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޶˹Ĺ淶ۣԼ֪֮Ļͷ˼ƽ

ѧ޶˹˼ԽԽܵйѧӣǣźǣйѧĵѧ˵ж䷽۵ۡǿô˵вй˽޶˹ĵԭѧ˵Ǻ˻ᣬй֪ʶӺ˼Ҳ˻޶˹ķۡһ֮Ϊй淶۵ƶּڳԶ޶˹ķ۵⣬ѧĹע ޶˹ķ۲ھġɵĺʵ֤ķǹ淶ġ˼ġʵĺͼԵġķȷǼ򵥵ĹɣҲǼ򵥵Ǵ֮һѡ񷽷һѡ֪ʶ޶˹ķҲһѧ"һˣҲеԹ̵ϵͳı"[1]ķ۴µһҪɲ֡⣬DZǿ޶˹˼䷽۵һԡԭͷ͸żȻԲ֧˵һ

1Լ ޶˹ķɫͨԼּ˼ʵչ֤ġԼġģƵijһ۵"Լ"ٶһֹǶһ׷

Լ׷ݵʥдǩԼʿѧ۵ԭ˹ȨͽȨľı϶ԨԴһۺϵ۸. [2]ˡ¬Ϳ½һչԼۡ޶˹ŵԼ۵ۼҲ֮ͬڣ˾ձԵϤԼ¬˵ߵij档Ronald Dworkin˵ģ"޶˹ļ費ǻ ȨӵijЩ˺ܶҪȨΪƽȵ໥غƶʱͬȱעĵλ[3]ڹŵԼ۵ۼǶԵĹŲɣˣԼķ̽֡޶˹ԵǸз⣬ͬIJкԵĹ۵ͶԪԣˣ˵ԼķǴһԵ⣬ԵƷ֪֮Ļ

Ϊʲô޶˹ҪԼһ裿ԼԤȼٶɡƽȲӵģDzų˱ǿơƭթ޶˹ԣԼɶΰŵĿԺͿԵһ顣Լԭ״̬޶˹˵�"Ƶ"ԼĸɡƽȵĹijһƽ´һµЭ顣

޶˹ΪԼʷԵ¼ǼġʷԵġνԵĵijЩ´ɵһ¡һʶԼ໥Ϊ[4]

޶˹ԼиעԼ棻޶˹Ϊ"໥Į"Ϊʲô޶˹˼裿ֿԣšΪʵġڡۡк˵رΪǶ˽ġơ޶˹һ衣ΪȷʵԵģΪ֤֤Ҫֻԭ״̬еģǽܵСֵԡ[5]

ԼĿȷʲôǵҪ壻ԭΪǵĻƶӦʲôĹ涨һϵпɹѡԭѡԭų˻ԭĿԭֱԭԭԭΪƽɵĵأԭÿһ˶ԽܵģͨԼƱѡԭ 2ԭ״̬֪֮Ļ

ڼ̳кͷչͳԼϣ޶˹ԭ״̬һơ

ԭ״̬(the original position)һõƣǶ״̬( initial position) һֽܻӭĽ͡״̬dz⣬һּĹƽ״̬Ϊ֤κѾѡƶȶƵģǼ乫ƽġԭ״̬Ŀ�"ԭ״ּ̬ڽһֹƽijʹκδͬԭ򶼽ġ"[6]һƽijѾʲôijܹõܺõѭӦǹƽġ

ԭ״̬УDZָˣĹԼ˲ʵʵˣ"ǽһּסǵĴƵС"[7] ıǣңƣͨ˼ƽ[8]

