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ӿµڸ޲.ٵѧѧ

͡ѧе̱硶ۡ1970ڳɪʵѧ̱һٶԷѧд۸ӵۼԦ磬ڳɹѧеϵͳ滮滮ѧҹճ[1]Ȼ̽ҪϸУҲʼδԼԶ׿ʶٵĹܹ֮ͣҪ˼嶯ͳ־ϵĺϡֽϣʽѧѧ֮ʵ˸дԵĹز⡪ȻдͳãҲҪ¡øӵһߣŷسɹʵУԺɱֳ

Ϊʽǹṩµѧ㣬ųڶƵԵطãҲỷķΧǵԺǴзֱһֳŵΪһϵֳģʶsapienceǸ֪sentienceԶèһи֪ѵʶʶ漰ǷӦԻ˷[2]ʵϲ뵽ѰɡʵеĴߡ໥Ҫ͵ʱǾڱ˴֮ΪһΪΡԼΪ򶯣˵Լԡõ֤ԼӮ֧֡øǷ˼͹淶ʱǾͻڡɿռ䵱СҲУɲɡ[3]

ڱĵĵһ֣һڣҽٷʽѧѧĸдԵĽϣԴ˿ʼĵڵڶУҪⱻٱΪ⣺Ϊʲôǻ˵Ҫ͹ЧԡǵУǽղٶԴĻشԵعһ˼һʹdzԽЩ߱ȡӽֱܷĶڵڶ֣ڣҽԸʵ۵ĺһDzڴ͹ʱΪòȡġ

һ

1ټ۵ǽ̸discourseΪãӶȷԷķΪѧġʽΪassertoric speech actsΪԵģȡֵ۶ϣclaimsĹߣҲֻ֧򷴶ֵ۶ϵɡܷõģȡõص߼ĺ͸ԣѧģconceptual-semanticЩԿɽΪԹͬʵ[4]һ˵վԵǡǡ򡰷񡱵ƾЩԱ˴֮Ч۶Ӧ[5]ˣٶԵķһӣͨǷ֡ķʽڽΪĽÿһ߶ԼЧ۶˵ȽϣԴ˵Ч۶ϣÿ˶˶ٷ֡һѧ˼·Դάظ˹̹Ķ1µʵ֪ʶר⻯֪ʶ磨2Թͬʵڸ˵ߵ˽

1ٽеĹ淶Ϊ㣬Щ淶֪ͨʶָΪϹԣ˵νʷʽȥж֮ǰprepredicatively֪磬˵֪ν˵utterances˵Ҫһ㣬йڹԭ֪ʶڻȡȻԹУͬʱҲȡһܹ֮ϰԵġ֪ȥknow-howףתΪרԵġ֪ʶknow-that壬ʵģԭܹͨ˼»ò֪һСΪܹ֡˵µйء߼һĿġǵعķʽʹã߼ʽİǾͿͶֱ֪ʶڽϣκβԻӶøĶԵĴߣڽǿϣԵĴ߲ʹԵĴߣҲDZڵ߼ĴߡӦȡķʽһ˫رĴߡxxiҳ

ԼڷϾһ򣬼ͨһָͷ˼ѱԵе߼ѧ״ΰȻȻյ߼˵ʽѧʾӦ¹ڡͨʹá֪ʶۡҪ˵ģexplicitδģimplicitвȣ˵ݣĶʽͨ淶ģ淶ȴʵеģ˵˵һݵ÷ԺڡΣۻ˵ЩġݵĹ淶ܹʹڹԭʽгΪġ77ҳ

2ԵתʶȨ˽˾תԹͬĹʵСȻǶԱľݵ⣬ȡˡԶı󡱵ʱһת۲ֻԶ֪ʶıģʽͬʱҲ⣨Verst?ndigungĽģʽתۣӶԹͬijԱ˴໥ΪԣΪģʽ֤ӡšữǿʼϵ磬DZ໥ֿ͡ɸԣanswerabilityһΪɵӲңѰɵʵҲ͹ճĻʩ

ңԵҲ뷽۵ľϢϢأۼҲȡ˵ڶ˳̬ȣӽһߵӽdz˵ߵ˵׷ʵ崫ͳͨΪжߵĹ۵ķʽ˿͹ۻ壨mentalismˣ˵桱ʲôζʲôͱΪʽȡǴġֶʱģ磬ǿڲijǿǶЩĽƼˣֻǿͨЩõģȵȡٲȡַ͹IJԣԿһϵۻһģʽٵ˵ԵĻսڣΪ˰һʵǡΪʵ̬ȣΪΪΪ۶ϻԵ̣չֵĽṹʲô141ҳ£ǣǽԷҲȡͼ˵ݵߵӽǣȡвߵΪʽ̬ȣΪߣܻԻߵΪԱǷܹΪ档

