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ϣ¹˹ء롤Ү189958ճάҲһѧоͳļͥǿŸŸ(CarlMenger18401921)µѧɴʼ˺ͰµѧɡʼˡעݵѧҪ֮һΪڱٲμһս1921꣬Oʩ˺ͺ˹ɭĿγ̺ھѧҸϣ롤άָάҲɴѧ÷ѧֹѧλ1923ֻѧѧλ꣬ȥ·ά񡤷롤˹ĽµڶѧԺľѧǺ1923ǰһоۡ1924귵άҲɺΪȫѧѧ飬ξѧɽʦְλʼѧġ30ͷ꣬Ӧ£ޱ˹룬Үǰ׶ξѧѧԺǼ꣬ΪԼ÷ɵ¡˹Ķ߶ڹΪ֪Ȼǿ˹ѡڶսʱԼѿRն׶ء1944꣬Ү˵ѡΪӢѧԺԺ1J1947꣬˹նJܶ١·ά񡤰µ˴ɡЭ(Mont Pe1erin Society)1950뿪׶ξѧѧԺǰ֥Ӹѧڵѧ븥ˡء¶񡤷ٸյȾѧΪͬһ(֥Ӹ羭ѧ)1962꣬ڽжŵѧʹ˼ԹΪһϵгɹ֮뿪֥Ӹǰ¹ĸײ񣬽߶ءŷϽξѧ70ܾΰµְ֮ܲΪײѧڡ˹ѧںάҲɴѧѧίԱ1974꣬辭üѧŵЩ£κ;˼ͳӢ೷жǿӰ죬Ҫº͡ʿ𾴳ν1992323ڸײȥ

Үֵ̽棬һDZƶ崫ͳԶݱһֶ˵רʽһ̽βǵʷʵаЩŵᵽǰˣǿ԰⿴ǶѧĹŵ⡪εǷεȡ̽á

Үһ˼Ľᷨ1973һ1978Уǡɡɡ(LawLegislationand LibertyһζȡΪ)㼯1978ġѧѧѧ˼ʷ̽(New Studies in PhilosophyPo1iticsEconomics and the History of Ideas)һеƪԼ1988ġԸ(The Fatal Conceit)ҮⷽԱͳΪ崫ͳһϸ¿϶ĿDZ˼Ų񾭳⣬DZĵ˳ʹЩѧĿĶʶ̬ʹá

ˣҮ˵˼벻ǡܹѧIJйѧ˼ķ롣ҮͼһЩʵЧĹߣԱֹȨãȨõĺ Ϊ˶ٹһ˵Ȩͨ¶䣬ԵȨԵ¶䡱˶ٹ·¡¶ѡڶ383ҳ1985Ү˾ûзκ ȶҪȨ¿϶˾ȨıҪԡ֮ ԼԴ󲿷ָָĹҸԤΪʶ ֲɿ˷Ķ

ڡɡɡһĵУҮע⵽ʮ־ԺϷֶԽܷǵȨޡдͨʽȷɵȻʧˡΪаͳһѧ˵ѧ˵ɿԾκһšҮˣɡɡ56ҳ뱾1986

һΪǹҮһֱϵؼ˼⣬һ1944ġͨũū֮·(The Road to Serfdom)һоѾۼΪʵ޷ڼȨִ֮仮һȷĽߣΪɼΪﵽԼĿĶʹõһ֡ιߡԴٽԷչΪĿĵġԵװáݻһ֡ƶȡϵĺ뼫Ȩ֮ŹϵֹϵѡĿꡢЩĿǿڸ˵ּڴﵽЧʼγɵġҾݻΪǿӵ׼ʵΪ淶ijֹߣеóĻ۱ǣɴһκǡµġǵµġҮˣͨũū֮·6668ҳİ棬1948

