ΩԸƽˮʹ罭ϣ
et revelabitur quasi aqua iudicium et iustitia quasi torrens fortis

 




˹



¬ϵͳ۶ѧŲĽ

¬Niklas Luhmannչʾһͨ۵ġ ң۶ԼʮϿԽͬŽ㣬Ƕļƻ˽⡣ǻΪԼܸõǰһС¬о˵ʹӿ׵µɭ˹רҵͳϵ˵ӿµʶѧʷϵͳ۲ûѧϿѧĿׯ෴ԼΪһѧļ̳ߡͼ̳ѧĻʷʽͬʱ볬ԽѧһоӽǵתʹҷѵִԵʧȥ˶еϵͳۣԲϸӻִֻܲȡһֿ϶̬ȡעǣ¬һľѧŲ½оôߣѧԵDzǻϵͳأ֪ԺڸЩѾǶΪִԭΪĵԵĹ㷺ɡ

1

ϵͳڿۺѧᄈзչġͬˮƽȡӵѿµ֪Ǿͱϵͳ½ж塣£ϵͳΧ磭ϵSystemUmweltBeziehungȡ֪루ΪʶĶԵģ֮ϵʶԣʶʶҹ˺⡣ڣһҪλάֺչϵͳ⡣ϵͳҹǰҹģʽġϵͳϵͨ˼Ϊṩϣ޷ϵͳϵϵͳġҡбġҡΪδ۳Ϊͳϡ˼ġҡտµ˵˼ġҡȻҵһϵͳ۱ͨۺϻʶͬһԵеһݴҹ浱еġҡ޳ҹǸϵͳЩȷҹϵУһģϵͳΪһҳֳʶʽжԼʶ˼Ըͬʶ˿ҪһҹϵʶĵȼԱʾĻķչˮƽΪӦʶĽܳɾͣ¬һصĸ塱Sinnʹ˸ԣ¬õǺѧںһָһֻIntentionDZȡ塱ĸӦأ¬ǰԵĽǶȰѡ塱ΪжصIJᄈڲʵĿԡǣӹʹϵͳʹ˾ʶ塣

һָתʽʶѧ˼άģʽŽṹϵԡǰŵӿ¾ڸ˼˼뱳֮£ͻóһЩʡĽۣ

ѧľת⡣ңϵͳΧ磭ϵȫǰʶģʽġϵͳԼΧӶΧ統һ־ձԵӽԽӹϵͳֻԸʽܷ֮֡ά֣һ߶ȸӵΧṩżȻٽDzͬھ壬ûһʶͬһʽʱúгϵͳصΧ˽ϵ硣 ϵͳз˸ֲͬϵͳΧ磭ϵϣϵͳ˵뾭֮Ҳʧȥ塣

ΣϵͳƾһԽΨľޣͺڸʱһޡڸ˽巢ʷʱάȵͨһ֣֪֮ʶĻṹڿ͹۵ĺ;ԵľС۾ʾģ͹۾;ԾͬҲˡ˵ڸʹõǾô¬ʹõǼӹϵͳԴ˻˻ɣΪһϵͳᵱΪϵͳʶƵĶоӹϵͳܵͬʶϵͳ羫ܵͬ۾һ棬ǰҪȷϵͳڲ¼ϵͳΧе¼ˣϵͳΪΧ磬໥˱Կ˷Χĸԡ岻ͬ໥֮޷һ߲ϵϵͳǴһʼûΪ廷ڶṹ֮Сһϵͳ۲ûϴΨ嵽͹Ψ·ӡ

ٴΣ¬˼ƣΪ˼áʵˡʶԾγɹ̽һȻתͶӦ䵱ࡱΪΧⲿ͹Ȼ֮佻ϵн顣ˣһѭ̣ʼͶģɶԲƷʹãٷصͶΪ̡ϵͳΪҴһ˼˵ҹϵͳԣձ塣ϵͳʹõÿһضͨϵͳܴΧСֳɵءùӹϵͳоҹԣҹԾеҪһҴʵ壬ʵֵ塣

ǰ£ϵͳͬ˼۵Ĺ۵㣬ŶķᄈӦᄈԷ˼ϵͳ۵ʶͨ˼Լ̵ɲֺ͹ܣͬʱְ̿ԼĶ󡣶˼ۼһԸӶʹԼܹҷ˼ЧԼڲȻⲿȻıнų֮佨һڵϵ ϵͳ֪Ϊ֪Ϊ뵽ԵϵͳУ֪ʶеһоءϵͳ۰ԼΪһֹܷΪһӦ⣬ԼȫϵͳάֵĹܹϵСûκγԽЩϵͼ

