Ү˵ѧ͹ŵ



ᳫԼᡢ˲ƲȨϵгáĹŵڶʮ˾޴ĴۡʱΪΪԼҰʱ绤ʶ̬ܵ塢ʷ塢塢ѧ塢ֵȸĹ£ڰµѧɵĹҮˣͨԷԭԹŵԭϵͳʹ֪֮ʶۺ۵Ļʹ֮ΪһԵ˼ϵϵͳʹŵĻԭµõ˿϶ҲʹЩԭܹӦٵµսµ֮¡ļǶԹҮ˵֪ʶѧļ;ҮĹŵҪijۡ

Ү˵֪ʶۺѧ

ָҮ˵ѧǴ֪ɵ߼ԹҮʶ۵򵥽ͼոʱ˵ĻʶԼӶ֪֮΢΢⼴ܹȷʶԼ֪һ֪ʶһ˵Ү˵֪ʶΪΪ仰֪ʶǸʵ֪ʶǴͳIJ²ԵIJ

ϣյ֪ʶԶֻԵδ֪һС֣ȫ֪ȫܵʶDzڵġҮ˲ǿ˵δ֪Ǵڣǿڵ֪ʶǷɢģûһ˻֯ܽЩɢ֪ʶܻضʱضصԣÿһ˶ӵһЩһ޶ʵ֪ʶΨ˿õ֪ʶ

֪ʶǷɢģܹȷ֪ʶѧ֪ʶ֪ʶеһС֣֪ʶвȷӶҲ޷ȫݺͼеʣ֪ʶĸʡоѧʱҮʶԼ˼ͻ֪ȻdzҪδ֪֯ʶйضʱ͵ص֪ʶһܳΪѧ֪ʶⷽ棬ÿʵ϶˵ijƣΪÿ˶տõĶһ޶ϢϢľֻÿϢܱáҮˣ19897677Ү˵֪ʶֻΪ˵֪ʶڡν֪ʶֻһֱѡи˵֪ʶthe knowledge of all the individualsܺͣΪһϹ֪ʶan integrated wholeڵġҮˣ1997ϣ22

Ү˵֪ʶĹ۵㣬Ͱ¿ФغͲĿƣԵġȷ֪ʶصģtacitʵԵġԵ֪ʶǰԴڵı֪ʶܴӺһ֪ʶйҪΪϰϵĺһ֪ʶһЩʵԵ֪ʶͨŴ˵Ϊ֪з֣󲿷֪ʶͨͳĻݵġЩʵԵ֪ʶȻһЩDzʶģDzܽԣҲܳдͳԴһĽһ̽Եʡ

ҮΪ˵Ծǹڵ֮෴ǴͳIJԱһ֣Hayek,1978:20ᵽ˵ǵķչչһ֣˵DZҲһϵͳŬʹԼӦⲿĹвϷű仯Үˣ1997£21ڡԸйҮ˽һָĻݽIJĻݽ򵼡ػģ£ǻǻԡHayek,1988:21

Үǰ֪򣨡meta-consciousrulesĸHayek,1967:60-63ܹ˱Լ˼Ҳ⣬ΪڵǽṹΪͬĹͳΣЩȴDzܽģЩǰ֪ڡоⲿѧУҮָⲿʶͨԸ޹صĹ˼ģͨһϵеϵͳ֪ģһϵеĴ򲢲Կ͹ﱾͷԵ˼ά̼ʵģԵо۾೤ݻĸоٺϵͳҲݻ۵֪ʶ壬Բ䱾ĻʵϣDzܳȷ֪Ϊĵйͬʽѧϵеĸ¶걸ԶƣҲ˵ǵ֪رʶУһЩЩĹDzȷʶǰ֪ع̣ʶģǿѧڣһչḶ́Ϊµǰ֪ˣ̣ǡ֪Խ֪࣬Խࡱһ͡