2ߣ۾ij۶ϣݶȡijߵĽǶȳ˵ߵ˵ķ۾ҪĽ۵ĻǣԻ⾿ʲô˼һڱһȡߡȷء˵ߡܻΪΪֵ۶ߵʱʲôڴ˱衣

һ߰Ϊ˵ˣԴ˶䡰pΪ棬ӶʹԼԡpŵֱʾ̬ȵΪеΪ˵˷ԼΪŵѡ϶̬ʱ˵˻еҪʱɣ˵ΪʲôΪpΪ档ͬʱҲЩɵġǾͲܱ⡣˵Ϊʲô߷ͱ֮˵˵Ч۶϶ȡҲԼĽǶȳһ¡pDzȷġ˵ʸԡp⵱ȻҪӾδóκνԵۣʱͬ۶ϣȻҲDzȡ

ˣپͰѶ϶Ϊ˵˵˵ֻҪΪʣͿ԰ֵ۶ϺӦijŵ֮˵ˡ⡰pĵλ˵Ƿʸ϶pһλȡڽ˵ֵ۶ϣȡǷ˱֮˵˵Ч۶ϡɴˣһʹӽߵʵ̬ȿʼرֵ۶ϵġǡ򡰷񡱵ĻӦءΪԽ˵ΣΪΣͳΪԵġ

ְ֧ΪΪܡΪһ˵˽ߵ̬˵λԡһҲˡǷ֡ʵҲٳ˽̸ȫȽϡζԣʵڽ϶ʺʹ𸴣Ի߽Щ໥ڱ˴ˣͿܵɽÿ˶ԼĹ۵¼˭ʸкΪ˭ij˺ֶԣ˭͸֧ͨһϿɵĿŶʻΪһŶصЧ۶ϲδ۵ķʽõȷ֤ӶʹԼɥʧáÿ߶ԼĹ׼¼¡÷֡ͬʱҲڼ˸ݸԵĹ׶ﵽġ

3ٵԭԲʽѧ⹹룬һŵIJԣѧϵʹǶ໥Ϊˣٽ˴ض֪ʶԽͣǼ֪ں±϶Ҳ֪ڲ˵ڽܸöµĺôҲһ֪ʶԹ룬޸ijʺڵڶ˳ƵӽǣΪڶ˳ƵܹҪ֪ɶ϶ɣҲܴӱܵĶеóٽһ׷˹ٶֶԵı绤ʽĿõᄈͺأ˵õʵݵġϵֹ֧֣ϵѾ̶ԱʽݵУɷ롣[6]ԵѧԱʽĸݿԽһʽʵӵѧ루Ϊ侵ģڽ̸ʮַϣӶٽ綨Ϊɵѡ뽻̸ǽʽģΪЩɣڸñʽȷõͽ棬ʹ֮ΪɽܵġٵȻҲڡֱжϡľɣжϾնϱ绤жʵϾ֪ɣ뷴Ҫһ֤ɴˣʹԼ˳޶ȵ塣

֪ʶǾ֪ʶΪ䱸˹ڹ֪ʶЩȷԱʽȷʹõͺΣѧĽǶȿѧѧ֮Ĺϵӣʵƺʹ̶Ե㵱еϵЧˡЧ۶ϵ໥ԣ뽻̸ⷽȡй켣ɸ˵ݵѧ껭ġ۵ķʽչĸѧԤȳΪõĸһ棬ٵʵϢ̫ŨΪ̸֮ҡͼ޷ŷΣԽʾĹۣidealismڳһֹضԹͬԱ˵ȴ޷ӱֹۣʵΪ֪ܵʶĵѺƷΪķ

ѧǶȿԹ淶֪ʶһģѧǶȿԹ淶ɱΪDZѧʵĹϵҲɴ򱻷ת

ʽʵбʹʱͿʼζζĶ״̬̬ȱ˭ͽ˭ΪϵзӵĹܣӵʵʾеݡԿݣЩԿԸ淶̬⣬һ̬ҲǰжܻΪʵʵʵ̬ȡˣʲôνʲôǵʵǵ״̬ͱݣ·߾һгΪеġַͨʽʵѧ۾ܹΪѧṩۣ˹ݣʵаΪȷôһأѧ۶ԴĽͣʲô׼˶ʵԵҪ󣬴ӶΪѧʣprimitiveá134ҳ