޶˹עĿǣԼĸ"֪֮Ļ"ԭġζţǶԼijЩʵ֪

šDz֪Լеĵλ

ơDz֪ǵȻ츳

ǡDz֪Լ"ƵĹ"ǵֵ׷ġ

ȡDz֪Լ⻷羭÷չˮƽȡ

ô֪Щʲôأ֪һʵᾭԭ򣬻֯ԭͼĿܷչƵĹ

ΪʲôҪ֪֮Ļ֪֮ĻĿųϢԴ˷չһձͬĵѧ˵ǽҪʲôõԭʲô޹ؽҪأijֻԭ岻ǻijЩƶȻʹһЩ˱һЩ˸֪֮ĻDZһ˼롣֪֮Ļڱ֤"ƽȵ֮䣬Ϊ˶εԭɹƽһµЭ飬Ѹ涨Щڽռ˵󣬶ЩκƶȱDzɱġ"[9] 磬޶˹ΪӵϿȻ츳ģûӦõõȱ˸ļܣ岻ӦóϣȻ츳ӦõõȻԴˣ֪֮Ļǵ츳еķӡ

"ľ޴ŵڣҪʱҪ׷⻷͸˲ϸıŵԵλ"[10]ƺûһָõķʽϸṹرǣǰῴʱһƺΪԡ[11] ޶˹ͨ"֪֮Ļ"һ֪ʶ򣬰˸ˡѡԭеƫƺǰһ󷨹ٵĽɫѸֵּжۺп죬ͼ͹۶ķ

Ҫǿǣ޶˹֤У֪֮ĻһŵĹ̡ԭѡ޶˹ΪͿԷſ֪ʶơΪ˰ԭǵе⣬ҪϢĹͬʱκпƫú֪ʶԼʹ໥֪ʶӦñų[12]ϢĿźƲ۵ģּڻһձĵ֪ʶ[13] ֵעǣ֪֮ĻĽ֮һÿ˶һģȻǶʵӵͬϢ֪ԼǾͶͬķĸ˲ζѧϵijˣǾʵڵıʣһʲڶǵĸżȻ[14]

3 ֪֮Ļѡԭ

AСֵ

ڣǴԭ״̬֪֮ĻСӦѡʲôԭأȷʵԭ״̬ĸ׷޶ȵطƸɡ롢ᡢƸ𡣵һϵпɹѡԭʱԵԼ߱ؽijһпռݵĵλʣѡһԭǡˣһǰһˣôӦѡ񣿼Ȼ㲻֪˭ôͻῼǸֿԡԣˣôϲᣬ϶úܺãǡôײ㣬Ͳôá㽫ξ

޶˹ѡǣСֵ򣬼ԼС󻯡[15]ζʲôζţעǣ㴦ײ㣬ǽᷢʲô˵ѡ1ϲᣬҵľ12֣ڵײᣬҵķΪ7(ǼķԱʾеĵλ͸֮)ѡ2ײ㣬ôõķ͵(8)ԣҪܱ1;2ܸһߵСֵΪѡ˾3ʹײ㣬Ȼ5 ֡ǣСԭǣǿܵиֿܵѡǴܽѡ񣬶Ҫõöࡣ԰еʧ˼

СԭҪΪ£ܷǿԵõ5ĽҪõöࡣߵλýѡʹζŸõԤѡǾѡ2ǣ2зա

BСֵԭƽ

ԱȽϣTУM£BֿԡIIIIIIУСƺǢѡ£ͽײĽõġԭȵͽײߵеȽײʹͽײõ6µͽײ㡣ԣСĹ۵ƽƺõĽ

񡡡򡡡
T9T6T6
M6 M6M5
B3B6B7


ǣǵ


T15
M12
B8

޶˹֤ǣαȵڶθãƽġΪڵ£ͽײ״ڵڶҪáԭ״̬ǽѡijֲƽȵĴڣܲƸһΧͽײԶʤھƽµá(ȻƽȻѡ II رڲƽȲܴ¡)

C޶˹ǹ˼

Ϊ˼ңѷ(Hutcheson)ϣά (Sidgwich)ͱ (Benthan)ţһò֯ҪƶȰűضܹ˵Ҹ޶˹ָ"۵ǣֱ漰һڲͬʱ⣬ٹģ˼ӵأЩڸ˼зġ"[16]޶˹˵ԭ״̬иDzѡԭ

