ΩԸƽˮʹ罭ϣ
et revelabitur quasi aqua iudicium et iustitia quasi torrens fortis

 

 

ûСԡûС򡱡۹˹Ĺ

ͯ

[ժҪ]ȸ?˹Ĺ漰:عʶIJ͹Եı绤ԿǽĹؼ:뿪,޷֪ijDzһ;뿪,ͼȲγɡʶ,Ҳܴӡʶзչԭʶֵֻʶ뿪,޷Ϊṩ绤˹֮Թע,Ϊעʵ:ȻоԿ?ִɵ˸Կ?ִƶȵĺϷԱ绤Կ?Ϊ˻شЩ,˹ĽԸµʵԸѿ¹ڡ޹ԡĹ۵͹˹ġûԾûй򡱵Ĺ۵ۺ,ԵóûԾûԡĽۡ
[ؼ]ԡԡʵԡʶԭ򡡼ֵ
Abstract:Jiirgen Habermas' s conception of rules concerns three questions:the condition for following a rulethe genesis of the rule consciousness and the justification of the validity of rules .In Habermas' s viewthe key to these questions is the notion of intersuectivity:without the dimension of intersuectivity one cannot be sure whether he or she is following a rule or not;without the dimension of intersuectivity neither the rule consciousness in the conventional sense nor the" principle consciousness" developed from it or the" value con-sciousness" differentiated from it is possible .Behind Habermas' s interest in the concept of rules is his interest