ɼҮ1944Ѿܷȱ޶ȶеΣաΪߵȨû޶ȣΪʹרϵľϷĹ޶ȵȨϵһġֹ䷽ʽƿطƵݱΪ׵ġרƶȡˣǿȨʹòܵԤĹƺ͹涨ֻdzΪһֱʽҮˣͨũū֮·7273ҳ

ҮڵһɸʱʶûԽ޶ȡֻ޸ĵĹЩƶٵΣաǣҮ˲κʽʵϣ(Ϊձõġ׼壬漰IJӦﵽĿΪʵֲͬĸ˶ӦѭķʽĻ)ĿľΪ˱εij֣㷺ϵΧڳֵƿܻᵼ޹ľ棬ǵ´ʹȨеˣбҪʱͨƶ¹µƣĿDZʹijΪijЩر֪ʶʱռеȨλתΪͳελ
ȻһвζŹҮ˾ܾͳ෴ĻǡǡƵ˵һġĵĹģţΪˡġԴġ˼룬ȫֵ÷ܶġǵ෴ƱûбԼǷѹȵһֿɿ¡ǡǡʵʹǶƶȸеʧʹǰ¿ǡʹκζɵ԰ ϲһԼˣҲȻ šһֲɹļֵ (עҮˣѧѧѧԼ˼ʷ̽׶أ1978)
1960꣬Үڡܷ (The Constitution of Liberty)һϵͳ̽ѧ⣬ƪ ƶȵרĿԱDZ͹Ҫ ļǣƪҲ־ѧĸ˺ 弸ʮһֳƵת۵㣻ʮ弸 ȫұ绤˼Ԥ ѧĹּδɹڹҮ Ǵоδͳ;֮Ĺϵʼġ

ȥܷ۵Ҫ崫ͳ ͨ۵⡣Ȼı۵Ļ⵱У ɾԼĽ忼йص ⡣Ү˵ijȷҪȨά ˣΪڷɡ֧֣֮Ү˲ΪȨ ǡ͵ѡΪȨӦôάһ֡Է 򡱵ĹܵĽǶζţȨ뷨ɲ άһƵĹߣձõΪ壬һ ϵйƵģҲ۸˻ǹҶӦ֧䡣

ΣǡǡֹԼŰ ɿΪ˴ﵽĿеΪƵһ˼ ȷʼγɵġҮ˵ĿǴﵽһַζ ĹʽֹʽУҵȨӦڡִ ġġȼȨκص׼򡱣ӦȨ Ϊʵʩ֮Ȩߵ񽫲ǡijر򣬶ǴԱʹİܹȷõ ¡ijγɹ̱Ҫijֵõɱ ΪֹĹԡ

һǶȳҮ˸ΪƹȨij߶ȵķɹĴͳҪԣңԽƵĶΪϰߣʣ Ӧðƶձίиͬ Ĵʵ岢ľڶ˾ල֮£Ա еκһ޷ԽԼȨޡעҮˣܷ239ҳ뱾ʵǶ 1979εܷĸ﷽ĵһһ ԴΪдȨƶЧġϷ޶ȡ һͼע2Үˣܷ244ҳ

Ү˵ʱǷɹijɹֹ ڱڸָġ̵ͬķɫ ʶ̬ĹܵɵʱЩʱָ δȡԼƶһƶʲôģ ʲôDzġ֮׼ע3Үˣܷ265ҳѱַ˽ ˷跨ɣҪζŹҲӦ뾭 ⣬ζñȡijЩ͵ġԹ޷Ϊ ֮绤ľôʩһΧڣɹΪ ƶǺϼǺϵĴʩ֮ṩ׼򡱡ˣ ⲻڹھڽиԤԤ ʡҵijЩгõ(Ү ָһϢϵͳ)ЩֻDzͻ Բ棬һЩ谭Ҫȷһԭ򣬼һɵ᲻ҪնǿƵ¢ϣҪҽնǿƵ¢ϣз棬Ӧκһ¡

Ү˵ĿҪɭķʵ֤ǡαĹһɵı֡ڷԴһ۵ǡȫٵġעٹҮˣɡɡ238243꣩ˣɭԶһλѧңһִȨƵۼҡʵϣΪһƶṩԭûеķɹߣǿԾݴ˶Ϊ Ȩ޶ȵģҲѸΪһֲɷļֵ ʵϣɭķѧѳΪȨ۵ʶ̬ ֧ͷѧ֧ȻѧΪɵ־DzƵģôȻΪӦΪǸȾ ɵĿġҮΪǡǡԭʧȥ ˶Чƣʧȥ˶໥ͻ жϵĿԡɭڲԷ˼룬ѽαۺȨһױ䶯Ķ ɣᡣ ע ڹҮˣɡɡ251252ҳ֮ҮͼͨԿɭѧ˼֮䲻ķԼ߿ȨݱΣա

