ΩԸƽˮʹ罭ϣ
et revelabitur quasi aqua iudicium et iustitia quasi torrens fortis

 


漯ŵ
Rס˹ ׫

漯ɱijЩͬĿ겢ŬȥӰ칫ߵĸɵ塣
漯Э ܸ

漯(interest groups)ѡԱǵ뷨ҪͼһҪơ۹ĵǶôرҵһרŹע塣Ӱڶ־ԸͨѶ¼ϿԿЩŵԭ廨šǶй˾ġŴȫ(The Gale Research, Inc., Encyclopedia of Assciations)Ϊ꾡ȫĿ¼֮һЩŲȫλǣкܶԶԹʩӰΪĿġ
۴εϣǴεĴͳϣΪ漯ṩ˷ֵڼǿ漯Ӱ֮һǣԱһ̶ȨĽӢУҪеĶִ֧ԱҲͶƶߣ൱Ŀ֮ͳѡ͹ѡֿʹʱͬʱСÿԱ/ıݻһȡʤݣ˵ʣͬʤͳѡɵĶ˲һ˵һǣԵڶսĴ󲿷ʱڣͳְȨֱڶСˣˣǹ͵ˣһֱ֧ͳŻֱ֧ľѡٲɡڶԵɵҳ϶Ƚϵͣԣ漯ŵӰߡڼΪҪֵ֧ľѡʱڣҲѡٹЩԻʤѡṩֵ֧漯Ŷƶߵв롣
ڼǿ漯ӰĵڶȨɢݺ͵طҲƶȣԻ塱ȴݻطһȻϲΪȫԵ֯Ȩ·Ŵٽ˸ʽ漯ŵIJֽһϵΪ50ݵ뾭ǧʵʩԵ·ߡ
⣬ǿ󡢶˾ϵͳҲǿ漯ŵһЩй⣬ɷԺþˣ漯ſͨﵽ޷ͨ;ʵֵľĿꡣ磬2050ڣȫɫЭ(NAACP)ڷԺʤߣϴȱڣϷԱҪְĹԸȡжʱ˺üꡣ
һ㣺ۡųɼƵĴͳζţκ漯Ĺ۵㣬۶ôйĻᡣȻڶսý漯лʹһЩֱԵ۵Ϊǣڸ嶼ϻлһ̶ϱ֮ųɵĴͳṩ˽⹫֮ڲ͹߷۵ĴᣬӶ漯ŵγɡ
漯ŵķΧ
1970ǰ漯ŵı׼̿ཫǷΪ𣺹̡͹ũҵʱ漯ŵķΧѾ÷׷ӵöࡣũ˿ڵļʹũҵ漯ʧȥӰͬʱ³Щ漯š

ѧһΪ̽аһҪɫŹ˾оҪλѡԱҪΪҵľñָģȡ빤̽ߣھñ֡
Ȼ̽ҲֱӵӰͿ˾޶ʲƶԼĿꡣͨǶҵϻijԱЩϻҵνеšЩ˾Ҳ֧šɡʽԻ̽ȫЭ(Assocation of Manufacturers)̻(U.S. Chamber of Commerce)⣬Ҳй˾ֱԱ˵óԪΪѡ֧޳ɵĺѡˡ

20ͳչúܻ30ʱƶȡҪλáȫ͹ϵ(National Labor Relations Act)̸УʹԷչøΪѸ١2050Աﵽ壬ռ͹35%ǣ60𣬹Աʼ٣Ŀǰռ͹˿ڵ15%ңʵҲ侭ʵļ½Աٵԭʮָӣڴϸ֣̽ȫ򾭼õʷ˱仯 ҵΪľãתΪԷҵΪľáὫһѡٻһʱȻ൱Ӱ
ְҵ
һҪ漯רҵԱšЩ壬ҽѧѧ(Amercian Medical Association)ʦЭ(Amercian Bar Association)ȣרערҵĹͬ桢ֵۺ͵λ̶֯ȲѷɫǹŵרҵԱݺ͵طУÿһרҵԼȫ֯磬סȫסٿԱЭ(National Association of Housing and Redevelopment Officials)סȫ»(National Council of State Housing Agencies)ʹ͹ס»(Council of Large Public Housing Authorities)ɣЩ岻ò뵳ɻǣ漰ԼĿʱЩᵽ֤ǻ֯ԼĻԱͬԱݺͱԱԻڹĿķǵߣЩ˺ɾӰȫ壬ˣЩԱžͳν˵Ҫˡ
֯
һй漯ţЩطͬλ壬ΪȫΧȡԼ˵ڰȨɢطƶУЩ岢ɫǣǾк漯ͬãԼԱĿ֪֣ýԼĹ۵㡣磬ȫݳЭ(National Governors Association)ȫ(National Conference of State Legislatures)ݵĹԱݳ縺ʵʩҪḣĿֱΣˣȫݳЭڰԱƶḣ淽棬ӰؼȫؼЭ(National Association of Counties)еȫ(National League of Cities)г(U.S. Conference of Mayors)