ʵСʲô˼ͨߵġΪϵ̬ȵġ淶ɲһȷ֤Ըݣδõ˵໥ֵ۶ϵʵͨѧϽʵԵЧѾõ֤ô۶棨ݵԼʲôأijֶȷ֤õȷԣǡۡ

뽻̸ߵʵ̬ȱѧԣڴ֮ļҳǶһλ

ȷѧϵǡڸݵĿɽܵĸһָΪ͹۵ֵĹҲΪ͹۵ȷṩжϺԣ˰жϺܻΪȷһʵ̬ȡʵģڰΪġǵ֪̬ձЩԽ̬ȵģattitude-transcendentʵϡ137ҳ

֡ʵۡķƺDzԼģ롰۵ġphenomenalistһ¡ۣԣǰʽʹ̸ָ߲ƣҪ̸ֵָ֣۶ϺָƹĶѡ[7]ʵϻΪеһ·ܹʵֱ۵Ҫ׷۴֮ǰҵӿ͹Աһ¿͹⡣

ֻҪǵ˵ӦӲ뽻̸ߵġ̬ȡʼǵ˵ġλֱݵġ͹ԡôЧ۶ϵĹΪͱеΣ˵ʵݡǰᵽЩʵ̬ȡڲڡǷ֡߼Ĺ淶Źؼáضϣ̸IJ߽淶Եλ˵ͨѶԹˣȷԣijλԻƺ͸һ˵ԣƶΪ͹۵ģݣΪԵĵλٸȷ˻ȨԼ壨contractualistģʽһinstituting淶ԵλIJΪģǵΪ淶ΪγƫãŶ˳򣬴һ£ᣬۣӶʹ淶̱ǿڷǹ淶Ե֮ϣͬöס״̬һ48ҳ

淶ȻԵĹв֣ͨǴߵ־ǿʵΪȻģʽ֮ϡܹ淶ָΪڵϰΪΪ£Ϊ֪˶кԤڣѭҲΥij淶ĸپ͸ʵ˵һ淶ԴijͬƲijΪģʽ֮ΪȷĻԽġ߶Ϊȡ˶Ԫı뷽ʽֱΪĻ򲻺ģӦĹ淶ΪԤʩǿԵĽһ˵ʼδʵشЩԼѭԶָ˵ԡ[8]Ա׼ΪԴߵǡǡڣֻϿɵĹԼЩǣͬµ[9]ʱѡģԼ50ҳ

ٲ˿µɸԵ봿ѡΪWillkrոԹ淶ԶΪѡijЩ淶ȫԼԼʱɵķʽж־õȷ־ΪԵĴӶɵģҲΪԵĴӶ淶Լʹ߲в㣣ӶʹǾ͵ļϺԵĹ淶Լɣˣ֮ɵһ¾ͰĹ۵㣺ѵĹ淶ԵλΪɹ淶̬ġ51ҳǡǡһ۱ڵѧͷѧ֮ıȽϣʹߵġ淶̬ȡ˵Ĺ淶ԵλԳΪܡΪº¬ϵģģʽѾԤĹ۵㣺ָߵǺԹ淶ֺ԰˵ȱ뱻ġ˵ףؽЩԹ淶ġ⡣뱣֤淶ġԵġȷϺԹ淶һȷԼṩ淶Ե˵ģʽڲ뽻̸˴ﵽΪ淶ġߡһ׶֮ǰǡѾṹĸԹ淶лˡ

ٶԼﵽһij̶ȣΪ˹ۺԵĹ淶Թ룬㷺ϵĺԹ淶Ȱ߼ġĺĹҲѧͬΪΪ淶ˡȻ۱ʵʹԼرڴȨȥֵ۶ϵ֧бҪЧԱ绤䷴ҲȨ֧˫ڽԤ۱ĹЩ޶ˡɿռ䡱һռ䡱УܹƯƣԴٶչΪδ谭ģӶܹȷķʽӰ飬뽻̸ߵġʵ̬ȡ۱Ȩ岿֣øõ֤ӳ޾ЧӰ죬뱻淶ǿƣȻбġΪ淶ԼΪߵ־ʱԵĹ淶һϵĸԹ淶ǵ顣