ĴͳΪDZɡƲȼֵ Լ϶Ȩһ(Ȼ)һߡҮ˵ͼҪһĴͳļֵۣȷϰ߷ͷɹĵλȷȨ޶ȣ޶ڲܴȨķԷγɹ̡ԡ˼봫ҮΪɭķʵ֤屾Ҳ˼һֱ֡ɵ𺦣Ү˿ʼȷţ¡ιҡԭѾˡʵϣڹŵ ܵһս֮ûκվסŵɿ Ϊʹԭе۹ߣܴӮڶսۣսʤѾ õǿǸ֡19601973䣬Ү˾ Σ෽׫д˲ҲżȻ漰ѧ ѧѧ˼ʷȸ棬һжΪʹ ѧʵָһ˵ijԣһڡɡ ɡһеõɡҮڸѲֻǽ ˽顣Լʶۣý Ĵͳһһ崫ͳѷǡܹƺ޸ ֮ǰѾ˺öʱijֶ̻Թ ġΨ־۵αԡݹɵ߷ʵ֤Ŀ κηɶijߵ־ѷΪ ԡؽ족ijֶע Үˣɡ93һ96ҳ

ҸԤ˼ѧӰ㱻Ϊ δͳΣĸԴһΣǡǡ ѧ˥ԼֹҸԤѧȡõɹͬʱ ġЩҸԤѧһ֮ͬǷ 壬رǷг֮Ĺϵ ҸԤ߶ԡгӦñΡĿ꣬ ҲʹΪʱʷȷں˥ĸԴЩԼЩִ ûʲôͬˡʵϡ˶гµ̵Ĺ֮ͬ⡢ͨģȷĽ ӦԳǸý֮һӢŵָijһĿ귢չ

˵Ү˶ξʽжȷ ģضᵼ¼Ȩ壬ôڹҸԤ˼ ĺжҲͬǼȻġΪǡ ǡǻڹҸԤ˼룬пܽһּȷ 塢ַΡü֯֯ Ϊ˽Ϊָͨ ȨʹиԤһƶȡ

Ү˵۵ǣܾǸӵģӦý ίЩרְԱѰйؽܹ ҪⷢԼʵҲͱ޷ʵʩˡ Ҫùݸӣ᲻ɱؽֻΪ ײ㣬ͨͽʧȥΪ ԾȨ

ҮȷϣԭIJͬûбһ ַѹȵĿɿ¡ʹòһϵпɬ˼Ү˰ƶΪʹκζɵ԰ϲһԼӶһѧĿԡʹΪһִƵĹԱһ֡ɹļֵԶƶȡǡһֶҶܽܵξķʽһ֡ԼһУһּ֡ڰʵϵƽĿǿ˵Ľڡʱȱݾͻᱩ¶ͬ˵һΪѡල񡱸ɴʹ崫ͳΪȨƵܷʽúô÷ʽϣһҲʹһַݱһԶԶȨΪصƶۣݱһֺϷרϷԻһֻҪõ ɵͨҪλõȫעҮˣѧѧѧ˼ʷ̽168170ҳ

һƵ֮һʱţЩһ䱾ⲻͬĺ壬ӶӼǶڴһʼͲʮijָĻ⡣ʵϣһֻζţȨӦĶ˻ СûָһȨӦչʲô ̶ȡˣӶɵӦռϷһӦó ھϵ־ӦƵĽۡ עҮˡѧѧѧ˼ʷ̽9396ҳ

ֹ۵㿴ij޵ȨĴ Ȼǻ־Ľûʶ˵֪ʶ ԵĽΣǴΰۼͼͨ ȨҪģҲǹҮ˽ͨԺȨ֮ лҪġڽлʱӦųڷɵ ƶ֮(ӦֻʵʵԸ Щǵر)ʵϣ⡪ ӦڡرĴǵУӦڱ Ĵǵõϡܹκرѹǵ СǵܵƵɵ͵ĸ ʵҪѰһµı﷽ʽ ơ⡪Ŀá֧ȨҪ ƾȨûκηɵԼ¶Ը˲ȡǿ жҮᵽˣΪӦͨЩѰ䲼ġΪ֪ԷɣʱԵķ й(archein)ңһƶڰѡ͹(demos e archein)߽˿Գ֮Ϊdemarchia()(עҮˣѧѧѧ˼ʷ̽103107ҳ)

Ү˵ۿʵֳһص㣬ֶijضⷽʽĺԽ¶ĶֹʧĻͼԼ֤ʵΪжͤ˼ıȻǰʱҮ˵ֽ¶ƺرʵԵġһзǻûпʼȱеκһʱˣһкΪǡմմϲ̬ȣ汴rJ˻̿гõеIJԱĽΪΪͶ߻ҵâرеƵľԤǰζһֹϢּۻּۣۻ۵ĿղϽĶŵȷƸķ䡣ˣľ߹̶̱ȵðиܵķգΪһȡѡƱΪǰᡢشٲȡĸԤʩЩŵעҮˣѧѧѧ˼ʷ̽374389͵472-478ҳҲȡڰξΪ̵ȨĹߵֿǡ

