ΩԸƽˮʹ罭ϣ
et revelabitur quasi aqua iudicium et iustitia quasi torrens fortis

 

 

˼

/ѧĸ塷20012
Үֵĸִѧ
HLA***

Ү֣RudolphvonJheringܳٱӢģԴұʾźһ֪ʶ磬һġľ񡷣GeistdesR?mischenRechts͡ѧеϷ桷ScherzundErnstinderJurisprudenzûӢ뱾ڴ˽۵ġѧĸImJuristischenBegriffshimmel***һҲĪ⣬Ȼ1951һѧͷѧļдĵӢƬΡϣгһܹЩڷ뷽ȱֲ
ԷѧȤӢĶҮƪŻĶʱֶԱȷĸܡһ棬е죬ԻΪû뵽һλ19͵¹ѧҵƷ˵IJȤܳڵı⣬ûλӢҮıʺ̵ļ⡣һ棬ҮִĵӢ߻һʶdjvuݶdjluĸоԴҽںԽͣҪǽҮʶȱݽиΪпԸ㲻ֹͬķ˼ƫǣ
1ȹעķɸЩõʵ
2Ӧÿڵ棬Լʹúͷչɸʵ޶ã
3ȷܹʶijһɹıʣdasWesenͷɽdieFolgenǿպPuchtaڷռСʱȫʵЧáԸг˼⵼´ʱIJű߼ƾ˿˵ռ֮ĸʵϣ䱾ʽͬɡˣʵ뷨ͬһFaktumundRechtzugleich
4ӷɵĿЧܾΪʲôʡڸУûΪʲôЩʵԿǶŤĸˡʲѧֲᡱAnatomisch-pathologischesBergriffskabinett
5ɿѧڷ͸϶ѧдģ£ȫķ˴ѧ㣬ͨ߼ݻȡɸں
ΪЩҮ෨˼ҪеЩ˼ҲܵһλͨʦõĴʳơӢķ˴Ƕѧ˶ԼϵֶΣӢˣ߷Ժһλΰķټ淨ѧңµ¶ķ˹ķ˹Үֵ˼ྪ˵֮λѧҵеȻǶȡġȷ½ȨϸĻķ˹ȷȻķ˹ȷʵ1879Ķľľ񡷣ûмΪҮֶԵ¹˼еġ߼ԼĿ顣
ǻķ˹һЩƬ䣺ͨеʵ塱ɵ߼Ǿ顱ΪϵͳѧһЩһ㹫һΪٳɷɷչΨһ߼һⲻ尸Լʱһ߼Dzġ
ķ˹ڡ߼ʽ֮ѧƤ˹C.S.PeirceʵͲһҮֶԡ֮ĿġĹģķ˹ʵŲɣΪڽͺ÷ʱʱʱ⡰桱
ķ˹巨ѧӪľ̸ЩΪʵߡɢϣӭһӪȫʢʱڣǵҪƷڶʮʮ˹ơӵµҪƷʱϳڻķ˹ʵ巨ѧ֮䣬ӵ̹׳˻ķ˹ҮֵԡʵѧWirklichkeitsjurisprudenzȡѧBegriffsjurisprudenzĹУ˶ǵλ൱Ŀߡӵµʷ͡͡еѧҮֵӰ죬ԼĻҮֵ˼룬ԷɷչڡԼеġʵಢʵִķɸܵ߼ݡһȫӵʹԵִķ硰еġԶۻʽġ͡塱
ЩƵ⣬˶ԸѧԻ塱Үֵʽϴڲ졣ҮĶȻǷʵߣѧȨķɲߣۼңTheoretikerֻЩ˲׼뷨ѧĸڼǼȫǵ¹ˡάᣨFrederickCharlesVonSavigny㱻⣬ƾһռȨ黹ǵԽ룬ΪʵԱʾ˳׵ӡЩۼҶԷɵʵʲĮģٵκʵʾ̽ɸں߼ִǾһŲܡʵǵܻ˷ɡǻģսΪսܻսʿʸۼҶ׼߼IJʵߵľѧңǵ˥ʵԿǵаӰ¶߼ı롣
ķ˹׷ߡӵºʵ߶ԸҮֵ֮ĶԱǣǰ߽ҪķѼڷٺͷʵϣǷѧҡ˵ַ˼άĶϰʦͷϣھʱԡ߼Ϊһ͸ڷɾеһ򵥵ѧӢһѧ˵ΪǶ˾С
Үֺ֮ͬɷӳ˷ڵ¹ϵͰ³ϵеIJͬλȻҮֵĺںҲìͷָ˷٣Щƾ贿߼㣬ܹ׼ȷصóԤȶһ尸ָͬأķ˹˼뱻ӵ¼չ󲻵٣Ҳѧ
ΪЩǴⷨɺͷɸʶ;ıҮֵͬҲ˻ķ˹׷ߵѡڴ˽ָʶĸԴõһּķʽҪĴŷɸǡġ򡰷յġܹһϵбҪͳֵ¶ƵĹ涨ˣκһʵĻİȷָǷijһɸҪôãҪôã߼Ƿյģ޶ģbegrenztζھ尸һһ򵥵߼Ѵڵչʾڸ򵥵ݳʽУΪùǰзɹ˼ԤĺͲġ
ΪʲôֹڷɸԵĹǴģڱ𴦽ǾƶˣͼһΪκ˶Ƕδ֮ܵԤһϰ¹ܻԤе飬ȴҲ⡣ﵱȻ仯ֻмǾסʵֻ߱һĿ֪ЩеϵģʽſпԽ˵ĻǾͿƶ򲢼ܹھ尸һʼǾ˵ģҴӲҪʵԻʵһѡͿǣԳʼĴԷչҲˡеﶼܹǰԤ֪˶ijЩܹͨԤȽϸָһۼҺʵߵĹܴһµ磬˫ҲҮᵽǸȻ硣߲չδпƵȫ֪ʶζзɹͷɸǡŵġһԤϵİʱDZһµѡ񣬲Դ˸ĽǵķɸʹǸԤڵĿġЩҮȫףŪΪδϾÿоѧṩ꾡뷨ֳŪڡ֮ĿġZweckimRechtһΪҡǿԤδаޱ仯ͶɵIJԡ
ȻԸ跨ɹ͸ΪҲǿԵģԿ޶ȵؼٶ߼˵ͨijЩҪ̶ɹ˼߱ЩҪصĻܹڹķΧڵijЩܻܰ߱ʲôԼһϸķʽùӰ졣ʵǿäĿԤȾδһϵаȻǶЩһ֪ȷʵڳЩ⣬ֻеЩƱ˽֮DzܵõĽһϰӢķ϶Ϊ˾еĸ壬Үϲ۵ķѧҵָĶϰʵͬһ£ЩѧԵ˾̺ͷʵߵĹ