ԺĹϵ˭˭IJƺһͼ⡣ߵĻشڵƶȣѧѧƵĵ˵ԽԽ򣬳ΪԷ֮ʵǺĹƵݻѡĽHayek,1967:86ʵϣ˵˼ҲǴȻĻŲͨͽ̵ҪԵѧϰġDzûȫʶͯʱѧϰԾ˼ʶͽ巽ʽԲ֪ʶԵĽṹҲ˹ʵض۵㣻ͨѧϰһԣǻһ˼ĿܣܱȴȫʶĻйУʽѧϰ˵Ҫһ֣Դֻ൱ȫ˽⡣ʶߣԶֻǾΪصһ֡

ڵºԵĹϵϣڹҮ˿ؼһǣԮӵĻµĹ˲ǵܵóĽۡӴۣΪʵͼֵǺӦ֣׼̼УֹΪһȫġҮΪ¼ȲȻܣҲķһϵΪ֮ĻIJҮ֤˵׼ȲڱܣҲԵĴ죬һֶĴͳڡ֮䡱ºһǽIJ,ԲзչHayek,1988:10ˣҮĿ˽ĵµʶɣΪʲôԵʶһǻġHayek,1988:64Ү˻ΪºֵһԵԷչȾ

Ү˶ԵµĿڴ˲ܾ൱ǿԵ¹ᶨƵäĿءʹһ̬Ⱦκγԭÿһ££on its meritsжϣҲֻݿֵܳĺĹ񡣹ҮΪᵼе¼ֵĻʹֻ׷ĿĵָӶϡĿֶ֤ȷĴ·ȥҮԿ˹Ϊֵ¹۽˹ֵĵ¹ʱ˵

ȫܾзһκθΡȨֻÿжϣǻۡ顢Կɹôֹ۵Ҫ֣ǿҶսԵسţ˵ԺΣյȫͨĵ׼ϰ׺ʹͳǻۡǣϸ˵ǷǵߡȻֵĺҲ뱻ǷֵáǣǾΪκεԼ˳ӦӡϵǰƣԼԼжϣHayek,1967:89-90;1973:25-26

ֹ۵ڣͷԵסʣƺ֪еʵͳһʶ⡣ʵϣǼȷȫ֪ٵĻҲ仯ȫԤ⣬ˣֻϸسǸһȶõ꾡ƻ£ǵڶÿһͬⶼ¿ǣҪǣΨˣγЭһµ

Ȼأ۰Ү˵һҪ۵㣬ֵϵĸԡ˵ǿԲŬĽǵĹϵȴ϶׵½ŬĽĹУĶΪȻֲֻܾظĽͳڵ¹ĸĽԲȫΪֻһַʽУͨڵһһεĸĽϵ֮ԣʹһ¡

ۣܽҮ˹õĿֲֻܾظı䴫ͳζţֻһԷ²ܸõطãҪĿģԵıڶɻģڸļֵϵڣͨһиĽͳһĴͳĴзչġԵãҪ֪޶ȣ̳ӿĹ˶͵ȥ˶ԷķȥֶԵ󡱣Hayek,1967:106-107

ΪĶиҪԡֺĴ,Ƕ˵жһȷԤڣܹԴΪԼƻжĸݣ֮Ļܱ˴Эһ¡ȷԤڴ˻Эһ£ͱΪ

ҮͨоΪԷΪͣһΪƵһԷΪִϵͣͨ˵־ǿƶģΪijһĿĶƺʹģǿáߡ֯ΪֿԳΪʽ򡣾֯һʽõ, УҪӦжռʲôλãĿͽ һͳɵġ෴һϵڲʹԼΪӦĹвģûضĿģһԴڲԷԷĸȽϳ,ȻжԷִ֯󡣷˳ӦھӵΪʶؽԼۼȺгԷһõķͣ߰ԼͼжȴٳȫûʶĿ꣬ǵ˹ܵ˵һָֻһػƽ𶼳ΪңҲԼ׳ɵIJжƵĽչҮ˵ļ⣬ԷγҪѭضжԻӦٵĻĽǣԷ,Թ˽⣬Ҳֻʹ˽⵽תһʣĽΪȡڸҪٵ⻷УȡÿӵеIJ֪ͬʶЩǵ˵Ĵյġ

