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1965-У人ˣʷѧʿ人ѧѧԺڣĻоҪоΪѧйֵʷ


ڽ֮ά

ժҪпάΪڽΪǰᡣʷЩȷе֮˼ң˹˺ӵ˶Ի̲áһۣڽΪҪôϵ֧˼Ϊȴڽ̣ĽӦǣڽ֮άĻ۲˼ǰᡣ
ؼʣڽ̣пά⣻

һ

ѧһѾõĹ۵㣬Ϊڽ̣ạ̊́ij֮ƶȵά⣬ڽ̵άȡܶǽ˼Ҷһ۵㡣Ʃ磺

18ڣ˼ϵ˹ָʹ˵ϰڽûôĻڽȴЩôģڽΨһԼЩη෨ɵǵ񱼲ĭɽŭͰƥŭסˡ1

һЩʱӢʦɡؿҲ֣ûͳߴڣͳ߾γɵ·ǻִе·ôκηԳԸԼΪƲá2Ŀؿ˵ġͳߡָеϵۡ

˵ϵ˹ؿ˻϶Ծɴ½ľΪݣҶڽ̵Ĺϵ˵òôпά´½Ĺ۸ΪݣֱڽΪһҪǰᡣڡһУȷдһΪҪûͱȻūۣҪɣͱŷڽ̡3

ͱĿǰ۹пάǵһֱӽڽΪ֮ǰѧߡܶôҲΪdz˷֮ţҪڽ̵Ĺкֽ͡ڽֱӹҹġпά⡱ԺѧоӰµѧ͢ٵоʷʱóһΪġ衱̵Žķչ4

ڽΪ֮Ҫǰġпά⡱֮ܳȷڽ̣̣֮άôڰйڵĺִҶԣִ治òһۡһ棬ЩҴ಻л̴ͳĻ̻㷺ᶯңһ棬ЩҲȷƻ̵ڽڽΪҪǰֻһңɼ롣мڴˣΪ̽Ƿڽ֮άǷڽΪҪǰᣬǺִѧӦùעһ⡣

ڽ֮άĿǰѧϻɹľо˵۵1ΪȨĻ̵ȨȨƣǷȨƶȵʼһϵ˹Ϊ2ϵ۵أܹʹϵ־ķɾϵ۵ijԣӶȷܷڵķ֮Ȩһ԰ؿΪ53ڽΪṩΪ淶ʹ֮µĸɲܱΪ޷졣һпάΪӺоߵijɹȻҲһЩºϲûгԽֹ۵㡣

Ʃ磬ԵйѧӰѧҲɴͳγڶλ11ĩ13ĩΪһϵ̵Ľַ̻ᷨϵϣ뵱ۼ˵ʱ׵ġΨĺ͸ķϵ๲֮ͬ˾ȨĶԪĻһ˵Ƕеģ6ƽĶֻۣǶϵ˹۵ϸоƶڽ̵Ļʱ̶ԷɵӰ4棬1ɵʽׯصԡʽijԼģ2ԴͳǶӹȥδ3ȨǷͥȨͳߵȨҲһһ񣬻˵һܷ4µձԣͨһֲ֤ķʽ֤Լ뱻Σܺ뱻Լ뱻أظȨȵȣⲻΪʵûԭ򣬶Ϊڽ̵ԭ򡣡7ϸȥѷ֣еҪ˼룬ǵ4ڰؿ˵ҵΡ

Ӧóϣϵ˹ڽȨ˵ؿ˵ϵ۸賬˵пάڽṩΪ淶˵Ӳͬ津ڽӰʵʡѧһֱ˼һ⣬ڵִƶΪʲôֻ硣Τֵ½ʱ徫ϵһϵ˹姬ؿпάһδʻ֮ǰʵѾͬһ⣬˼·Τ֮ͬƶȱ仯ڽ̴ͳ֮ҵijԡϾĻͬڽ̡ǣϵ˹姬ؿпάڽ̵ĽǶȻشΪʲôȳͬʱƺҲػرһ⡪Ϊʲôǡǡڻ̵Ӱ˥΢ʱ֡ ѧϰ19ͺڵΪ˼仯ı־ȷʵɵһϵˡԴԻȨλɣ8ɲʼпάǿڽ̶ĻõͬʱҲ֡ڽ18͵ķϳΪձռϷļ顱9ʵϣϸһʷѷǹŴϣǽŷ뷢չ֮ʣЩ֧źϵ۵֯һġ˼ʷϣƵӼʰǡ