in the problems concerning the possibility of the research of social phenomena as distinguished from natural phenomenathe possibility of a truly free personality in modern society and the possibility of legitimating social institutions in modern society .In order to deal with these problems of great practical significanceHabe rmasmodifies Kant' s notion of practical reason with his notion of communicative reason .The synthesis of Kant' s view that there can be no reason without rules and Habermas' s view that there can be no rules without intersubjectivity can lead to the conclusion that there can be no reason without intersubjectivity.
Key Words:ruleintersubjectivitycommunicative reasonpractical reasonrule consciousnessprinciplevalue
(.ˣ)˵:޹ԡ[1129]˹(.ȣ)ǿ,ûԾûй۹˹Ĺ,,⡰ԡ塪ʲôݡΪʲôҪġ,ǰѿµĹ۵˹Ĺ۵Ļ,ǻԶԡԡ͡ԡ֮Ĺϵиõ⡣
1.û,Ͳ֪ijDzڡһ򡱡
˹ڡ򡱸,ܵΤ(.ף)Ϳ(.ģ)ѧҵĹ۵Ӱ֮,ѧҪܵѧͷѧӰ졣ѧǺάظ˹̹(.ף)Ӱ֮µճѧԹо,ʹ˹綨۵ĺĸжΪΪĿ͹·Ӱ켫Ķʮ۽,˹ԡж,оһ֡Ԫѡ񡱢ٵ塣Ƕ˵,ۿѧԹ˹Ĺ۵Ӱ֮ǰ,бҪ۷ѧĹ۵Ӱ졣
ڹ˹,ж(ȣ )͡Ϊ(֣)һڹ˹,ж͡Ϊ֮Ĺؼ,ǰһԵ,߿ǷԵ;ж֮Ե,Ϊжܹ֧ġ
˹д:Ϊɹ淶֧ġ˵ȡڹĻ,ҾͰΪԵġ淶¼,Ǹһϵ[£ ]Чġ淶һ,Ҳ[ӣ],һЩ淶,ͳΪΪɻ򶯻,̸۵жжȡڹжߵ,ùϡֻȡڹΪ,DzųΪж;ֻжDzųԵġ
,˹жġԡжġعԡϵ,ûж֮ϵ˵һЩ,1981ġжۡ,˹άظ˹̹йءع򡱵ϵ˵ڹ˹,ϵĹؼΪȡڡͬһԡ,ͬһڹЧԡΪΪһе޷͹۵Ĺ۲յ,Ϊӹ۲ߵӽdz,ֻܿŵġijԡ(ˣ£ ),ʲô³ͬΪ;ijԲڡͬһԡ(ɣ £):ҪIJǽ֪Щ³ЩͬΪ,֪ЩжͬΪҲǾͬΪͬŵľгʹ,ֳɵظ,ҪܹΪʹԼ֪ġȷͬһԵ,ֻǡԼءȷһ֮һЧ[ǣ]