ڹҮ˵֪ʶ£֮ʽԷжԽԡԷܹЧ÷ɢڲͬе֪ʶ𳬹ÿΪ͵гΪгһûƻḶ́иǷɢģƬϵ֪ʶͨ˵ľƽԼ棬ֻͨǹڼ۸ͳɱIJȫ֪ʶָгıʣʵһϢϵͳͨ۸ƣʹ˶Է׷ӵгϢõķӦԼΪ˿Բ֪Ϊʲô˱仯Ҳظȥ˽ϵǼ۸֮г߱ȥ˽Ϣ١򵥵˵гֻҪϢݣǴݸЩϢˡ

ԷԽԺٵľĵʣadjustmentءٸӵġ䶯ӵĻûκ˿еʵʹͣһŵ״̬Сʹijһضʱ䣬ȫ֪ɢͬʱгǧ֮еȫʵҲܰűгڸЧ򣬻һʽԷΪַƵ淶һʵʩеĸϾͻƵ淶ԼΪʵ̷˸ı䣬ȷķ淶ΪȻܴﵽԤЧѧ԰ǸõشԣDzذȥȷеĹΪɢ˲ϢʱվHayek,1978:19ԣΣ䳣̬ΨԷУĸ΢۵λԱ仯Ļܽмʱصĵʣ͵طгеΪһֵʣ᲻չһĵʣжҲͶԱ仯˵Ļһĵʡ

Ү˶Էģδ֪򻯵ΨһʽԼ֯ԼʱȻ֯ʵǵĿ꣬ǣDzԼŸԪصλáΪЭΪҲҪƵijҪγһ˼ʼ֯ĽṹǰÿҪذʵλܴģҪֻһĹΪӡṹԽǸӣԽһ㻯ܵޡÿһ壬Dzȫһģÿ˶ȫ˽һˣҲ޷һ˴Լ֪һУӵе֪ʶ󲿷ֻڸԼߵʱʹãΪ޶÷ɢ֪ʶӵһЩȨһ˽ҲǸ˵ɺͷIJȨ׷Ŀʱݹ֪ʶжͲһָӵԽڣÿʱÿ̵ж˶ΧĵʣÿĵʣͲ˶ԻϵӦ˶δӦʽģÿʱỵ̈ÿصϵ΢ӦȷԡһԷʵĹ򣨳ձ顢һˣ£ԲϵšɣӶγȺ͹ȵIJչڴһУµĸ岻ϼ룬ÿ嶼µ֪ʶͶԣһ͸ӸӡԷһͬɢ֪ʶÿ岻ŬʵḶ́һ»ԲϵչһкǿΪȺķʢһҷչݻγɲϵĽνĴĽ˵ڸר֪ʶӣ˵ϲͬɢϢij˵Ϊǿѧ뼼˵ΪɵӺʹɳΪܵļ

˶ԷԽҲ꾡ΪһɵᣬĴͨͬԷķչеģͨ໥ʣmutual adjustmentsķɷչγɵ򣬶ͨ֯򩤩϶µγɵΨһسΪɵƶȣԱԸһȷı׼ԭ£ӵײͨ໥ɵĻγɵģPolanyi,1975:The Free Society

Ү֤ΨԷ£ɲǿܵģΪζŸ˵Ϊκθ˻Ȩ׼ֻΪƽõijơгУÿѭձĹ򣬿׷Ŀģÿ˶ѡȨǿԤ򿹾ܱ˵ߡ

ҮΪʽ򾡹ܷȷĿ꣬ȴģԷȷ֯ĿͷӹܣǺߵɲ֡Է淶ʵӳԷĵ֯Ү˵
ԷĺҪأȰ˵ĵķľðţҲ֯ķľðšЩȫƵ֯ʽУ֯ʵֻһȫԷвԼλãԼҲ֯УǾͻԵúܲʡHayek,1988:37

