ʵ֮ƫļӾ硣ׯʵϲûзϿ͹۱׼Ľ׼ˡÿһׯһ׼˽׼ãзԸ˶Ͻ׼˵ıǩѸ˵ѡ򵥵صͬĽ׼λãڸûн׼˵ĵط׼ˣʽȺڶᡣЩʵΪ¸Ļһ֣ĸзչ˼ˡ

ЩԱμĵ֪ʶӣıʵͿ͹ʵ֮ƫԭˣں۲λõľ޴ɹЩƫûĸôԡΪ֪ʶӶԶũʵΣгֵ֪ʶӵĴԸʹý׼ĸ

ʮ˶ĵڶУʵ֮ľӴˣΪеĽ׼ѾΪ׸򡣵dzɳһͷеľɽ׼˺ЩȨмٶ½׼ϵһϵһʹǰѷԵȨߵ췴˽׼һ棬ְٴĥЩϽ׼˵ж׼İȨĵڶ֪ʶͬԸʹý׼һѾԶ˿͹ʵһ

ĸУʵͿ͹ʵ֮ľңԶԣڵ˽׼׵ع޹߲ձʹòбֶΣֻܲǵα̬ǿҷС׼ͽ׼ԽԽʵ֮ʱҲԽԽΪǹٷͨѶĿնںţֻɵǹڿͷëȥ͡˰ĵ̨׼ﱳȨʧˣǣһȫͳйĻͻȻȫˡ

Ϊ˻᲻ͬҵĵһжϣĵʼׯ͹ʵľ룬н׼ʶ̬İȨij֡˻ͬĺĸ֮佨ϵԡʽ;ϰߣͨιģ޴ũ˶֪ʶӡ

һͼ¶ʵͿ͹ʵ֮IJӵľ롣һγĻеıεıԶ͹ʵıΪֽ׼׼Ψһ׼Ȼ׼еıûΪ׼ǩIJȷԶᡣ޹˲ⲻҡ˽׼ȣĸбʵ͹ʵ֮ƫﵽ߷塣ҪIJЩ԰Ȩһ˹ɫäӣһҪⱻһ˶ìܡ̵ķ˼ͷСҲĸΪʲô־Ž׼ͰȨĸ߷壬ҲıǰסҲǡǧҪǽ׼ʵǡԭ

¼ԣ

οף

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ѧԺ1957л񹲺͹طοϻࡷ ɳ

BOURDIEU, PIERRE (1977) Outline of a Theory of Practice. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press.

[edited and with an introduction by John B. Thompson] (1991) Language and Symbolic Power. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press.

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CHAN, ANITA, RICHARD MADSEN and JONATHAN UNGER (1984) Chen Village: The Recent History of a Peasant Community in Maos China. Berkeley: Univ. Of Califormia Press.

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FOUCAULT, MICHEL (1978) [1990] The History of Sexuality, Vol. 1: An Introduction [translated by Robert Hurley]. New York: Random House (Vintage, Paperback).

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1940ۡpp.147-206ë󶫼߾

1972ë󶫼߾

MYERS, R. (1991)How did the modern Chinese economy develop? A review article. J. of Asian Studies 50 (August): 604-28.

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