ģѧ˼תƵϵͳʽ棬˶ͳܵĽһڡ˼ȡʶϵͳоһΧϵͳôDZ۵IJտҲһĿȻˡΧ統УصϵͳΧ磭ϵϵͳ۱԰պʹĸԡΪкĴıǰᡢ֪زҿֵĿ͹ʶǰᡢԼص̬ѧǰȣһӶֵˡζѧʶۻԷУЩǰϵԼ̬֮ϵĻԣȴûо۾ͱ׵һߡ¬ϵͳ˴ζѧMetaphysikԪѧԪѧMetabiologie˼ת䡣ܡζѧһʵijֶôżȻԣǶԸһ˼塪˼ijǡΪǶڡ󣬲󱳺Ķ׷ʡˣǿ԰ѡԪѧΪһ˼룺ӡΪġллĶ׷ʡ˵Ǵӿ۽ǶĻ󣬼һ߶ȸӵΧ磬ҹϵͳҺ

ϵͳΧ֮IJԣⱻһֻԭϵͳͨҺȡɴڡ˼ȷԡ¬ַҲԽһУּڽʾҺΪĵԵڱʡϵͳԵ£ΪԶ⵽еһֹܣʹϵͳΪܵһܺ͡԰ԼΪһΪԼԵԵķҷ񶨡֮˵ǡΪԪѧIJտܲûдζѧѧѧе߸˹ƣһͲ罻ˣΪԹܺЧҪƵĽԸһƣǰжǽ˵߸һγϲ㽨ѡߵ塱֯ˮƽϣ˿ҲûиıʲôΪǽҪģΪ˹Ч֮ϵʧˡڸһģЧԣȤֻеЧ

壬嵽ϵͳת󻹴һҪĺκһֵֿܳҹϵҲһ֪ʶҡҾʵڲͬҲһʶаѾһ˶ƵˣʹǾһϵͳҹϵеġҡҲʧȥ˰֪ĿԣҹϵĽṹڵصСģͨԵԣ֤ͬʱΧ翪ŵģϵͳķԣ

ָҴһϵͳԣҲָڸнԵλ漰ǹɿϵͳϵĸڣάϵͳɡ֤۵ǾֲĻָ棩ؼԵĿ

ҹϵͳҡʧڷĻҲӳܵ˵ڹ˷ֻ

ǣ޷һȷȷԣǹңᡱ

ִͬһԴ䲻ͬϵͳĽǶͬӷĽǶ˵Ѿ޷óһϵͳʶӽǡǣִ޷γһֺͬһԣҲûһյִˡʹĿؼУʵķ̵ֻҲᵽڡֻͳԽŷ޴ͳԸȻ¬ļ鵱УƶȻƬصģһַdzе־ɫʵŲֵûɵĺڸɵףGehlenһֱڼŲھعһ¡

ѧеҹϵ֪ͬһ趨ΪԵIJϵԣӿµڸ˼˶Żһ߼գͬһԵĺɴ˰յĶ֮IJԣҲҪһְͬһͷͬһڵռͬһԡǺڸڡϣлѧϵIJһ۵⡣ڸͬijӽdzĻִԺִԵĻ顪˶ڽжԴͳŷ˹ߵһ廯Ҫ󣻻Уʱ徭úͿƲƹҵУϵͳϵһšӦȡڽ̵һ廯ܣǵѧĻ⡪ͬʱҲԴڵΣѧķչơʱ϶ŶصİգҪֲѧʶеĶ󻯱֤ϣֱ֤ҷ˼һΪһԷԴȪһʽĶԼĿ壬ˣͽҲͲܸ֪󻯵ҹϵģʽ⣬Ҳ˵ܴӡ˼ѧĽǶȼ⡣һ޵ͻᱻԻԵλþͻᱻż񻯵֪۶ᡣģʽڸѾijΪij֡ʵ֤ġֻͨҷ˼ܵõ˷ͨһ˶ռĿھ֪ʶԵ֪

ϵͳת䣬ҹϵеġҡʧˣϵͳ۲û˶һ˼ܣմ˺ԺѹԵﻯΪѧҹϵУԵﻯڽṹϿִܻһƵķڣһϵͳԼΧ硣һͨ屻ųˡϵͳγɻֵḶ́ЩҲáųų⡱ȸ֤ϵͳγɹаijЩԼΧ磬֮־룬һĹ̡ʷǶӶͶϵĽҵ޲ߵԼȨڴڵƿأһûʹĹ̡ϵͳۿȫزЩص⣬ҲִΣĿ⣬ңΣᱻ̶һϵͳӽ档