һЩ⣬һڲԷ᲻вǹҲģĸУǷԣڹᡢĹϵϣ˭ǵһλģҮ˵ۣǿԵõᶨƵĻشûκԽԣֻΪԷһɲִڲܷõãֻԵĺ

Ү˺͹ŵ

ĵУпܵóֲͬĹڹҮ˼Ľ͡һֽ͸ݹҮ˶ԸԵ޶ȵʶԲȫ֤ԼǿԴͳأΪҮһߡڶֽΪҮһߣΪ֤ԷЧʵģܹﵽĽֽͣҲǾĶԹҮ˵ĽͣںܶжԷ֡ǣҮ˱ˣ֪ȷһߣҲ壬Թ廹кøеġ˵ǣֽͶǶԹҮ˵ȫĺȷĽͣҹŵǵ˼룬ҲܱΪеκһ֡ŵ壬һڱ͹IJУһֶУֳʺֶصڵҮֵΪԣۺϵɵʡ

ܹҮŷ۸壬ۼֵΪ侭ѧĸǰᣬûаѸΪԭӻĸˣⷴӳԼٸϣҮˣ1989ӳɢеĶԴͳ¡ڽ̡ԹϵȨ̬ȡҮΪͳ˵ľ֪ʶҪһ̶ϲɵ磻ǵؾǷӵ¹򡣡ΣΪΪ޷Ĺڽ̹ٱΨ壨壩ƭʵʹȫ򵽵ķʽΨ忴ͨIJǣ¹ӶʹԼԭȡøijɾ͡Hayek,1988:137ǿԹҮ˵˵ԴͳԾǼΪҪһ
ԷԭζţƶᷢչĸУDzҵһռƶѧƵȣƺƶķչҪһ㣬ץԼͷ뿪һѡΪҵյľҵյĽ޲ʵ䷴غһڲģֻһƶ֮һٵֲ㲻ڹҾͿɽĴۿԶıгҪԷ򣬵ζгܽΪг֮γɴԷ

ݹҮԷ˼·ᲢڲҵյƶŦǣҲǡ۽ƶȽ裬Ҳ޷ڲ֤õƶȡյıϣֻⲿȫܵļල߲ʵϼȲȫܵߣҲûеµļֵҲڵϣԻϣĴڣֻһִĴڡˣЩһԷγɵĵ¹Ǹƶȹ죨ҲһĻǵ£ܾȨȴСؼάӦʶȡõΰɾͣĻɴˣǿ׹Ү˶ԵµĿ˵ ΰɳ߶ʼղǿһûиٹ̵ĵɾܷκãֻеܱͨԸijЩԭʱǿƲſܱ޶ȡҮˣ1997ϣ72

ִһЩǣͬӷɣѷɲֹȨȥڷ֮ΪΪչһֲѭĵ¹ۣжһнȡڱʱ˵ظ˵ĿΪǺõľǺõģǹҮ˼Ե̬ȡԣԼܶġɡΰģҮ˶Щ½ڿIJΪȻ²һѡ⣬Ըݹĺȡ᣻ԸԵĹͶҲ׶ˡ

µԽԻڣǾеԵģܹڸ˺͹һ𽥵ĵʣ¹ԷķչΪܡһͿ̰Ľϣһڱ仯ĻIJϵĵӦҲλΪҪһۣζ˽ڲжǷµ⣬ǹҽǿԿƵĶʹһɵһɵΪҪ֮һܾܿЩֱӰȷϵж棬ʵѭĹ򣬲һԸԣҲͨǿʵʩҮˣ1997ϣ180

֪Үȷʵijֱ򣬵ǣĻ壬ǰڵȫı壿Ү˵˵һȰͥճʵ֪ʶ̽ȡ̬ȵȰӳǹŵڷֵ̬һ򣬹Ү˲Ҫǿƹ¶ҪܸĸԣҮбĻҲֻĻ壬α塣Ү˸ǵǣʶŬһάֺ޶ȣԼƶһеļҪԡ

ôڹҮ˵УǷй淶ԵĶʵε۱׼أûı׼ôĽԷԭѧͳ˹ġˡ ԼΪҮĻݽ۵ĵȱʧѧϵĺǣϵȱ淶Եı׼ʵԵۡתRoos1994287ܹҮ˲һͳĹߣһӵĹߡǣȻΪҮһЩ绤

ȣԷĹγɹУDZΪʵĵģÿ˵ĵϵʸƽȵģÿ˶С¸Уγɣǵ¹ʶĴɣҲǸۼֵ໥ݣǹԵĸԣҪIJЩǷȫij׼ҪǹγɱԷݽģܾκθˡǿиԤΪֳԷõҪȷʾݽ򣨷ɣijǻԹڶ࣬Ӧͬһʾ򲻿Ϊж¢ϡҳһ׹ʾĹʶ״ɡԵǶȨǿӲľܾ̬ȣDZҪķ档ңҪǣγɣһͬ˼Ḷ́һԣ֤˴ʼ塣