ڸѧ̸ǰѻתӢ̸۵ġѧڱΪѧһоΪбҪΪ׶Ρһоĵһ׶19λΰĹ˼ҡסԼ˹ϵһ𡣵ȷڷǿԳΪӢΰ
ڶ׶ķչ£ͨѧйעԵһ˶һ˶Ҫǣ1930-50νŴѧڵάҲ·άϣάظ˹̹LudwigWittgensteinԼһ˹ԼL˹JohnL.Austinߴ1952꿪ʼţѧѧڣֱ1959ȥ
Ҫظһµһ׶ηѧǰߺͰ˹ǹߣͶҸԭ˼ķСɸĸ͵ԷԵĿġǵġ֮ĿġǷҮ־Ͳö֪ˡЩ˼Ҷ书һЩѧ˵ͷɵʡijЩоʽҪϵǶһ巨ɣ˿Ա¹˼Ϊ־ۣWillenstheorieĴˣԺָӷΪȨѧ˵ܻ־ͨ߱ȫЩ˼ҶΪŷԷомֵʽҪԣɵĸtheconceptoflawҲгķϵĻɸͨijһϵҪصĽṹ߼ַ߳͡оʽΪעͣexpositoryѧͳĿĶԷĹ𣬺߱߳ΪУcensorialѧͬأ˹ԷϵĽṹ͸ķоΪһ㷨ѧڰ˹֮Ϊաķ֮С˶ΪַоʽһǷĺͼֵģһڹֵ۵ָ¶ԷɽУΪͬһṩĴ𰸣ΪͬṩͬĴ𰸣ǻΪоʽһķ˵Dzɻȱġ
ڷоĹǿԷɸķҪ·رΪͳֲĶ巽ʽԷķɸ˵ѲЧΪЩṹ⣬Ҫرķһֱʮ͵߼ѧҳ֮Ϊʹж塱ķ볢Ŷ嵥ʣƩ硰񡱻Ρ෴ַ԰ľӽԿ졣ڳһʱڡһʣͨáX񸶸YһӢĵ;ӽзߵ·⻹Ҫ̡ų͵ķɹ֮ĽṹԹϵҪչʾ֮߼ϵʿʽ߼ġƳԼġͼ߼߼dzʺչ硰ֹ͡ĹϵԤִ߼һʽ߼deonticlogic****չһд⣺һϵһЩķɹ淶߷ɣһĹ淶һǹ淶һ֣仰˵Ǹ跨ԸԵı׼ʲôһòǾ޷ijһϵṹ
˹űߵIJȱʦ߼ĴλΰߣǿһǣòķѧʽҮĸѧκ֮ͨΪŷ޴½˼Ƕձؼ裺ֻеϵһյ߼ϵʱ߼֮أƱߺͰ˹ܵҮĸĸȾڸҲԼϯλΪһԴڶһʵIJƶϣߺͰ˹巨ɣijЩ־۵ʽߺͰ˹ûдӸеóڵ¹־ֱȻۣ÷ʱƵԤȹ涨˵־ٵһ߼ضİԤɹһ֮¡෴أ˹̹ʵسϣȻӢķٳ˵úҲô£ʵǾڡ족˹ȷ𱸹٣Ϊ١족DzܸݶԹС족˹ɴʱ̾Ϊǡܹͨ߼չĻšҲһν෨ɸġȷԡԻ϶ԣʹɸ˹˵ֻþǷijһʵСļ⡱ˣߺͰ˹ΪһҪĹǣöͲ͵··硰񡱡ΡȨȨռСԼо֮߼ϵ