ͬߵ򣬻ʵԴйһԴάظ˹̹ΪϷ﷨ʽĸ룬߼ġѧĺ﷨ĹԭΪĻģʽΪ淶ĹĸһͬʵȻ֪ᣭĻ򡣲ٶԡʵܻԡʱ䡷һֵķͬѰĽάظ˹̹Ľܡ

þ߷Zeuganalyseй¶¸ʵĽӽȻϡڴ⣨Verst?ndigungһԹ֮ǰдڡѸݡᄈBewandtniszusammenh?nge[10]綨Եش򽻵Уʵʵؽʾ˹ᄈһƪۺ¸Уٶԡʱ䡷һһڹͣӽνѧ[11]ڵ͵ʩжaction-performancesУζӦض£ijͬΪʺϺʵķӦʲôξˡþߡ壬ǽΪʲô뺣¸˵Ľ෴ǴصοʼġֽʵĸԹͬڹͣĽڹѧϡΪʲôas͸ζԣνж֮ǰĶһбģͬķʽȥƵĴ̼ӦԹͬijԱͨ໥͵ĻӦΪʺ϶ʵġ塣һУԱе֪Ըݣ빲ͬԸЭͬˡ

ǵǰĿĶԣҪDzٵһ֤ʵǴһǰνжϵγɵĻиֳġšΪµԵķӦģʽĿǰΪֹֻǡ֡ĶתΪֳɡĶ⣬ʹ֮ΪܵĸѰɵʵһ䱾͵ʵùijԸӦζŽΪijֳɵĶ[12]һʹܹⲼٺ԰Ը뽻̸ߵʵ̬ȣDZ̸߱˴˸ԳĹ淶ԵλҲ˲ٺڽԵЧͬΪЧԡһ棬ĵһ֣Ȼѧ˵ܹӿ͹˵ȤһҲп⣬ΪʲôٲϿЩɺάظ˹̹ͺں¸ۡϷᄈ۱ž룬ϽʾĹҲͬľ롣

Ժ¸˵ֳķǴС͹塱ıںֳһͬ֡ٷֶԿ͹еĽʽIJ˶֪ܣֹܻһԽԣϵֵʵǰνʷʽ봿ϵĴ򽻵ԽҲ˻˵¸þ߷Ļе˸нų϶constative speechֵȤıгȡȤָʵʵijﻮ˼ᄈУΪʵĶ

ֳֵ֣ĶУDzСʣ϶һ⣬ǷʵضʵͼԣDzġڸѰɵϷУǷʵǷΪ棩ĸݣ˳˷ʵͼ[13]

ɴ˾Ͳһֱӵĵ·ͨٹڡصԡҪơ֪ʶϵЧϣijضԹͬɵĹʶ½ۡٶԣȻÿ嶼֪˶᷸ҲͱΪԼʵȤǣƪں¸ʹΪܣһԹ淶ͬΪΪ淶򣬶Դ⣨Verst?ndigungʵĺԳġΪٶԿɴԵԣһΪļҲʹã͵⣺ij˵ĵλȡڽ߶ɵĹ۵ʱ˵ο𽥾п͹Եݣһݣݾ˽ڸᄈܹ֪ͼеĶأ

˵⣬ԼݵĿ͹⣬ѧǰѧ˵ԲԸ룺

ڽijܻΪȷһΪ˵ʵʵʵ̬ȷȷеĹ淶ԵλңеϵԷִݣȴſ͹۵ԣΪʵ̬ȱԡôʹñʽʽݣijЩ½⣬ڸñʽȷʹϣǶܻ᷸ôοأýܻΪȷȷֹ淶̬ȣܹ淶ԵλأΪֵλԽ̬ȣܹЩĹ淶Щ̬ܵȣҳЩϺ׼ġ137ҳصΪӣ

ɴ˿ɼ˼·۵ģȻʵ۵ֱۡ

תǵóۣ˵ʵھƣնңһϵ֤ڵó˽۵˼·ԲDz͵ġֻΪĶDz˵ʵǵĶ;Ӷֻн;Ӳܹõ绤УҲ޷߳ԵħȦֲѵԭʵԸ˼룬Ϊʽ̬ȵĻϷΪĶ̬ڡijﴦΪ桱ˡȻʵΪֲ̬ͬǿЩ̬һǽʵ۵ֱΪ˵ģΪҳ۵һ棬ǽǵʵϵΪΪеֱ棬Խ̸еìΪн顣ǰһԣٵ?޵ٵʵ壻ͺһԣϣ?ϵʵۡ