޶˹빦ۼ֮IJͬڣ1.ڻشԭΪ˭ʱ޶˹ע˵ĹرܻȺ壬ǿ˵Ҹϧ˵档2.㹦ϣ޶˹Сֵڲ󻯷3.޶˹ܾԹı羭÷չΪΪƽȨ֤ȨԲƸԡΪūҪﵽƽ幦󻯣ôܻ֤ūƵĺԡ

Ӧעǣ޶˹ͳ۵ıдģִͳһֱܹģҲ޷װѹӰ졣㹦ʵСֵǿܻߵĹ档һ棬빦ɸǿնģɵļֵĹɵļֵٵ빦йϵ磬ǵ˹˵"ϵ˵IJƲ˵dz˵˵dzһֲԡ¹ʱͳ˧ƶɣ涨Ѳ˶ԵõͲƲı˺йũҪܵ˺ũͬijͷںսУͲ󽫶Կܽػ̴Բ׽ӡ˺ũͬ޺ģܴ˲ͬأԭǣũԹͳ˧ΪʦԶЯоؽdzѡʹйũڼУܵõʳӦز�"[17]

4˼ƽ

޶˹һǷ˼ƽ⡣һܸӣãʮҪֱڵѧһֱǺҪķӵΪǿȷģΪǴƵġǵֱԤʾijָ͸ĵԭıԺʵʣµͬǿհĵԭ򣩡

õ£ԭ״̬ѡԭֱϸ򵽵Ǻϵġ֮ӦԼѡԭʱǽֱزŵķʽͬжϡ磬ȷţڽ̵IJݺDzġ

ǣһǿһַƸȷԭʱֱʱìܵġΪˣ޶˹һķ˼ƽ⣬ҵ֮ϡ˼ƽҪĸΣ漰̡ǻ߱ԭ״̬⣬޸ڵжϡҪжϺֱж֮䷴˼ֱﵽ֮ʵǺϡȨ˸ֹ֮󣬻Լԭȵʹеijһۣ߳ԭȵֱӦĹﵽһֵһµĵۡ[18]ֱʱܺܺõԼжϣʹ֮ʺԭ򣬼ʹежȷʵϡԸеýڷ˼ƽʹжһ¡[19]

˵޶˹ķ˼ƽⷽĪڡۡм޸˹ԭĹʽע⣺ⲻظ

СֵΪܵѡ׼޶˹óձۣĻƸ-----ɺͻᡢͲƸĻ-----Ӧƽȵط䣬ǶκλвƸIJƽȵķܹܻߵ档

޶˹֤ĵڶ׶ΪݳһԵĸһɴƸзɱΪҪĻƸӦñƽȵط䡣ɵǣΪ˱ǵҪɵȨǾʲôӦġˣ޶˹˵DzΪĻƸɣǼΪǵһλġˣ޶˹γԭĹʽ

һÿӦƽȵȨӵƵĻϵ

ڶ;õIJƽӦñţʹ֮ٱʺÿһ˵棻ڡϵڵλְ˿š

ͨ˼ƽ⣬ԭγΪ

šһԭƽԭ

ÿ˾ƽȵȨӵһȫֵƽȵĻϵϵƵĻϵһ¡

ơڶԭ򣺲ԭ

;õIJƽӦһDZڻĹƽ£ְ͵λ˷ֿţڶӦܻߵ档[20]

5޶˹Ӧú

޶˹ķdzӣԼ򵥵áˣʮνγһ"޶˹ҵ"ܶķ磬Beitz֪֮Ļչʹϵ˵"ԭ״̬еĸܱ֪ijһضҵԱΪǵѡԭġ֪֮ĻչҵĹȨУˣѡĸԭӦȫ񡣡޶˹ԭ֤dzɹģǾûΪԭԭ״̬Χ�"[21]