ȣǿһ¹ϣʱڵ

ոסͼʿ3λʦйϵ˼ң̬ϲһ£ͼ޳Σʿ֧Σ3˵һͬģǶԵʱijǰ񲢲ʮءոԡġڴ˵㣬ۣϱ˶ʸڷϡΪˣڡո׵硷УȻ̸ƩΪԼָΪ˵

ʵΨǻۡ˵˵ǻСʲô˵ոǻۣҵ֣Ϊˣ·˵˰֮УΩոǻۣ֪ʵڲʲô10

ʹոҲҪΪԼѣ˵ֵʱˣȥȥ˭ȥ·ãΨ֪11֣ƺԱոһˣ׵ĶԻʵѴӸϵ߸˶ݰͼأף˵򯾴ʲô㲻˵򯾴Ǽ֪ʶ𣿡ֻûش𣺡ǵġʵ񣿡ٴλش˿һףͱ˵طʵô򯾴˻ཻ׵ļ12϶򯾴ûʳһȻһʴһڽ̵ߡڽ̶ԣڽʽһرҪأ֮һرҪأ֮䣬ٽʥΪΪӹ׵ҵΪĻͨʥеġԼǡһ̶ϻˡո֮ʡڽ̵ĵ߸ڹϣʱո׵һʱѽڽ̵ڵѱ¶š ͼʦոһҲֱڽսƩ磬ڡƪУ˹֮ڳϷƶģֽһŵ֮Ϊ񲻹˹ĸȻûжӦǷϵƣЩڸͬÿȺƶʱȡĹͬԼྶͥ13ڽ̷ǵǷɵİԮɷڽ̵İԮ˶ģֵ֧ڽ̸˶ˡʵϣֻҪעڡ̸ʱͼᵽڽ֮ĹϵͿԴ֪ڽĿеĵλˡʿǽע⵽ɱȨһˣӦκηܵضϵȨҲȷָýȷ˵ɣףijձõձطɣףϰߡǣΪ࣬ƶΪ޶޵ﴴֻпܣάϵΪĶ࣬ΪĴȴʹӹɣɾȻľ14ǣǷһʵĴڣʿµġѧУDzûп ֮ոסͼʿλϣ˼޽˼УǺѿǶڽ̵š̸ʱ˵ššΪڶ񣬲˵ášΪö15ζǣáŵʽҲڽԽһЩ˼ҡ

棬ٿһƶȷʱ

Ӣһ㣬ѧ粢顣˹ˡ3ҲǹϵΪӢ绤Ϊ˼ҡϸĶλʽȴ̸֣ᷢڽϵʱͬԵáŵ

˹һֱʱΪһߣⲢǺܡڡά̹У൱ƪۼڽ롶ʥ˵ɣ¾ǷȻij羴ھϵ˵ֵüϵ۵ĽҲIJڡά̹Ŀƪơֻ֫һ˶ȷָȻֵĽһ㷨򡱣ȻϵһλȨ¡ľءڻ˹Ϊʲôһ̸ԣһϵۣڡά̹ʮеһλй¶ʵԼûжijǿηʱͲǵҰġ̰ŭ顣16áŵͼš

˹ȣ˶ϵ۵̬ȸΪΪ˳ƷȨ˵ɴΪϵһֻǿͱIJһǷǿʳҰ޵ķ򡣡ȻУȻǽ롰ԡ۵ġԣȻ״̬һΪӦصȻ֧ãԣҲȻ̵ԵȫࡣڡۡУҲᵽϵۣĿΪǿȻҶϵ۵Ĵôұϵ۸һģˡͬһȻڹһУͲ֮κδϵ17ϵǷĴڣƺҲ俼֮С

ѧ߿ϣо˵ȻʱΪ˹ȻϵԴԴìܱ⣬ΪȻϵ־һ֣ϵԼ˵ʱ򣬸ԣΪƾԣ˵Ȼ18ͨ˵ġۡûκεط̸ϵ۸֮Ĺ۵㡣ڽѧϽڽˣ˵ǿԼǿϵۣƺǣǿʵϣ˹ǿԣӶĸԣɵ˼ʷϵĵλרƵĻ˹˹Ĺ֮ҲһЩѧ򵥿϶ġۡ򣬶ոһǿԵĴͳǰոзǿΨǻۡ仰DZ̨ʼǣո˵Զ޵ġոײһ񣬵һޣӶˡ޶żڻ˹ͬԷ䣬˵˵ϵۡϵۻϵ۾һҲdz羴ϵۣΪκζ޵ġ19˵˲ϵۣڸǣ˵Բܴޡ

ʵϣӢȷŵ壬ǿ޵Ĵͳ˼ʱҲ̸ϵۣڴǽϵΪ˲ܹͨ󼰵Ķ󣬴Ӷ˵֮ޡȻ˹ӶһΪ̣һǿ˵Եԣ˵ҼȻΪϤ֮еȱݣìܣҾϣƾƲ⣬˳ߵġԶǹ۲췶ΧУκεijɹһ棬Ҳ ѧʿ֮УһѧϵĻһȫġŵĻͽĵһҪһ20ȷʵǿԵԣΪڽ˷֮šڻ˹˺ӵʱǿȨڡַĻ̵ĸǿϵǰޡܣǿ޵ͬʱֲܶϵ۱ֳֵģǡ̱ð桱ձֳһڽ۵ ֮ȷʷǿϵ۲ǵʱ˼෴Щɡ֧˼Ҷٵرֳ۵򡣳˹ˡ֮⣬Ծٳܶų17ӢѧߵIJǣҲ֧Ҳ˵ֻڡʥĶôںεأΪʥûʡ21ˣڽ֮άʿ㹹һ⣺ȷҪڽ̵İôΪʲô17-18ȷĹؼʱڣЩ˼ȴ¶á۵أƺѾԶˡ