˵þЩ:Ǵӿ͹۵Ĺ۲ߵĽǶ̸ijض͵ΪijضжijƵʵʱ,ǼٶѾжʲô,岻ܽǿ͹۹۲ǿӵ,ҲӦΪжԼġ,ij͵жǷڲͬľ龳,ʲôȷЩͬ龳зΪǾͬж?˹ǿ,Ϊ˻ش,ǹȻܽݿ͹۵Ĺ۲,ҲܽжԼ;Ϊ,Ļ,һΪԼʵʩͬж,ͻͬʵʵʩͬжˡ,˹άظ˹̹ڡѧоеһ֤,DzܶԵع֤:һΪһ,һ,Dzܡ˽µءص:Ļ,ΪԼһ,ͻعͬһˡ[282]չ˹Ľ,άظ˹̹ڡΪԼһ򡱺͡ȷʵһ֮,ؼڶһ()˵,Ϊ޷ܵһ()Ļ,޷ȷе֪DzһġͬһȡڹЧ,Ч,ָֻͨһ()һ()ǰɹغ˵Լһ֮,˵Ϊع,ȷʵҲ˵عֻ,Ŵһڼ׺ҵΪĹ
2.û,޷γɡʶ
άظ˹̹Ĺ۵,⻹дڽһۡ
һ,άظ˹̹Ĺ۵,ֻеж߼׺ܹ˴˶ԶԷǷһжϵʱ,Dzп򡣵׷άظ˹̹˵ʱ,Ѿٶ˼׺Ǿйʶĺعġܷ֪һضζʲô,һϵعζʲôһϵعζʲô,һйعʶع֮γɵҪ档,άظ˹̹ûлش
ڶ,ʶһԹ֮ݵ˽,ҲǶáعζʲô,ǰѹԼжɺͶ⡣ܹγһְѹжɺͶʶ,άظ˹̹Ҳûлش
ͬڼ׺ҡ˫ĹʶIJѧ⡱;,˹ڶ׵(..ͣ)ΪķԻش𡣢 ˹˵ġʶ򡰹,׵³Ϊڡҡ()֮еġҡ(),֡ҡ,ʵ巢Ĺ,ǶҵڻĽ()Ϸ()ͱ()Ĺϵһڼ:Լ,Ҽǵǰ˵Ļ,֮ݡһʱ̵ġҡ()һʱ̵ı()֮С[3229],ҽΪһʷֵ;ʶܹյĽǹȥҡ廹һϷҺͱҵĹϵ,ͬʱҵIJȱٵĻ:׵°ѡҡΪһԼȡ˵̬ȵϵͳϡ,ѡҡΪл˵̬ȵķӦʶγ,Ϊ׵˵֡ҡγɹ̡
˹ڹ۷׵¹۵,ԸΪΡ
һ,ԹʶIJٶһԱ׶ԲԱ(ҡ):Ϯ!ڵ:ҪһֹʶпܸһһС,Ӧòɵ̬Ⱦʲôʡ׷Ժ,ҡȴûûп͹۵ԽΪʲôû,ǾͲھԮδֵܳ,ҡȾܾԮ⡣ҡʹ׵ڴʧ,һֽʧ,ʧ,ǸεġЩе˶ʧþܾԮķʽķӦ,ԵIJǼҪҡֲķӦԣòڻһֻ̬еض龳·ʱ,ŻᱻΪ񡯡,Ǿʹﵽ˾ɷнĻ״̬,״̬,ŵԼȷġԻIJָܹķű,Ҳ˵,Ĭڴ:ǻᱻ˳ΪǷһı˹˵,׵µ,ͿԱΪάظ˹̹Ĺ֧ʹõĹ,ԼȷȷͬһԵĹĸķѧ˵[422]
ڶ,жʶIJж򲻵ԹԹĻԼ,жĻԼһһۡҪָжԹһ:ͬͬжĽЩж֮Э,ͬͬԹĽ֮гɹĽ׵¶֮ԽûиֵĹע,ʹҴҹɵԲ֮ͬжЭ,˹Դ˱ʾ,ΪΪֻжԽĸ(ֱӦʵϵȡЧš)˳ֵо,ŻжЭжĽ͡,˹׵ͨԲ֮ͬжЭоġͨữĸ廯˼,߶ۡ
˹׵µ˼뿴ǴѧĽǶȶԸ廯()Ļش𡣶,ѧҵ̽Ѿ˳õʷѿռʱ䵱廯ԭľ崫ͳ,˹ΪִʵĹ涨ʾԵѧŬֵӡⷽɾߵǷϣ,Ѹϵ,ҰĸԿͨ()()֮ϵġ