ҪǣҮ˵ȷ˶ʵб׼ɶԴھǺı绤ҮᳫƶȵĽ۵㣬Էʵ֤壨Hayek, 196796101 ڶҪûʧı׼Ǽ̳еķΪϵһԣƶܳɹձϿɵļȶ޴˹ƶ޴ӻ塣ʵ֤嵼ʧ߲ܻκı׼ҮΪȫƵIJĹڱжϺͼģһܣ˷ܱԱ֮ǰָǵжɹķԼ飬ͨвһºͲЭIJֶ𽥻塣

ʵϣûܹȫ˽ϵۺȻڵֻϵۻȻĸʷǶǵĽͣжϵĸʵе࣬ϵۡϵۻȻĸǵǣκ˶ԽӽûܹҮ˵Ĵͳǵ޷ǵµʵԺͲɻԼԡҮ˵ĴͳȻϵֻۣϵIJͬԶ˵оIJͬʵĹ淶˵ûʵ֤ԵIJͬڷ˵Ү˵Ĺ۵㣬壬ŵҵΪ㷺Ļܻ͸ӿܵӦǰ岻ԼĻͳڹеĴͳзչµļֵҿһЩֵֻͬʽIJͬʵһµġŵĺгβΪеļֵΪʵַĻзչļֵijġ

ҵ𽥽ӽĹŵҪ֮һҿҮ˶ԹŵʹŵһЩҪˡҽָЩڹҮ˼е֡

룬ѧ˵Ҫġ࣬ԵضʱʵԵĴڣ־һЩԽԵļֵοЩֵأǵһ⡣ЩֵĴڣôһЩֵοܵأǵڶ⡣

ЩֵûʵأвɻԼأŵΪеģʹеһЩѧ֮ѧˣȻᶨоԲɻԼļֵ׼ڡһɵᣬʹ޶ȶԣһȻᣬضżֵ˵ıʾʶͼıȶʵҪʵʴڵʱ֮ҵ򡱣Knight, 1956: 299Ҳ޶˹ߺڸָͳǵŵߣȼᶨŴھԵļֵ׼ͬʱϺ߼ΪԾܰȫƷȷŵߣֵǶԼȶĻͳأԼȶֵϵľηˣɡҲΪͳ͡˵ǹŵһҪ

ŵĵڶɫҲҪǣڳԵļֵ֮ȴæڴζϵļֵ֮ԵļֵƳ򿪳һƶΪȨȷѧĹǹҮ˵ҪĹҪǽʾʱӦ֮¡ŵ˵ҮĴǽɵĵ¸ݣNorman. Barry,1992:138ҪĹŵߣǹҪҲΪɴζѧ֤ڳһֵǰ²ʹһɵΪܵġȻϸѧǷǹҮԵĽ巽أҮ˴û˵ڽ崫ͳҮ˶Կ±磬Ϊΰĵ¹ŵߣֻһЩ۵΢һЩӰ죨Үˣ196794ŵ߲Ϊṩѧ֤෴ر𷴶Լֵ塣ڹҮΪ۽ǰᣬȻ۽Уɵ๦õõǰչǿһǰᣬǣζ˰ѹҮ˻ŵΪߡ

ŵǣԾԾأϵĿߡǶԵµ⣬ζѧ⣬ȴľ˵һĵȷţŵµʵԣ͵壻ͬʱԼȶļֵϵǫ̬ȣDzΪһµļֵϵŵߵȻǸߣΪΨһļֵԴȪζѧļֵԤ裬ȲΨһģҲҪ۴ǼֵǰۡԹŵ˵Ҫȴɵοܵġ