ܵʷ֧˼Ҳͬʱǿϵ۵Ҫԣʱڽ̲ɡһۡڽһҪǰᣬôΪʲô൱˼ȴڽûȤڿԿǿڽΪҪġпά⡱DzܳġȻ߿ܻʣΪʲôܾ£ֱӾڽ̵ʷۣʵ˵ϲ⽫һоĶ󡣾ͱĿǰյǸ֤ͬڽ̣ạ̊́һıҪ磬2090ޱǣʱͳ³һΪĻ˶һʱ䣬ùĵӳŸѧĿʥײ֣ҪԱΪϵ׷׼롰˶һҹ֮ΪͽȫĻ̻ȴûиޱǴԤڵ๫෴Ի߳ɡܳɷ³͵ġ˶ҲһЦ22գһЩûл̴ͳĹңӡձȴѾȷȶơ

ΪһЩ˼Ϊʲô԰ڵڽĴǣʵԭҲܼ򵥡ڽѧԭڽһᡢ淶ΪܣΪ̩˵ģ伴ʹûһϵۣҲҪһϵۡ23һ棬ڽҲ൱һЩܣƩ硰ڽ̻ͨʹѹӶԲĵֿ24ͬҲعܣЩʿһϵ۵ڽάĹܣһֽϵ۵ʾ˵ԵޣӶֹȡϵ۵ĵλʵϣոо˹ٵӣ3˾ܶڽ̲ΪȻ3˶û˵ȡϵ۵־ǷǿԵԡԿԣʵѰȨ˼Ϊ˵ޣDZ㲻ΪƶȣôƶȱǶ˵Եл壬˵ԵƶȻӦ˾ηҲǺŵҮҪ۵㡣

ˣʵʩĺִңͨڽ̵ķʽȨַͨʽȷ޵˼롣ΪĻۣʵʩһҪ˼ǰᡣ

ע͡

1 []ϵ˹汎۷ľ²ᣩ룬ӡ1963棬139-140ҳ

2 Rodney W. Kilcup, Burke`s Historicism, Journal of Modern History, 49(Sept. 1977).

3 []пά¾룬ӡ1991棬539ҳ

4 []͢٣20ͺ˳룬ϺϺ1998棬83ҳ

5 ؿ˵һָ߼ķκιͬȨ֮УҲ˵֮Уɱı䡪˵ϵ۵־Ϊ˵ıʣһϵķThe Works of Edmund Burke, Vol. 6, Boston: Charles C. Little and James Brown, 1865-89, p.322ڰؿ˵˼룬׫רġ۱ıʡ԰ɡؿ˼Ϊĵо˲׸

6 []޵¡Jɴͳγɡ룬йٿȫ1993棬51-52ҳ

7 Harold J. Berman, Faith and Order-The Reconciliation of Law and Religion, Scholars Press for Emory University, 1993, pp.284-285.

8 ˵һѧһڽ̸Ҹкο壬ͬ˿֤ǵԣĹ̶еҸ˿֤ĺһμĵѧѡܹƽ룬1986棬183ҳ

9 μ[]пάƶ룬ӡ1992棬184-192ҳ

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11 ͬϣ80ҳ

12 ͬϣ33-34ҳ

13 [ϣ]ͼƪʡڻ룬ϺϺ2001棬1326ҳ

14 [ϣ]ʿ£ѧ룬ӡ1996棬192354ҳ

15 ĿIJͬµʽ׫רġáššءڽѧо20033ڣ

16 [Ӣ]˹ά̹˼͢룬ӡ1986棬286197103ҳ

17 [Ӣ]ˣۣƪҶľũ룬ӡ1983棬3-46ҳ

18 []Jϣ塪ڽ֮ά¡֥룬1997棬72-73ҳ

19 [Ӣ]˹ά̹˼͢룬ӡ1986棬283ҳ

20 [Ӣ]ӣȻڽ̶Ի¼ӡ1989棬2397ҳ

21 תܺʮӢѧѧ1985棬227ҳ

22 Julius O. Ihonvbere, Economic Crisis, Civil Society, and Democratization: The Case of Zambia, Trenton: Africa World Press, Inc., 1996, pp.196-202.

23 ܸɣո˵ʮʲ׼ѧ˼й˵ѡӡ1966棬349ҳ

24 ڽѧѧ2001棬136ҳ

Ķ49 Ϊй׷л߻ݸ

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