˹ΪϣؾûнȷʵҪ:һǸԺԵĹϵ,ǸԺʷͬĹϵ⡣鱤(.ȣ)Ϳ˶(.ˣ)һѾʷ˼άģʽӽdzֱ,׵µѧͳһһ,취DZһ:˻ҵҪ,ڱҵлҵԷʶҲγɶһ޶ɶĸ塪DZزٵġ׵Ҫ⿪һѭ:ҪܹʾԼ,ͱԼɱҡ׵²ʶѧĿڰҹΪʶĶ,ǹɵԷΪýĻķʽ,һҡ
˹д:һԱΪһԼıڿռ,һ۷һ澵ıʱʾĿռ,κ۵ĶͶֻҹ۲˼֮ʽӽ屾ֻܱһ֮±͹ۻġҡ,ҡһ׿־ﻯõ,һ岻һ۲ߵ,һ˵ߵݳ,ҴһߵӽdzڶԻ,ѧԼɡһҵ()[5171172]
˹ǿʶ֪ҹϵ( /ӣ)жʵҹ( /ӣ)ֿ׵δȷֹϵ,Ϊʶǽ,֪ҹϵжĹ(),˹˵,һʵҹĶȷ,ҡ͡ҡԺĵĸӵĵظıˡԭͳһڱԷӦģʽежӦ֪Ӧ,ڷֻˡý黥׶ϵж,֮ͬΪЭ;Ĺͬıܺͱ˴ӦΪʽ,ڴ֮ԡ淶һ㻯˵ΪڴЩ淶ͨٱڻ˵ƶڽж֮Сɴ˶ﵽὨ˸ϵͳΪֶ֮Ӧ,׵ҲڲһߡһֻĹϵжҲһʩΪ̬ȡӽϤĻ͡,˹ǿӽǡ롰˽ɫ֮,ζҲߵĹ淶ڴ֪ڴЩڴĹ淶Ӧڶҡĸı˵Ľṹ,ԼҹϵIJͬ:ʵҹҡһԭԵĻ򱻷˼ʶ,һҿƵҷ˼еǶԱж,ڲһԼΪģʽ񡣡[5179]
˹Ͽƶ(.ˣ)ĵѧͿɵѧ,׵йҵĸ廯ҵữ֮ڹϵĹ۵һ˲ٲͷӡӹ˹֮ġ˼ƽ⡱,ǿԶԺ͹ʶγ֮Ĺϵи˽⡣
ƶĵѧоصǸĵʶķչ̡,ʵϻЩжϵı,һЩձʽ,ǿԱΪĵж֮չIJͬ׶:ǰ׳ɵ( )׳ɵ( )ͺ׳ɵ( )ڹ˹,׶ϵʶص,Ӧ以ͺڴͼԽ͡Ӧǰ׳ɽ׶ε,ǹضжľΪڴ;Ӧ׳ɽ׶ε,DZ˴໥ϵһ㻯˵Ϊڴ,༴浼жɫ淶˵ġʶ,ȾһΪɫ淶Ϊڴ׶,岻ٽijȨ(ҳʦ)ض֮Ľͳͷжָ,ѧһЩһ򡣸׵µġͨữ廯,ͬʱ,һ(ҲǸ廯̶ȵ),(Ϳӵ)ֹĸɫеĹѧϰ(Ҳữ̶ȵ)
˹ע⵽,׵²ûаϵĹʶ򡰱ҡҵͬ,Ҳ˵,׵ʵϿ˽׶,һûȫȡ(.ȣ)йءԼʱ,һ˺üҪ,˶Լйءԡڹ˹,׵֮ûа֡ҡ롰ҡͬ,Ϊ֡ҡеĵʶ,ֻһּһضȺ֮͹ĵʶ:һضļ־һûȡ̬ĸ־[5182]׶,֮пܽεж,äĿΪ۵ġԽ׶εǿƶ˵ν׳ɡ׶εͬγֺ׳ɵͬĹؼ,ֻѹ͸໥ͻĽɫڴĶ,ڡҡ֮ȱ˴˷ֻһǵ,ʹܹձĵԭЩ໥ìܵض;һ,ʹܹΪǡáļֵﻮΨԼܼԳﻮǰ,ǿ˵Ǵӡʶԭʶķչ;ں,ǿ˵ǴӡʶֵֻʶȻ,˹˲ûʹáԭʶֵʶ˵
(淶)ֵԭ򶼾й淶( ),Ҳ˵ǵжѡָ,ָõķʽDZ֮ܵ绤ķʽ,Dzͬġڹ淶ԭ֮,˹Ϊ԰ѹ淶ǡձ黯˵ΪڴĻ,ôҲ԰ԭǡϸ߲εĹ򡱻򡰹淶Ĺ淶ڵʶġ׳ɽ׶Ρ,ΪǸݶڹ淶ȡͶԹ淶Υжϵ;ڵʶġ׳ɽ׶Ρ,Щ淶ҲҪԭжϡ[4174]߼˵,ǴһӾ,ȷ˵Щ͵龳,ԭ,Ҫôʱδȷ˵Ч,ҪôýһЩдڹ͵һơ[6255]ڹ淶(绤淶ԭ)ֵ,˹һ:淶ͼֵָжһԵ,һĿԵ;ǵЧŵıһǶԪ,һ𼶵;ǵԼһǾԵ,һԵ;Ǹڲı׼Ǹͬġ[6311]DzЩһ,ָֻ㡣