һĴ൱֮ࡣҪһɵᣨֵּᣩοܵģΪȷʵκһڣǾͼеµشڣοܵģһɵοܵģһ򵥵⣬һУû˳Ϊ˵Ĺ˵ϣĹͣǽһȺūڴĹϱū۵Ļ֮ϵġɵοܵ⣬ͬͳοܵ෴⣬ǰ߶߻ͳ˵ǼսԵ⣬ʹֳֵĻľ⡣ڼֵʵֶ٣Զڵģһ̶ȵ⡣

ŵӦһİ˼֮⡣̽ѰʹɳΪܵĻƺͱԭЩƿʷżȻγɵģŵǶ֮ϵͳۻʹָ֮ʵʶҪһζϵIJζµIJ⡣ǵһǣͼԣͼӦԼȱƶȣڼȶԻ£ŵǰ̽ѰʹһɵΪܵƶȡʶʹɵΪܣôеκ;ýƣڳڣضǿʸȵȸƱһ¡ǾĹǶһ¸ŷĽ͡dzΪǹߡߡԹŵ壬ǰһξѧһѧģǴ˵ҮǵĿǰΪֹŵļߡݹŵѧξѧǹҮ˵ģҲӰµѧɡѧɵȵȵĹףǽʶΪһ֣Ҫ֮Ƶʱô۶ڵĽΣĵһЩֵ۱ضַҲʧȥDzܹʲôǿԽģʲôDzԽģӶĵԷҪĸֹ򣻶ƶȽĹؼȷΪȨͶȨķԼˣDzпܽӽԶܴﵽһĿ꣺ʹһɵΪܡ

ȻʹѣҲĻԴرԴԶڽ֮ά򡰸߼, 1996; ϣ, 1997ڴˣֻἰ㡣ڳϻͬʱӦǼżȻŷ޺ȷ֮ʱĶԪáһɣûżȻĶԪνṹǷܹʷȷάϵˣػɷĻֵձЧĿԡҪ˵ڵһʱڽ̻ѾʧʹĻͬʱһι̣ôƾĻ˵ڵ񣬼ʹʱܷάƶҲʡƺĽ֮ǣرղķ˹ѷDzԾĹŵξѧңȷʵˡ˵ǹһĻҿܣЧؽھá֪ʶȨЩִ⣨ûһνѧ⣩ʲôϵܡЩⵥڡѧֻǵţľֻ˸㡣ڹŵѧУеķḻĽʵԴᾭø˼·

޶˹ġۡԭĽУ˾ȵǣ޶˹ƽ˽˲Ʋϵľú嶼ԭRawls, 1971: 258ͬȱһйءһ޶˹еһؼʡᡱУ޶˹˸ôʣҲǵͬ壨social justiceġ޶˹ᲢûһĶ塣ʲô᣿ζı߽磿ô޶˹ĻôΪʲôֱӽڹΪԭڹ֮⣬ȻһᣬȴڳΪԭĶҲνĸԭϣܸô˶ ݹҮ˵ϵԷķչģҲǵĴ죬˺żȻжķԤںĸⱻĹҡֻйһſԭĶԭ޹صġɴ˿Ҫһ⣬޶˹Ƿһһµѧ޶˹ĿڼƵͳһοܵģ

Ү˲ָ˵µĿ꣬Ҳ͸ԷԭָʵĿֶΣ˵Ҫ޶ȵĸɣһЩƺҪ뱻ܾҮ˸Լеʹǣͨѧ֮ԭۺЩ뾭صԭ棬ŵشһЩ۱׼һЩʩҪΪȨãͱЩ׼ȼУҮˣ1997ϣԣڲߵԭ򡢱׼൱ķ᪡Եѧʢеŵˡ޶˹ֽҶԣйͬķ棬綼ΪѧΪѧĻΪṩָԹ壬Ÿ˻ȨȡǣǶǴͬǰ ,ǴӳƽȶԴÿһ˵ĹWill Kymlicka,1990:4 ,ǵľԭ൱ͬ⼸۷ȱ۱ԭ,ΪȱһѧԲṩŷ۾ݣͬʱҲṩʵߵָԭ򣬴ѧ۱̫շȻҪӿµĵѧʼ˵ѧǵѧһ֣DZڵѧҪƺǣֹһϵϷϿµѧҪ󡣹Ү˵ۣпۣڲķ᪡ܹҮ˵һЩۣرڹжķΧϣӽŵ˵һֲͬ۱緽ʽģṩڹʵָԭ򡣹Ү˵ҪףΪṩʵԵָԭԹƶ۵ͼָΨڹŵԭ£ֿƣʵֵᡣΪҮͨԷԭѧʹ뽨ڸɿĻϣ༴ʹѧΪһһµ˼ϵӦʽߵġ