˹޶˹쵽Խػ˼ΪӦðѽػԭӦ÷Χ֮ڣԱ㱣֤ÿ˵õػĹƽƽȵĻᡣػƶӦñڱƶ֮£ԱΪÿṩƽƽȵĻᡣЩƶȿΪڽࡢҽԤְҵͰȫҪһֽϡ (thinner) ֪֮ĻΪ֪Դޡ[22]

ɵŮҲ޶˹ķۣ磬 Okin ΪŮǶȿ޶˹ԭ״̬һDZڵԡ"ԭ״̬Ժǵԣ츳ĿģΪһսԱṹǿĸ[23]

޶˹۵ˡֽΪ޶˹ͨ(through)ԭ״̬֤ԭģȱ֤ݵ"Դ"fromֽ˵֪֮ĻDzҪģΪ޶˹Ѿ˷˼ƽķԭ֤Ӧû֪֮Ļ֤һԣӢѧڴ侭崫ͳ޶˹磬˵޶˹һּļ״̬ôBrian Barryϲһʵ֮ļĶԻBarryص֪Լһƽ״̬£ͨһƱȨõ֤[24] Ҳ˻˵һƱȨֻǶ޶˹IJ䣬ɶԭ״̬⣬Ӿʵӽԭ״̬֪֮ĻĹǼģôЩһԾûԼǣʵDzҪġȻ޶˹ѵʶ۲߱ԼּڶԪ̽ͬοܵġ

Ƿȫʼǵ¡޶˹׷˵ķһѡ񣬲ͨﵽȻأһ߻ᷴ˵ԾʵΪԵԭϺѡġֶĿһֿ߶޶˹֪֮ĻķΪŵڰżȻƫʶһֹ۵Ϊ޶˹֪֮Ļճѡľ෴ճǵ桢־ӰǵֱжϣӰǵĵԭѡ񣬸ֵµѡԾΪģǰѲżȻԵġ

ŮҲ޶˹ķOkinŮۼңȻ϶ԭ״̬ļֵǣ޶˹ֻһԵԭ״̬֤˵޶˹ԭ״̬Աͼͥ⣬ˣӰԸչеĽ͡޶˹Ϊ²صżȻأ֪֮ĻOkinΪγɺӦԭʱ֮ԺؼְԵصλǽȥرǣԭ״̬еǶŮԵӽĽͣΪ"һʵʶŮԵ֪ʶʶŮ෽ѾǣҽǸܻݵԱ"[25] ǿǣŮ߶ԴвͬĿ

ȺҲ޶˹ķɡMichael Sandle˵ԭ״̬еĸǼȶľ룬ûκѡ[26] ƫͶԪ壬Ĺ۵ǽѴﵽձһµĿģܽ޶˹ڶԪѰһԹʶ

6Ϊʲôй˺ѽܺ޶˹Ĺ淶[27]

ĵˣٻصĿͷָĵйȱ淶 ⡣йҵϵ˼ۣٵ޶˹ʽϵߡ˽忴һַһֵѡ֪ʶһ"μѧ"ֻҪĽۣٵ䷽޶˹ʽķۣҲ£ΪҪճ򵥵ж( ֱʽ˼άã)ƶĹ淶ʹйʼͣڿںʽIJϣҲΪʲôйһԭйδܻܽ淶ԭܶࡣҪĽз ȣйʵ˼άϰߺʹͳʹԼƹ㿪ʵйһ"淶"޷޶˹˵"֪֮Ļ"йѧǿ֤ʵǡһ㣬й˺Ӣһ( ӣJohn Dunn)ϲ޶˹뾭ʵԶķ⣬Լ۷ڰѾʽʽۼֵķתΪһ˼淽һѧ˼򡣵ǣй˶Լֵۣӹŵ() ¾(塢塢Ⱥ) ԭͨоճ˵ۼֵ⡣˼ǿ뵽ײ㡣й֪ʶҪı֪ʱԾۼֵķ෴һ޶˹ʽķۣͻɥʧDZڵĶߡ