ֻܷ᲻ͬһԣôҲ޷ͬ

ԻҪΧϵͳӳֻҪǻʩӰ졪˵ҪǴύ̡ڵĹϵͳУֻ޵ķΧڳ֡統ҽٴοļʱ͵һϵͳͨΧϵͳʩѹȻϵͳȱΧԵĸ֪һϵͳڹֻܷDzֵܳģΪ⽫ζһγᵱСֻԭʹúӽȣҲԽ

¬޳ؾܾѧйؽ;

ЩͷԼ򵥵ѧ˷Щ⡣ڸĹҸҲûö١˼ԸĿͬҲˡ

ģ12Ѿ˷ѧʶṹɡΪֱڸ߲ε壬ͻһϷNullsummenspielУռɶȵ߶޷õȷĶλΪдҷ˼ʶҲѡֻһ֪ʶҪܸߣΪԼȡ򣬶һΪ֪ʶϵͳΪһ֪ġΣǶʶһֲͬĸԣDzطһұֵĸԿǸ߲ϵԡڹУͬĸּҹԻù档ڸ߶ȼеĹУҲһԵʶѧʶľȷҪ֪ʶûмѧУҲûм۵С

ֹʶ壬ڲҲìܣˣֹʶͿͬһֹ淶ľ룬ҶΣӦ߸ȷе˵ṩ¬ԵĿԡ¬ԣִԵ׷ζʲôǺġŷ˼룬ҲøӽȺ͸ѽ⡱ˣһͲӦ

ĿܲζţΪܱ֤Լȥͱ⡣Ҫȥ㹻ˡ

־γɹ̸߶ȼУַdz磬̵Уǿؿữ͸廯ͬ뼯ͬǽϵһġ¬ûսԻϵԸԣֻаֵİģʽڹΪһ֡塱˼άģʽ Ծ֮־롣ɭ˹ٵڸϷdzӽѧɴ˿ɼⲻǶԹŵģʽķ죬ϵͳɭ˹˵ΪϵͳΪ壬ѾϵͳΪϵͳԼСһѧܵȷǴȱݣֽϵͳۡԣ¬⣬ңĽ۲ѵʶ

һǰ˵Χһ֣ǵһ֣ǾͻıдͳʵǰᣬҲŵǰᡱ

˭ЩǰᣬǶһҪôͱȻΪϵͳ۵ձҪĶ֡

ʵϣַ۵ķ壨methodischer Antihumanismus ԵģǰѲְݵ嵱СھоǴģ˼άģʽûͲֵľ۾޷άֵġҪ󡱡˵ġҪ󡱣ִĹģִ˵Լֹ淶ľпܵģңڸ߲ϵĹдԼΣĸܣֿԲûͨԻѡ⵽񶨡ȻһΪԽͬ͵ϵͳ羫ϵͳϵͳңЩϵͳ໥Χ磬໥ֻάһڹϵôֹܹܵĹṹҲʧȥ֮

2

ٷļĴԼ³ѷʽʶΪϵͳ;ϵͳڸϵѹṩԵĹУһԽΪһ򵥴ʶ֮ϡ

ھϵͳϵͳijУγһѧŲϵͳΧĹϵͬ塪ĹϵһڸϺܺйعʶԵȴϵȻҪô໥ӽdzԡǴӷϣصṩѧĽ۷棬Ҫôӽ۵ĽǶǿʶָ֧ӽϵͳͬԴͷ֮䣬¬ʼҡڲ

͹ŵһڶҲȱʵ۵Ļ¬Ȼѡ塱Sinnһֶԡ͡ʶĸԼۣľģԱֽΪͬ͵ӹ̡ʶͽΪϵͳ޷໥Χ硣ͬ⣬ϵͳĴڽṹϺѧʱķdzƣ죬ԵȻһȫµ֤ᄈں鱤ľѧGeisteswissenschaftenͳУԷѧԼʵͽṹ壨ͨ׵ºά˹˹۲˹㷺Ӱ죩Уеijλ֡һʷǿؿһԽṹΪͬϵͳҪе޴ѹڣ¬۵ĻѾȽˡҲΪ˿˷µ⣬¬ҪͶľ