һ,ڹ˹Ĺ(淶)/ԭ/ֵַ(Ҳ˵淶/ֵĶַ,ΪԭҲһֹ淶),ƺûͨνϷ򡱵ĵλȻ,˹ӵԹ,άظ˹̹Ļ˵ҲϷ򡣵ЭжǴĽǶ,ҪʵЭжЩϷ޶˹(ʣң)һЩ޶˹,жҪص(Ϊ,Ƕڡ׼򡱺͡顱)ɷΪ:Ȼ()Ҫ( )ְ()֮ԸΪ:Ȼе,ὨƷȻϵ;ҪὨƾбȻϵ,е;ְ˵ǽȻͽҪ֮:һὨƾϵ,һ־е塣޶˹ǿܰѽҪְ:Ҫ,ԼЩһ˵ȫʵʽĽҪ,ԴӼȳɵĹڹ͵мȷ,Ϊ,ǵķְ𡪾ȷĶԡɷɵȷġΪϷѡֵǵЩ淶,ȡڸϷĹЩҪǷְϵ,һ⡣[7306307]ֽҪ˵ǴԼ(),Dzͬڵְ,˾͵ͬڶӦڡ׳ɵĵʶ˵ġʶֱäĿصĹ򡣻仰˵,äĿӵĹбҪǷֵءĹ֮,һĹ:ȷʵȡǵѡ,֮ѡֹ,ȴȲΪֹǷԭ߼ֵġ,ҪIJһһ֮ѡ,ѡ֮һѡ֮ѡҲ˵,:ѡͬ,Dzͬʱѡ,ѡ֮һ,Ҳ߶ѡ񡣱ȷ˵,ƶͨʱ,ӦÿʻǿҲʻ,롰ԭ򡱺ֵ͡Ĺϵַûʲô𡣵DZַ֮һѡ,óʻϵϷ,ڹ˹ۿ(Ļнһ),ƺ޷ҵdzʵĵλ
ڶ,ӡʶչġԭʶ롰ʶֻġֵʶ,ڹ˹ش಻ͬġһǡ⡱⡱,ԭϿı׼Ŀձ黯Ժľ;һǡ⡱⡱,йءõ,ֻһʷʽ֮лһʽ֮вſܽкۡʽ:ʲôǶͬȵغõ?(һض˶һض)ʽ:˭?ҪΪʲô?˹һ˵֮:ڼʱԸһ²Ϊƭʲôļұչ˾ǷҪΪһ,ⲻһ,Ϊֻ漰ҵ,Ҳ漰˶ҵ,漰Ҷ˵ͬ,Ҳ漰ÿ˶Ӧø˵˸ĶԵء[86]
,ڡ׳ɡĽ׶,ǡԭʶγ,ǡֵʶγ,佻ġŶǿӵĽԼ,һеԼ漰ĵ¾,һ뿿ԼγһֲԼĸ˹ǿ,ɾ͵ĸ,Ȼȫɵ:ͨض龳ȫ֮⡢һĹɵĿռ,Dzܵġ෴,Ҫֳ,ʹѾָǸ֮С[5183],ִĹ,֮ĽΧԽԽĹ̡Χ,ʱ˵ǵĺ;ӿռ˵ԼĻ֮ˡ,չķָһƵձ̸򡣾С׳ɡ׶εʶ,ԭĵж,ڼֵ,ڶԳежϺ;εͬʱ,һͬ(µĽͬԭϰȫ,ĽֻͬijЩֵ),ΪҪΪжϺ;ĸ塢жϺ;֮Ϊġ߷ͥù˹Ļ˵:жϵγ(Ĵﵽһ)һ̳,ͬʱʵԼữʱ仯¬ġձ黯ڡͿµġ硯,׵᷽ľʽʱ䷽Ķ̬;һ,һ뻯ʽԤ,ӦDZ־γɵ̸һԻڵġ5184仰˵,׳ͬγȻǴҳһص,,صҡҡ,ѾΪҵ,Ϊÿͬߵҡҡ֮Կ,ڲͨһڡĻϵ,Ϊҡ֮Ͷ䡱Ǹ뻯龳Ľ,ֻ龳,пڸһ϶Ա˵׳ɽ׶ͬع˹һǿ¹ɵͬ׳ͬ뱻ΪһɵĶ,һֳϵġᡱһĽͬ塪а:һֺ׳ɵֻͬܽԼڶڷǿƵ໥ϵĶԳƹϵԤ֮С[5188]
֡ԤڡֲаʡΪ˵Ԥڵص,˹˷ѧĹһ֡Թ򡱺͡Թ򡱵֡ٹ˹˵Ըѽͬ嵱ʽġ,ΪЩɱ뻯Ԥ衱,ͬʱ־п˵ġԵʵ[9161]ĵλЩԤںδûгʵ,ΪʵĽж̻ܵǿƺŤġʹ˶,ЩԤȷʵǷԵġҪ,뿪ЩԤ,жͲٿܡʹ˶,ЩԤǾйġù˹ԼĻ˵,ϣμ۱,DZΪһʵЩԤ,Ǿһʵֻܽӽݡ[8164]