ڶ޶˹淶һ׸ķۣǵԭѡ㡢Ԫͺġ෴й˼άģҲᷴij""رǷԹǣijֽṹšȴ˼ά˼㡢ܺͺġַɿ˵뵽й˵ѪҺУɴˣй˺޶˹Ĺ淶

޶˹Լ淶ʷʵΪزġӢƾʱͨԼճ񣬴ѡ޸ܷĹͶƱ͸һԼʷʵ޶˹ԴȪ෴йҵЩʷʵ˵ԼĿɿԡɲԡ磬ũԼһũԸǩԼͬǣʵԼһΪƶһԼı׼ıũԼݱ޸ģڴͨʵʩ磬ٵطѹҵ˰Ҫд뵽ԼУûۣͨҲδͨͶƱͳΪһ"Լ"˿ЦõǣԼΪͷһֹߡ˵"Լ"ʵôǽ޶˹˵Ĺ淶أɴ˿޶˹۵ıҪıһʵij͵ġʵ͵˼άʽ

עͣ
[1] Ronal Dworking .Taking Right Seriously. London: Duckworth, p. 158.
[2] ŵԼ۵ۼErnest Barkerr, Social Contract: Locke, Hume and Rousseau, Oxford University Press, (ԼˡӺ¬󡷣ţѧ)1947ꡣ
[3] Dworking Taking Right Seriously, p. 182
[4] Nozickt ʶԼGauthier໥ӰԼбȽ.
[5] Chandran Kukathas Philip PettitRawls: A Theory of Justice and its Critics (޶˹ۼ), Polity Press, 1990) һǰ޶˹ԼΪһ־ԼͬHobermasԼһ۵ֵ۵ġ
[6] John Rawls, A Theory of Justice, Harvard University Press, 1971 (޶˹ۡ1971)P.136õӢİ汾ҳ롣
[7] John Rawls, Political Liberalism, New York: Columbia University Press, 1966 (޶˹塷)P.28
[8] ޶˹塷1996꣬P.28
[9] ޶˹塷1996꣬P23
[10] ޶˹ۡ1971꣬P97
[11] ޶˹ͬϡP27
[12] ޶˹ۡP200
[13].վܾ˼ƽⷽʱ (see David Miller, Social Justice. Oxford University Press, 1976)ŵ.˹һּʵġ㷺ķ˼ƽ⡣See Norman Daniels. 'Health-Care Needs and Distributive Justice', Philosophy and Public Affairs, vol. 10, no. 2. 1981, pp. 146-79 (ŵ. ˹"ػҪͷ"ѧ빫񡷵10No21981PP14679)
[14] ͬϡP27
[15] ˹Ӻ޶˹űԭ
[16] ޶˹ۡ1971꣬P26
[17] ǵ.˹ܹڷɡ졢뼰ݽϱ࣬ӡݣ1997 ꣬276-277 ҳ
[18] ޶˹ۡ1971꣬P48
[19]ͬ
[20] ޶˹ɼԡ1982꣬P5
[21] Charles Beitz, Political Theory and International Relations, Princeton: Princeton University Press (ʹϵ, ˹ٴѧ)1979P.151
[22] ϸۼŵ.˹"ػҪͷ"
[23] Susan Okin, "Justice as Fairness: For Whom?", in Milton Fish, ed., Justice, New Jersey: Humanities Press ("Ϊƽ壺Ϊ˭"塷Milton Fish ༭New Jersey:Ŀѧ), 1993294
[24] Brian Barry ,Justice as Impartiality, Oxford: Clarence (Ϊ塷ţ򣺿˹)1995P5
[25] ͬϡP288
[26]Mixhael Sandel, Liberalism and the Limits of Justice, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press (ľޡŴѧ)1982.
[27] ִ߻Ϊ޶˹׷ձ֪ʶķʹˡˣй޶˹淶DzҪġijԣҲϷ۵ĶԪԭ򡣵ǣΪʲôй˽޶˹ķۣһй˼άȤ⡣



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