ܴѧǶȽûκθݣƻǴܹάֱزٵƽԴﵽǵľĿΨһƶһʵеõĺϷԡһԭܲгΪԼIJյ㣬гܹҪĸľƶȣΪֻƶУ߲ΪľأֻƶȲʹߵߵ棬Ӷ˫ô

ȻҲһˣƿܹʵĿһ־ƶȡܻᵼ¶ηıֵʹ֮Ϊ;ֵʹΪܵijֵ֮ijͻᵼ¸ĿԴ޶ͻ˶һƶȱɻ

Ү˵ͼҪҸԤûɴڵġڹҸԤͼѼ۸뵱ϢIJòһֶԲһٺָõμֵ߲ò·ЩʵϷ˾ѧɹĹڡȷ۸񡱻ȷֵۡҸԤ岻гƻһƶȣƶУʵֵĽǾ֪ʶӻἯһԸгΪάλȨĹߡ

Ү׸оһֻһʽūƵǰסһȨܹеҪ(ҲΪΪʵ֡ṫòȡ۸Ϣ֮֮ʱҽʹȨ)ʽūƱ֡ڴ£ֿܵİ취һɹμһļϵ齨һάȵȨΪĿἯɵĶɼšְ취ֵģһʣ޼ɥʧĽ

Ү˹ܸĸ۵ϵġʷǰϵһġͨЩ۵㣬ͼ͵ܾеóӦеĽۡ͵Уϣִ˾Ȩܹԡʹ˰մƷеĹ¡Үˣѧѧѧ˼ʷ̽479ҳڹҮЩ۵صУһţӦȷְܣֻȷǿȨ޶ȡоǽ衰Ѱ䲼ȷΪֹձ׼ίиһʹְܵĻֿġвͬڲɵһ

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ҮҲվִѧˡӰɵĶ档еһ֡ѡҡ롮ᡯΪһ̸ȵλ򣬾ܹǵһĴ족ԷγɵġĽǰѹҵĻɡһǿԻÿһԽΪ׼ʹԼȨʱԼкġɡɡ513514ҳڶǰκѡȨ֮£ʹαɡһΪϷȫеİκӱӶʹΡһĴΪͳ빫֮γһĺáɡɡ524555ҳ

Ҳ˵Ү˵ͼҪעģʽ޶ȣͬʱѾԸģʽܷƵȱȰ취Աʹ֮һ֡ȨǹҮ˲Ϊɻԭԭξһ֡ʽֶһ֡μֵʵͼһΪٵġͬġѧֵιӦõġηΧˣͼʹƺijԿDzŵģֳͼܲƵѧϵģɺΪij־ȨȨļٶ߱ɽϵһġ

Үĵ(Ƕܷ޸ĽĿܵĽ֮һ)ǶضⷽʽеȱݿܻʹʽɨأӶΪijרƶȿٵ·Ȩν׼ܻܿ޳֧ܵרƶȣԱڸԼΣЩƵƶϡҲõƶģʽشı׶ˣDzʵDZѽһ崫ͳԤһֱĵЩһ˥̡

Ү˵˼ԱΪʱͼֲ徫һֳԡˣŵģʽһ֡ơģʽ뷨ɹĴͳģǼʹȨʵʩЩƶĿ۵ģʽġҲ˵ģʽ(modellonomocratico)гͷƹ(ϰ߷)ΪصģĿģʽ(modelloteleocratico)Ծüƻ(㷺ԹҸԤ)(ɵͳ߽׼е)ΪصġʹҲΪĽҮ˱һѷǵһֹռϷ(ҲڿɭۻõijɹĽ)ʷʱʹ¿ʼ˹Ȼ߸׼ȷ˵ǹ뷨(Law)֮ϵۡζŶ崫ͳͳ֮ʵַֽʽɣ崫ͳǵЩڷķѧ(produzione giurisprudenzialedeldiritto)ϰ߷ͷɹ򣬶ͳڷ(produzione legislativadeldiritto)֮ϡǣҪ뿴ҮѧܽҪ壬ͲܺŸͷչԼν߼Чüֵ۸֮ڵϵοǿ԰ѹҮ˵ѧȷΪۼֵۡѧһռ

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