3.û,޷ȷԡ
ǰ̸ġʶԭʶĹɡ׳ɵͬ׳ɵͬķչʱ,Ѿ˹Ե⡣ԵĹϵ,˵ǹ˹֮ԴӡԡʽԡʽɵҪԭں̶ܴ,˹֤֮롰ع򡱵ϵ롰ʶϵ,Ϊ֤ϵ˹֮ӹ,ΪʵҲɹɡɹָὨƺĹ⡣˹ġ·˸ѧɡǰҪ֮һ,ҪʾеִIJ,Ҫִ᱾֮Ѱжֲ׷һı׼
˵й,ֻһͳ˵˹ָвͬ,ǵԵϵҲвͬ˹ѹΪ,ֱǶ͵йءӦĻش𡣳ǰᵽġ⡱͡⡱֮,νʵõ⡱Ӧе¹(ԭ)(׼)ͼ()
˹Щ˼ֱԴڿ¡°ѡʽֳ:ġʵõġµġ[94651]ʵǹĿĺֶ֮Ĺϵ:ΪʵָĿ,ҪʹʲôֶΡĿĺֶεĹϵĻһֽԭ֮Ĺϵ;ֹϵǷdzȷ,Կ˵ǡġڼ,ҪʵʲôĿиָ,ʵõĹ,ҪʵֵĿľҸϽ,ʵõĹĹһҲһֹĿĺֶιϵĹ򡣵,Ҹ˶:ΪҸĶδΪҸ,ҸʹﵽҸֶ֮ĹϵDzȷġ뼼һʵùĹҪʵʲôĿ,Ӧôж,Ƕڵ¹򡣵¹Ĺ;涨ΪӦ顣ǿġ˹ġʵõ⡱,൱ڿµļ漰⡣˹ġ⡱,䲻뿵µʵùȫӦ,ҲǹǶԡҸߡáġ˹ġµ⡱,϶Ӧڿµľش⡣[826]
ڹ˹,ЧԵĹϵǵġҲ˵,-ԹЧԵĹϵС,¹ЧԵĹϵ󡣼ЧԻǡһЩΪ桢ӷĽǶȷijЧԡ,¹ԼС淶ЧԵĻǡйؼֵĹʶ໥һϡ[1012]ڵ¹֮,Ҳ;ǰѾᵽ,ЧԻһضͬ,¹ЧԻһԭƵĽͬϡڸʶġ׳ɡ׶,Լ֮ӦὨƷչġͳ׶,϶֮׼ʵġԼ,֮ĻɵġʶʶԼһǿ˸ı,ʶԼɵơֻеµɳֵʱֻеһͬijԱύǰóϷʱ,ŻµĹʶȡɵĹʶ
һۡǹִ˵,ҪǷɹЧԻ⡣˹Ϳһûаѷɹеһֹ,Ҳǿ¹뷨ɹ֮ϵ,˹ϲͬ⿵µĹ۵㡣
һ,˹ͬ⿵°ķ۽ĵۻ,ִзɹҲҪ֮ͨĿǶõ绤˹ѿ˹(.ȣ)бȽ,˵˹ʵ֤Ȩĵº嶼,Ϊھƶķɲͬʱ,ҪһԵȼ澭ȵڽ̷,ڿ,ʵȻ·,̫ߵĵλ,ʹڻµΣ:ɼԭΪµһȱģ̬[6590]
ڹ˹,ִһ߶ȸӵ,һ,жߵжЭҪȡַʽ:һЭǵжȡ,һͨжĽЭǵжѷɹΪ,ǰѷɽǰһϷʽνϡֶ,ûп,ɲʲôжǵ,ҲƲǵĵʶΥǿȡijж;Ҳûп,ִ,ɵöϵͳĹʵִ֡ϵͳִϵͳĸЧǷdzҪġ˹ϳΪϵͳϡ仰˵,˹ǿɲе¹,ͬʱҲмȡΥ¹ͬ,ΥԹĽǵһֳͷΪһ¼֮һɹϵͳĴ,ҪʹһΥжһͷԵĺ,ΥԹһɵԵ,ܼ򵥵عΪĵȡ仰˵,ִķɵĺϷԲеµ,ҲмĹЧԡ
ִĸԲΪϻ,ҲΪֵϻĻϡǵ,ɵһ塢һĻɵѾ,Ļ첻ȨҵķΧ֮(Ҫڲķɹ򾡿ܳԽض),Ȩ֮䡪֮ʹǻܱΪһ´ͬĵ¹ͬ塣Ҳ˵,ضɹϵõIJձġ¹ͬ塱,Ǿиʷ(ƶȵʷ)ֵͼͬġɹͬ塱ζŷɹ֮ԲܱΪ¹,Ϊм,ΪҲ,Ҳǰ˵ڡ淶ġֵȡ
ڶ,ʹ͵һȱ,˹Ҳ뿵вȫͬĿ˹֮ϵһҪ۵,ġ