Խṹ͸ڽܵϵһΪ໥֮ͨһµıͿмЧҪԣΪϵͳϵͳԼͬϵͳ֮ǿϵͳֻܴⲿżȻԵ໥Ӱ죬ǵ໥ȱڵڡˣ¬òԺͽΪΪһģʽԱĻһ廯ữ֮ϵҰгʧ

ѧԱﴦڸλֻΪ˴ӷŵĽǶȰżȻԵ¼ձ黯ƺѾӻΪԷϵͬһԡ УʶԣǴҪġ¶˼룬Ǵһʼ;̬ԵĽṹֻͨΰ¼ʶܶѭ̷ֽ⿪ʹܹ֮һһڡ ֮⣬ڹͨ˵ûκι壻ڡ񡱵лһнԲ뵽˹˼ά̵֯Уɴ˵Ծһܡ κһⶼ飬DZѧᄈѰԼĸݡңЩҲѧİʾԽ

¬IJҲһĿȻԷŵĹ֡ƹǰԵʶ̺ᄈôֶνĽ޷Խ͡ԲٱΪһֽṹӶʹ⡢ͬһԵԼЧܹһϵôҲ޷Է;һµı⣬޷ԱЧԵĹʶ飩޷еϵͲᄈĹԣҲ˵޷ֳͨγɹ̡෴ԽṹȻҪһɵĹ߶ӹϵͳ໥ӰƵ¬ʹõ֪ľ˼ģʽ

ͳˮƽ֮µ⣬Դྫϵͳ֮໥۲졣Щϵͳ֪ǵеÿһҹԣ˶ϵͳеĿԸ֪Χ統С߹۲ҹ۲첻໥ӳǣͨ໥۲Ĺ۲죬γ˶ԲӽǵIJԵ⡣άȣͨľۺ϶ֳΧһµ໥ϵЧҪϵһ𣬲ھ˵ָɵĹʶʵںϡͬϵͳ֮䲻γɵͬϵͳɵϵͳԼ뵽ϵͳҰ֮У˻صΪĵĹ۲ϣ

ǴϢԽ໥̣໥۲ָϵͳгֵ⡣ʼǷģδںϣǰ໥⡣ǼйעģΪһΧеϵͳܹ۲쵽ΪͶͲһУǸԻָͨѧϰոԵĹ۲ӽǡǿͨΪ۲쵽һʩӰ죬ҲԴ䷴мȡ顣ͻͻȻһ򡭡dz֮Ϊϵͳ

ϵͳýʽӹ塣ͶԡԲûаѾһıṩʹãǽ÷塣ԵʼӽǵIJԡȻҺ߿ ʹþһķţӶǿָͬһԡ Ϊý鲢ûеõȷĶ壬ϵͳ֮ϻϵͳ֮ߵӽ˷ϵͳΪĵӽǡ˵ϵͳһµ壬ôͬͨҲԼȷΪһϸϵĹʶάȺʵάȵķ룬Ҫų˵ԵռĿģ໥ɵĹʶĿ֤Ҷ⡣ˣһЧҲܽԿмЧҪijϻϣӦֻΪһ߶ڵĹʶϡԲṩһι̻ڹijĹʶ

ҵĹʶֻǺĹʶ֮ϵҵĹʶĹʶҲκξɻĸݣȷǵĹʶһµģǴʵ

άȺʵάȵġںϡ˼¬Ϊǡĸ󡱡

ĿǸӵĺ⡣һԣ漰ǴӾĽǶ̵ͨijĻЧҪĻþһıͽʶĿΪԼԸԽԽṹҲ˵ֻеʶĽͨڹϵõڣֻеĻ͸˲оϵʱDzŻøϵͳеĶԣ໥Χ硣һһӵõǰõϣϵͳϵͳҲֻdzżȻ໥һ໥γһڹϵôڶָΪһֿһУ˵ڶ𲽵ؽϵһǴ໥á໥γɵĻһ廯ԼữȽǶȽ˸ᡢʷ뼯ʽ廯ữ֮ϵЩϵڶļ裬ڹϵܱŷ

˵໥͸ĸʵĿģָһ̬ΪΧϵͳһڹϵɶȣĿΪڽṹ໥һϵͳеһǰγɵĸԴһ֮Сͻһ͸˼͸ һֹӦԽܹϵڴˣֻҪǼ裬ϵͳϵͳһʼͲDzһ£һ˷ѽҲͿ϶õ͡˵һǰ£ữֻܱΪϵͳһسɾͣữԶҵữ ҲƵһữ͸廯֮ϵˣй淶ںĸԸֻܱһ֡ģʽҿԲϸơ