ʵֱֱۣòͬľʽһڳ棬漰ϵԶָƣǰ߶ԣֵνʵġ÷cautionary use̺Ŀ۳Եõôõı绤Ҳܹµ֤ǰ֤ΪġӦģ绤justificationֶ֮ԣ漰ָƣһּ裺һǴżȻԼǿǣЩԼʹǵΪӰʱǾ֮ڶˡ͵ڶֱ۶ԣֵνʵĵ÷Чϣ̺Ĺ۵㣺ijֵñ˽ΪЧijӦģ֮ձ漰ָƣһּ裺κ˵ʼһǴӺӽdzָеʲôǼԤ˿ܶĴڣܹǵʵҲԤǵָϵĿͨԼԣʶͬµͬ

һܰѲٵĹ۵޵ٵĺϵ֮䡣޵ᵽֱеĵһõڶȴһ϶ֵ۶Ͽɶᄈ޵ٲֿͬʱҲǵIJͬڹ֮IJͨԼԡ෴뿼ձԵҪҲ뿼Ƕͬһļٶһ棬ΪĽӴԼӦʵڵijԶԣ˾ȵġ֮ͼ޵ٵᄈۣȴ򽻵нѧϰ⣬ʽķѧ

۽˹֤Ա˵Щѧ͸Թ淶Ŀ͹۵ġԽ̬ȡݣЩ淶ָŲ뽻̸ˣԹ淶Ŀ͹ԡڼһ֣Щ淶һĹ淶ԵλԼͬĹ淶̬ȣͬʱЩλȴͨͬԱʵʵĹ淶̬Ⱥġ55ҳٴ۵Ĺ۵ǽ˵Ŀ͹ݣڣЩ͵ijԴʹ˹ڿ͹۹ϵıֹ֣۲ʺڵĿǰΪֹľʵת͵ĿͼĽڣӿµڸһ·˵˽Ŀ͹幹޷ʵڶ˳ƵãԼΪԼʵãڣӵ۵Ĺ۵㿴ΪڷϱȨҲ˲ҵĺƪƣڴȥ

Jrgen Habermas. From Kant to Hegel: On Robert Brandoms Pragmatic Philosophy of Language. European Journal of Philosophy (2000) 8:3 pp. 322C355. Translated by Maeve Cooke, Department of Philosophy University of Frankfurt Frankfurt am Main Germany

עͣ

[1] ͵ﱳԣԺеģ밮ѧɵĽĹرǿķأF. KambartelԽάظ˹̹ʽķչ, Լ밢K.-O. ApelѧĹٵĹԼչʽѧŬҲлϵ㣬ҵĹʼ19701971ѧѧĸ˹Լ1976ġνձѧ

[2] Brandom, R. (1994), Making it Explicit͡. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press. p. 5.

[3] õĸȷͱܱ±۵ģĸȷۺԵܱ±۵ġBrandom 1994: 18

[4] ١͡253ҳҪΪɾҪȴһ汻⣺ڹͬ˵ʵаijΪɣΪ۶ϵɡôһ¡

[5] J. Habermas, Action, Speech Acts, Linguistically Mediated Interactions, and the Lifeworld, in Habermas, J. (1998), On the Pragmatics of Communication, edited by M. Cooke. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press. p. 215C55.

[6] μBrandom 1994: 102C116

[7] μBrandom (1988), Pragmatism, Phenomenalism, and Truth-Talk in Midwest Studies in Philosophy, XII, pp. 75C93

[8] ɭǿһ㣺ijЩʵ۱Ϊ֮ġǣҪ֮뻯α̻أRosen, G. (1997), Who Makes the Rules Around Here?, in Philosophy and Phenomenological Research, LVII, pp. 163C71.

[9] ɣSirens˰ŮĸջֻϵĺԱӶʹֻڵΧûµʱһס䣬ԸͬΦϣ˳ͨ˵죬ھ뺣ףʯͷע

[10] ӢΪcontexts of involvementBewandtniszusammenh?ngeڡʱ䡷뱾бΪԵϵע

[11] Brandom. (1997b), Heideggers Kategorien in Sein und Zeit , in Deutsche Zeitschrift fr Philosophie 4, pp. 531C49.

[12] Brandom (1997b), Heideggers Kategorien in Sein und Zeit , in Deutsche Zeitschrift fr Philosophie 4, p. 546.

[13] ͬϣp. 547

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