˹,ȻѷɵĺϷԻڵµĻ,ʵѾԽ֮ǰȻ۵Ĵͳ:ٰ֮ϵһϵϵ,̶ܴϿһʽϵϵ¿ȥƺȻӡζѧɹЧ,ɿµġζѧ,ѾǸͷڽ,Ƕ˵ԺԡҲΪĿߵĵλǿڹ˹,ζ,Ϊ֮ϷԻ,һʵԵĵϵ,ʵǰᵽĿƶġ׳ɽ׶εĵʶʵ,ƶÿѧֵʶġµġ:ǿԼǿǶձķɻɡ˵޹ԡʱ,ֱӺȻǿѧҪһϵͳġ˼ǵĹɵ֪ʶ[6590],۵ϡҲڿ͹۵̸ۡ:,Ϊ͹۵Ķԡ,Ϊɡ[11172]°ѹɷΪ,һȻ,һɹ,ߵҪ֮ͬ,ǵձ:ȻѭԲĹ,¹ӦѭԲĹɡٵ˹Ҫָ,õĶձ,ǹձԵֺ֮һ˹ϵձԳձ:ȫʽĹ淶䡣ձԻһ,ӹIJúʵʩ˹ϵձԳձԡ,ҪǶִɵĺϷ⡣˹϶۵׷ݵ¬(.ң)ͿµġĹ,[6153]ΪѾɵĺϷȡǷ㡰Էɽг֤Ҫ,[6550]ָȻáձķձ,ֳձ,ҲΪͳһ־زķеձԡ[6596]Ҳ˵,˹Ϊ¬Ϳû㹻ؿ,ԵĻ,ձ鷨ʽѾȷ˵,̸ֻͨγɺ־γɹ̵Ľʽܵõȷ[6133]ڹ˹,ֻжԷɵЧһ,DzſܰԼΪɵġߡ,Ҳ԰ԼΪɵġߡ,Ҳǿ˵ߡ
ԷɵձԵֿ,ǹ˹佻жۺ̸ѧġ̸ķۺۡĺݡĽжۺ̸ѧ,Ч[癹]ֻпܵΪ̸IJпͬЩж淶[6138]˹ԭΪ̸ԭ򡱡̸ԭᵽκж淶,̸IJڲͬвͬΧġ̸ҲڶڷɹġЧԡߡϷԡ֤,ɴ˹˹ӡ̸ԭνԭ:ԭӦȷ,Ϸ̵ijʲôҲ˵,ԭ涨:кϷ[]ЧԵֻһЩɹ,ڸԵԷʽɵ̸ܹõзͬͬġ[6141]ԭ̸ԭһѹЧԽڹ֧жЩǵĺͬ˵ɵ֮ͬ,ԭһЩԼص:ѹڷɹ;̸IJ߽һضķɹͬijԱ;̸֮ɵķΧаʵõġĺ͵µ,ԵµΪ;,ν̸֤(Ҫ)֮,ν̸(Ҫ˾),ȵȡ
4.ԽǶоʵ塡
ڵ,˹ԵĽǶȶԹео,ЩⱾе֮,ʲô?ȷЩ˵,˹ĹЩʵ?Ӧ,˹ĽԸϵĹ,Ϊʵ塣
,ԴӢѧұ˵?(Уף)ѧ(1958),عͳΪѧ۵Ļ⡣Ϊ,Ȼ֮ڹ˵жصعDZֳ( ),Ҫ˽,˽ж,ͲܲȡʶȻ˶Ŀ͹۹۲̬,Ҫȡ佻ߵ̬ȡ˹1967ġѧ߼1981ġжۡжԡعо,跨ճѧͳֹ۵ڹѧĹ۵㹵ͨ,Իشѧ۵һ:ȻоԿ?
ڶ,оִ˵,˺֮Ĺϵһ⡣ɭ˹(.У)˵ġƻ塱ִֹϵì:һ,Ӧ廯̶ȶɱػȡѡɺ,һ,ɳ̶ȵ,ֱ˾۵:ʹǶڽƻΪڴĿָ̰нų,ҲΪһµΪڴΪһֽơ[5149]֡ơҲǹϵͳ,ָ˹ġϵͳϵͳϵͳѴͳĹǿ֮,ڳΪԭӻͬʱΪԱߡ˵ȳеϵͳܵġɫˡ,ô,Ȼȥǰѡ,ʵЩѡDZҺȨýƵġЩýʹһΪ,ֿһ廯,ΪԵƫõصĸ˵ѡ,һҲ׼,Ϊֻʵָṹеѡ(ӵлDzӵ,Ƿ),˵ĵһѡʹһ֮С[5196]˹֮ҪԵĽǶожߵĹʶγɺͷչֻ,һΪ˴Ӹϰִ,һΪĻϿ˷,ֱΪѾϵͳȹɵѡнǵġĵѡ,Ȼڡ׳ɵͬĽ׶,Ҳ˵ȻܵڹäĿ֧Ľ׶ΡֻԳԽض޵뽻ͬΪϵġ׳ɵͬ,ͬĻԭĵжϺͻڼֵ仰˵,˹ԵĽǶ۹ʶͬγɺͷչ,Ϊ˻ش۵һ:ִɵ˸Կ?