ڡԷԭһ仰Ϊر˹ҮѧɫDzѸԭΪһּΪǿӲκȨԵĿǶܶƵԤܣôǾ޴ӻõĽҮˣ1997ϣ79Ҳ˵ǰɵĿı׷ôҲ޶ȵʵǵĿġ ʹԷã˵ʹʢĹϺϺ꾡͵ѧҪ

ۿͨԷԭIJеҮ˵ѧһֵʵʹ߶һµۡ˵ıԶԣԡԺϷԵҪͶ뾭ˡĴ봿ĴڣҮ˵ǹѭߺĿѰԣһѧԶ˵ʹǽܡ

һǻɿǣõԷ£ھ£ΪһѭߣΪһЧʵĿʵߣǵĵΪͲΪǽȻġҲһеijɱСӶεǿҲɽͣγΪܡһɵἴʹǶԱ൱͵ļ裬ôҲάתָһɵʵֵķٺ͸ѲԣάֺȶȴǴģʷ϶dzڴڵרƺū۵ᡣˡصĻֵζ仰Ϊղķ˹ڡɵ޶ȡThe Limits of LibertyҳãͽǶԹķ⣬ҿһⲢܹǵIJϽijԱάһַԵƫά־ͱһԱĶߵͳ--ǷڵϳΪѳʡǶ˵ijԽԵһ棬˵ԣ˵ĵжôģҮѧŵҲޱȾ޴ġ



ָһ㣬ѧܲǽԵģѧġʶԵģԼΪ䷴ʷʲǺġð۵ϵĴʦ޶˹ġۡǹŵģȷģġ塷ȴܲġһвɻԼάȣ֪ʶһάܺǵġԴ֪ʶ̬ѧϰҮԷۣôҲܴԷԭڲһԷ˼йҮǴǵ۱磬ظǵһɵοܵģǷҪһɵÿԼ¡Ե޶ȸǵβԣǷԱҪ޶ȵĶԵ,ҪбԷĽҪΪ̵ֹijнڡΪʲôһߡһм仰Ӧ˹ŵߵ̬ȣ岢ԽͱԷıﱻĿϢĵطҪ߽ش޸ġҮˣ1997£190ڵµһ19ͳڵǰ㣬ҪڽԷķչ̴Щ˵ɵϰнųҮˣ1997£206ԣŵֵ߱һĽ̬ȣҲԳ֮Ϊν塱

ҮʽĹŵ˵ĻνСĻ壬Ǹ̬ȵģεģǷǽԵģǹ˽ѧУݵģǹڽúͼͥģεĽ壬ǻпɽȷΪIJƲȨģܵģܱ֤˾;ģǷɱ֤ȨȨķġ

Ү˵Է˼Ӧ򣬿˵ǵóۡ۲ͬǻͬĿ꣬ʹЩĿʵֵһҪijܷԼġ޵ġʹ˵õɣᱣϵг֯ѧоȵһһԹ֮ڻͨԭȨij·ɢγɶҳɳĽṹ˷ḻɵ壨meaningͼֵչ֣ܳÿһͳÿһ˵֪ʶΣÿʱÿصIJϵеԽʵิˣЩ˵˴һġһʵ֣ϸҪ󣬼֤һһԵĹϵԱ֤dzֵɷչռ䡣ΩˣһϵõϸִУָ߶ȵԭԣκȨ˵ءֻܴһϸĽӲֵ֮䡣


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