1970չΪѸٵ漯ǡ漯šѧҽܸ•(Jeffrey Berry)漯µĶǣŵĿ겢ԱԱֱ棬DZֵ۵漯šһ60Ȩ˶ŮȨ˶ͻ˶Ӧ˶ġ֧Щҵһηչ̣ͨͷԼתн֯ж漯ַչһЩµмȨֹŰͯͥŮͬȨȡЩҲᳫ˵ĿҪ漯еһЩҪȫסϻ(National Low Income Housing Coalition)ͯ(Childrens Defense Fund)Լʿ•ɵ(Ralph Nader)쵼ṫ(Public Citizen)ȵȡ
漯һȱٹ漯IJܴǵõ൱Ĺ֧֣Աһ㲻ࡣԭ֮һǣǵĿ겻оʵʣɡ㳵󣬼ǿԴЩŬл棬ԼȴسΪǵijԱٲش롣ˣЩԼרҵسͨϢռܹ漰⡣ϵɡǣҲ֯Լ壬Ϊ˶Ըν6070гֵһĹҪȫ˰(National Taxpayers Union)͸Ů֯(Concerned Women for America)ͳ(The Heritage Foundation)ֵıţҲԷ漯ŵãΪǵоΪṩݡɷijо(Urban Institute)Ҳ¡
ЩڵĹ漯ţ80ڹ̨ӿֵķ֯(NGOs)ơʵϣijЩͬʷ֯ϵǶԹڻǹʵĹ֧֣ԹǰĹ
漯Чľ
̵ĽܿԿ̨жֶ漯ţĵоʾЩ漯Ա۵ЧͬɲԭһʹԼҪԴԱ/ȡѡϢ
Ա
˵кܸ֧ʵ漯ӦþӰѡԱģеõֵ֧ߣΪϣ֧ЩŵгһջʹǾѡɹѡӪȻмʹαò򵥡
гǧĹijԱЩ壬񻷾ʿ֯ɽ;ֲ(Sierra Club)͹֯/(AFL/CIO)൱˶ڵġǣһϸ۲ͿɿԱڶ漯ʵֻõDZڵ֧ߵеĺСһˡ磬޳ʵϸĻ档Щ֧߿ԳΪ漯ԱԴȻʹЩĻijԱҲһٵijԱʾһɣμ漯ŵĹֻռ˿ڵĺСһݡ
ѹʾѧ•¶ɭ(Mancur Olson)ԴΪеĽ͡Ϊһ漯ʵֵijһĿ꣬Ӿѧ˵һ֡ƸҲ˵ijɹʹЩͬŵǶ棬Ƿʵʼ˸֯磬ʹδȾࡰɹѵˣҲΪеοȻ˭ʽDzڵġЩ漯ÿ¼ijԱ̯ɵĻѣСԣһǧƵ֧߼壬һҲ˲룬߲ȫ룬dzΪνġ㳵ߡҲ˵ñ˻μӲǮԼɡ
Աڶ漯ٵһҪǣν֧תΪѡƱͶЩͬĿκѡˣѡͶƱһӵΪŶ෽ĶӰ죺ѡ˵ĸƷҳ϶ȣԼֶ⡣ѡٵоѡԼֵ֧ĺѡ˾ֺţ˽⡣ˣ漯֤֧ѡѡ֯ĿءЩܹúѡѡƱʵ壬ܵηġ磬ƶǹ֧ƷȫǹЭ(National Rifle Association)ʹԱȷţǸûԱͶ޳ɻ򷴶ƱĹؼȫǹЭеӰԶԶԱıܴ޳ƶΪϸǹ֧Ʒ
ڶԱԱǼѵ£ˣ֣ģСȴ뻮һǿҵ壬ܹԱʾҪöӰȣԽСÿԱɵĻѾԽߣ㳵ߡ١Σֱ֮ǰģԽС壬ԱĽԽ㣬˼жҲ׵öࡣģСЩƣټԱ߽أôʹС壬ҲԱdzǿ