,׻ֵԪͬʱȨϵձ黯ִ,֮ĺϷԺԼȲܽڽ-ζѧĻ,ҲܱΪϵͳʽϵĺԺ͹Чϵĺԡһ,ɵͳҪΪֵóϵ(Ҳ˵ǾкϷԵ),DZȳϵ,йЧDzġûڽ̵Ļζѧĺܵ,ֻжϺǿԷҪ,ɹ淶ijӦͬʱΪһԼΪЩ淶Դߡ[55152]һ,ڸҵ,ŵʲ׼ɵһЩʽҲѾʥַĶˡķɷʽ,ִϵͳѾڽ̺ζѧ,ͬʱҲ벻ĵġǶ̬ȵġڽ̺ζѧѷѽĵ롣,ִɵĺϷԻֻνʽԡ˹ͨΤķɹ۵۸Ϊ:ձķʽ;ڳ-ձ鷨Ļͨϸ˾õȷķȷ;Էϵͳÿѧн,ȷǾȷġȷġǢǾġԭͳһġ,ڸ,ȨӹŵȨ͹ȨչִľȨȨ,ÿ˶ͶҽơȼõȵȷƽȨⲻҪжɲ()ַ,ҪΪṩʵʵȥʵЩȨɡ,ɵʽӡ-ôʽ(ж,ôʹĴ)ɡijij˽IJĵԡĿʽ;άгĹ˽IJ,ͨԤгй̡гнάĿߡӦ,˾Ҳɲռ,ڶȷΧȷձúʵʩ,ɵĺϷݾͱڷɵʽ֮ȥѰҡһ̶Ѿһ;Եǿ,ζִ,ҪǾԼ,ֻǵԼҲǵԼʱ򡣵,»ûʵִӡѧѧġʽתǵIJǸжǼж򡪡Ƿɡʱ,Էʽ˼Ի,ͿܰѹԼҪôǹΪڶࡰСҡĶ(),ҪôǹΪһҡ()()ǰһ,ɵĻֻͳѧĶ˵ĵ,Ķų˵Ȩ,ҲΥԼʵ档ںһ,ҲùͬġҡԽġСҡ,ѧIJζŵ˵ζѧ˼ά,ѧIJζΪ߱Ϊǡҡ֮ij˻ijȺ塣ⷽ,ʷѾṩ̵Ľѵ,ڹ˹,ҪIJڡСҡ͡ҡ֮зǴ˼˵ѡ,ҪִڡҡԵ˼·,Ŀתǡߡԡ,ת佻Ὠơ
仰˵,˹֮ԴԵĽǶоԻ,Ϊ˻شִƶȵĺϷԱ绤Կ?;ڻشʱ,˹ġԡµġʵԡ:֮ʵ,Ϊٱ-ϵĺ塣෴,ʹԳΪܵ,ǰ໥һ塢Ϊʽṹý顣ֺڴĿ֮ϵ,γһṩʩԼ[61718]
,ϼڵ֮,ǿڱĽʱѱĿͷõ仰ۺ:һ,ûйû;һ,ûԾûй߽,:ûԾûԡ
[ο][1].߼ѧ[].:ӡ,1991.
2Ludwig Wittgenstein:Philosophical Investigationstranslated by G. E. M. Anscombe The Macmillam Company1964
3George Herbert 1VEad:On social Psychology:Selected Papersedited and with an Introduction by Anselm StranssThe Uni-versity of Chicago and London1956
4JUrgen Habermass:The Theory of Communicative Actionvolume2.
5JUrgen Habermas:Post rretaphysical Thinking:Philosophical Essaystranslated by williana mark HohengartenPolity Press1992
6JUirgen Habermas:Faktizitat and Geltung:Beitraige zur Diskurstheorie des Rechts and des denrokratischen RechtsstaatsSuhrkamp UerlagFrankfurt am Main,1997
7John Rawls:A Theory of Justice revised editionThe Belknap Press of Harvard University PressCambridgeMass,2000
8JUirgen Habermass:justification and Application : Remarks on Piscourse Ethicstranslated by Ciaran Croninthe MIT PressCambridgeMass and LondonEngland1993
9I. Kant:Kritik der praktischen Vemunuft Grudnlegung zur Metaphysik der Sitten
10JUirgen Habermas:On the Pragnratics of Social Interaction
11I. Kant:Critique of Pure Reasontranslated by werner SPluhar, Hackett Publishing companyInc . Indianapolis/ cambridge1996

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