ǽĿתѧִ׶Ρǰԣһչ׶εҪλйעԵѧңάظ˹̹ԼL˹ڡDzرķɣԵʽһԼԽṹĹȷ˷ѧͷѧҪʾӢõЩѧ֮С⣬ڷѧʽһִѧǺҮ˵ĸѧκιϸȷʵһȨķDZʱѧĹ˼άԵĹҽ߾Ϊѧʽ֮ѧӡһӽչʾѧʽѧǶôԶ
ѷ죨Porosit?tderBegriffeάظ˹̹һ׷ĴʣΪྭǷɸһdzҪ޷õĿԹ򡣲ǵĶжิӣǻDzܽǾȷֹڸ棬ȷκһָܹȷ˵ҪãҪͲáһˣ˵ˣֹˣֻһȣ֮ܳΪ𣿡˸յĺһеĶ壬ʹڿѧҲˡƽһƺ綨üȷƩԻƽеĹнСǷһʿƽ𣬷ϻƽеĻѧԣȴһµķĻôƺأȻԤƳ֮ܣ;еĿԡƳʱֻٶ岢ǵĸȥӦָѷ족Ӣ˵ĸġŽṹijϣԣҲѧܷѧִʽʾάظ˹̹ԴԷdzϷɵĻ˵˵ʵӦòǴܹԼDz߱ʵÿһֿܵӦù򡱣ԼκεطҪɹԼġ
·ѧĵڶһּصķʽִѧάظ˹̹˵ҲΪ˹ԭԵĹ׼ж˹ڴǿԱֳĶֲͬĹУһܾѧӣһǷеijЩʱܾԵ÷dzҪһϴӡҪʱһ仰ˡڴ˸ȡΪXЩʵЧǸıǰڵΣǣڵġȷʽXָƸСڴɶԱȵǣʹʲķʽȥ磬ǴһЩ仯ʵһŵҲҴӦҵij͵վʲôһ˵ߡ趨ij˵ԼȻԵ÷ԷɶǼҪġǿ˵п÷ڴ˽ҵĽҵXҲڷڷзƩ硰ڴ˹涨ôڷϣЩ֮˳ľʵϾзЧ
ӢʱʹõΪԣoperativeʣڷ֮ⱻ㷺ʹõԵһ㹦ܣӢѧΪǡΪģԣperforamtiveԵ÷ڷ֮ںͷ֮ⶼȤЩʹͬͨٵijȥʱԵʹáΪ뿪Եһ޷ⷨΪһһЩѧңǺڸʲķH?gerstr?mڽͨʹԣͿγתȨͨı䷨ɵλһʵһħ˵ʣҪĻ͵óԵرܣһЩǹ涨ijЩ˵ijЩʣijЩ򽫲뵽Դ˾̸еĴʵĹܣڸ㷺˵Щʵ塣
ٵִѧִܻѧӣѷԳֻеֵ¾ɹˣ־ɹΪһһ಻ͬʱеЩضе鹲ͬԡһֽ˵һʽ⣬ijһ಻ͬϵʽͷԣ׷ķʽȻҪΣҴϿƣҮʵʹúõҪ뵱ѧľѧ˵ơάظ˹̹˵Ҫǵĸͱǡʱ˼ǡšߡݼ١ʱûŪĻȫҮֶԸķ񶨣ԼصҪ󣺷Ա˰