ξѡӣǮеҪƾѡзɴ©ѡԱԸֶ֧ƶ޸ģ޸ĻöԷõôЩȫѡӰ漯ţѡṩԸܶɴʮԪ
⣬Ҫڷѡʱڻʢٱһϯ֮أҲҪ൱IJһҪһרҵԱȥ漰ʩӰ죬ҪһԱͬijԱϵԱṩ漯ȶشڻʢ٣޷̵ϸʩĻӰ죬Ӱǡǡ漯ųɹı־
ҲͬԱ໥áҪ˷㳵⣬漯űҵҡ Щɹ漯Ŷϡְҵϻʶ̬ϻûرˡҪһ㣬һҪδijԱΪһ壬㹻IJԴӶʹ֯ϣչҪγһĵߣߣ֯ԭֱӴ˵漯Ϊ١
Ȼ߳ߣñøΪӻ˵һӵ100Աÿ˽5Ԫ漯ﵽľ(500Ԫ)ӦһӵлԱ1ˡÿ˽500Ԫ漯ﵽľȡǣһǵ㳵ԼͬڶԱͨѶĸ߰ãDZԿģϴ漯ŵʵơ
һ漯ŵԴӰأ漰ijԱǸ幫񣬻塣ۺ漯ţʵɵ塣ǰҵšְҵЭʹӪʩ塣һй֯ɵ漯ţҪԱܶԱ壬ȴԳԼЩصijǧԱ⣬ĸԱԼ֯ԴǸ˵IJԴṩ֧֡
Ϣ
ʵijԱ;⣬Ϣ漯ӵеǿԴϢͨСȣϢ漯Ŵݸˡ漯Աȱרҵ֪ʶЩڰԱⱾĵ⡣ṩϢͨдٽƫԱǷdzǣǿȻΪЩϢõġ漯ųפʢٵһҪôлھ߹̵Ĺؼ׶ԱṩϢ
ڶϢŴݸ漯šЩĹԱʱй᰸ӶնʩӰʱͨṤԱķʽлᵽ֤֤ڽӽijؼͶƱʱijԱԱ̣ͨ˽⵽ЩʿۺԼʲôȡǵ֧֡ʱЩʹڹеijľֵõģӶӰЧ
漯ͬԼijԱϢ漯ſͨչίпչĵ飬Ⱦijһ⡣ýԴ˸㹻ӣԱǾͻе졣ЩҲԼijԱϢͨľߡڴ£ֻΪٵĸ幫ΪijҵԼԱԣһ漯ֻҪij200ţͻ˸еʼѩƬ
ķٷչ󽵵ϵڵķá漯ڶҳʹʼΪԱ֮ԼԱ֮佻ֶΡýֶλӱЩоЧضãˣҪȷ֪漯ŵӰãΪʱ硣
½һйӰǣɱɵվйǰͳȶ•ֶ(Bill Clinton)ĸѶЩʵЩ졣ҲԱֵֶһͷãܴȻԵǴ˾һʹûʩӿƵİ취ãһýܿܽʹζԻڻáҲпܴʹֳ΢СġͨѶάϵ壬ԽԽϡŹֵ۱
ù漯ŸЧ
ԭ򣬽СЭۺ漯ŵţЩ϶๫漯ŵŸ׻óɹ棬ҪЩͳġνڻռϷ硣漯ŵĴӿ֣ȷʹ漯ϸԪң漯žܹܿȥΪƴĶ֡ǣףѡԱǶãӮѡƱҪǮںܶ£ЩȺڻ漯޷֤ǵijԱὫѡƱͶѡˣҵź˽˹˾ȴܱ֤׺ѡ˹ӹԪ
๫漯ŵһشǷȱȱĻ֯ЩĵǣһСԱǧƵijԱ֧ЩԱͬ巢ΨһϵǰڽԱѡֽṹͬڵȺ֯ȫͬʱȫ˶ǴӽСġ潻ĵط֯𲽷չġִЩ壬⣬Աټ档
Ĺ۲ʿԽԽģȺIJ١漰֯Ҳ漰֯ԭࣺܶӴȺЧӦ˫ְ뵥׼ͥɵijϾʱ٣ýѳֵľѡڶԸƷͳŵĴȾע⣬ӶDz̬
ʲôԭɹļ٣漯ܹͨطͻֲЧؽǶԱͻϴǿĵλֳɵϵǿԷչȶijԱغķѴʽǿͨѡ˺ѡԱڵطϵֱӽӴٽڹҲϵ˵ֱ׳رʾԱѱĵΪͶƱݡ⽫һʵȺ˶ǿ֧߳ǮάֵԱж
Ȼһ֯ϰʮ־޴ġҪһʴʽ֯Ҫ˷˽طͬȫֶ֮ϰߡҲҪյ๫ֻ֪עȫý⣬ַͬھ潻
һ־չԼԴһе˽˹˾ԱַǵʱЩԴ˵֯漯ŷһԵáΪЧԼԴͶƱȨɡɺ˾

ض
Frank R. Baumgartner and Beth Leech, Basic Interests: The Importance of Groups in Politics and Political Science (Princeton University Press, 1998)
Jeffrey Berry, Lobbying for the People: The Political Behavior of Public Interest Groups (Princeton University Press, 1977)
Allan J. Cigler and Burdett A. Loomis, Interest Group Politics (4th ed., Congressional Quarterly Press, 1995)
Michael T. Hayes, Lobbyists and Legislators: A Theory of Political Markets (Rutgers University Press, 1981)
R. Allen Hays, Who Speaks for the Poor? National Interest Groups and Social Policy (Garland Press [forthcoming, 2001])
Charles Lindblom, Politics and Markets: The Worlds Political-Economic Systems (Basic Books, 1977)
Mancur Olson, The Logic of Collective Action: Public Goods and the Theory of Groups (Schocken Books, 1970)
Mark P. Petracca, ed. The Politics of Interests (Westview Press, 1992)

߽ܣ
Rס˹(R. Allen Hays)DZ»ѧоרҵΣѧڡġסһ飬йסʷһܵ㷺õĶоΧоר漯ƶ߹е2001ġ˭˵һ飬漯סʳƷֽеĻͱȽϡ˹ڵ»ѧν֮ǰεطסܡ