ֻܸҪػعһ¬ĸɲԣɴǿؿѾͬһľµĺһ𡣽ھ棬¬ƺ˿ǻָΪڵϵͳϵԽʽԾй塣ʾɲȡ۾뷴۾ݡԽ۾ݵIJ沢ȷΪһʼߵ⣬ϵͳ۲ʺϱȽº͵ġרҵģʽϸϵѧǿԺ۹ܵԪᲢۡ

Ұ¬ۿǶһִͳĴͳִŷӰ죬ַӳһֻȻģʽĻ֪߲ϵƬ滯Ƭ滯ѧͬҲӳΪѧͼΪ˼罨һֿ͹⡪ǻе۵ۣΨۺ۵ۣǶöе㸴ӵ۰Ѿԭ嵱СӢ磬ΨȻڻĹϵ⡣ΪֹѧĻ֧һҪ󣺴Ȼѧ۲ߵӽdzһֱϿԵ֪Ķ컯ӿԼȻڿ͹⵱У漰IJֻϸڽͣһֵߵȻ۵ĶػӦһҶ󻯵ӽǵУԱͨҰ֮ڼԽ͵һһֳӽǵбΪһڵżȻʵǾİ壬ֻܰȻѧģʽԽ͡

ȻѧﻯѧѧṩԺģʽǾ޷ԽһϵԼڻۡԴȻѧϵͳѾԶճ飬޷컯һҰϰܴ硣ͨϵͳ֮˱仯ϵͳǴӿۼڲͬѧеõзչġǴ֪ԻƵģʽԵлǸӽӽĻʽǹŵѧ¬ת쳣ˣɴ˿ɼԿúչ¶ϸ΢ҲܸµҲֻǿ͹ۻǿ͹DZע⵽һӱۼ䷶ʽҲȫڿѧϵͳֻҪϵͳ͸磬ԪѧӽУɴѧԼһϵͳһΧ統еΧϵͳǾζһֶ󻯵ЧݻƺֻͨϵͳΧIJԲŵɡ

ϵͳԾʹΪĵԡΪζѧкȨеУԴˣЩ˻عˣʹĿꡣϵͳ۲ڿѧϵͳڲ˶صרҵףһձҪ͸統УˣԪѧĻȡζѧĻ͹֮ijͻʧȥ塣ԽԺָķϵͳֳΪһ۵Ĺؼʡⳡȡʧȥֵġ⡣

ԡִԵѧ12 ǣ

1 ¬ϵͳSoziales SystemFrankfurt am Main1984
2 ҶίѾϰΪȻҲֻ֪һһĽǶȥһ޷סḻںġֻдǶȳ¬۶ǵ۲塣
3 κһָϵͳֻһٳɵΧĹϵûڵΧ硱¬1984146
4 ˹ʶȤErkenntnis und InteresseFrankfurt am Main196859ff.
5 ϣ¬̳еɣѧı409ҳע8
6¬1984630ҳ
7¬1984630ҳ
8¬1984645ҳ
9¬1984599ҳ
10 ¬1984654ҳ
11 ¬ǿΪ崫ͳУڡɲ֣ɲ֮֡Ա壬ԭһ޷һֽռء¬1984286ҳ
12 ¬1984288ҳ
13 ¬198492ҳ
14 淶ķЧڸ׵Ʒżе֣¬ȴ֮硣
15 ¬1984142ҳDZ뵽е֮УΪʶʶҲDZ뵽ߵ֮УΪ
16 ¬ںܶطΪϵͳڽдлϵͳϵͳ֮䣬Ҳ˵ڷȡϵͳֻϵͳӵʶ˸ΪʶijеϵͳĻ244ҳҳһ;ҪԴ˼漰ϵͳҴ߻ά˵ģ;ڣһΨ۵ΪƬ趨˫ؿܵѭǾͱ趨˻ʶ塱ڲᵽϵͳ֮ǰѾ߱жϺ;ֻдһ֡-ѧ-л-ʵԡγһϵͳ170ҳҳһ棬ϵͳͲڲͬĽ߶ͨӹлϵͳǰʾĽܳɾͰԼ͹ֳĻˣ¬ط141ҳҳᵽ˹ͬΪͬӹϵͳΧ統лΪǰᣬ໥ٽͬȵԭʼԡǵĻһʶһǽ
17¬1984136ҳҳǣǰβԵʶṹԤȵõ涨
18¬1984367ҳҳ
19¬1984137367ҳ
20¬1984157ҳ
21¬1984220ҳ
22¬1984113ҳ
23¬1984119ҳ
24¬1984290ҳ
25¬1984327ҳ
26 ¬1984360ҳҳ

Copyright?2000 www.cc.org.cn. All rights reserved.
ȨУ Ϣҵ޹˾ ĴѧйĻо