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ڻ ƽ

߿ࣺһũҹγɵн

Ľ塪γɵ۱£߿ࡱΪũʶγɵһҪƣ̽ũڹҵĸܡ֪ԼũʶγɵĹص㣬ͨũӽʾһʱйũйϵı仯رǹ͸Ĺ̡ڴ֮ǰоȡļǴӹҳ϶µӽǡ

йһ鷴ǿҵصIJһǼʶֻʶ֡سҲûȥũڣһɹ徫Ӣĺʶ̬͸ľ޴󹤳̡ڹȨָʶ̬ΪܵĻôָʶ̬Ϊܺͼäķʶ̬ũ֮νϵģйһҪ档

һѡ֮ڹҹγ

棨Prasenjit Duaraйʷϳɫ20ϰڹȨĽָ̡ȨϳɹؽԼȨܺϽĻ֮УӶõ徫ӢĹϡ20ͺִеĹȨȫĻеĸԴͼնͬͳġġĻϵӶɥʧ徫ӢĹ֧ͨã¡Ȩھĺ[1]

ֹ̺߼γյǣ1949л񹲺͹󣬶ȴͳ֯ʹͳڽ̵Ļϵ˸׵Ĵݻ١Ҳ˵˵ġȨĻ硱ܵ˸׵ƻȻһʷǰĴģġȨ衱͡γɡȴˡУͨҵĹϵõ˸Եĸ죬һ֡ᡱĿܵγɡУͨҵĹϵﵽǰСij̶ȡôηģͨʲôĻƷģ

ǵķйĹУر1949֮󣬡߿ࡱ͡˼ȨʶãζũճֽΪȻ״̬ġѡ͡ʶۺӶʹ䴩͸ճIJ棬׼ʶҵĿܽϵġũо͸ܵġѡΪ׼ࡱḶ́Ϊպ֮Ľ׼ĻũũҹϵĻ֮֡γɡḶֲ́ũճ֮еġ

ࣺũĿܵʶ̬Ŀ

1ѡ׼ʵ֮

䡰йеũ׼һмһʵĹϵʹá͹ԽṹԽṹ͹塱塱ĸά໥໥õĸӶعϵӶйũ׼бʵ֮Ĺϵ˽͡ȷزˡԽũĿ͹ʵ֮ȻŲһ¡ȴûлشά֮佨ϵ⣬Լֽγũ֮µϵŦеҪ塣

йũʵƫ£ұϾɹط֯˶˶عṹʵԼĿꡣΪʽġ߿ࡱ͡˼ֺũĿ׼֮䡢ʵ֮ҪȨ֮һ

2ũճеķ

ͬǵĽۣйıԽйũṹĿ͹ʵ֮䡱һµһҲвһµһ棬ͻһ˸Ȥ⣺ʵǰڽ׼ʶ̬û֮£ũνзģڷʱʹõı׼ʲôճеַ࣬պĽ׼ʲô壿

ƶ֮֡Եֺ֮͵֮ũԼеķࡣճеġȻ࣬ת䵽к͸ʶ̬Ľ׼࣬˶رΪõġ߿ࡱҪơ

3ӵ»ĸ嵽ʶ̬Ľ׼Ա

еĶظĸ߿оȷָ߿ΪһȨعֽͬ׼ʵֶũ·ֻϵŬ[2]߿һЧҪͨ׼ʵֵġȨ֮Եһֵͷɢ󡱵ũڡҪ֯ɴݻپ罨¹ҵ񣬷ͳΪһزٵĹ̡ij˵׼ķᶯԱȱٵĻ

߿භᣬͥ߿ᣬ϶ʽȣΪʹũӵ»ĸתΪʶ̬Ľ׼ԱĻƶڵġ

߿෭

1͸ճĿѣũ񼲿׼

˰ڵ˽ܿˡǽӴĴ񶼽Լ롰ܿˡһСյƺÿһ߶˵ĿʹճֵѹͲʣΪƶ֮ࡢ֮ࡢͥϵͻϵ֮ࡢձм֮ࡣ

ǰеũܵĿǿ͹۴ڣؼΰתΪ׼򲻽ǽ׼Ḷ́ᶯԱḶ́ҲũĹʶḶ́ҵĹ̡е߿˶Լ߿෢չġ塱˶Ļеġ˼𡱣ͨԡࡱ롰𡱵ıաͨ¾ɶԱȡƶжϣԵĵΪ֮Դ֮ԴԵ׼ΪľᡢƶȺΪھǵ¹ҡ

2ͻлõĻ߿˶еḶ́

ظĸĽУӸϸıũ񳣹ԵҲıũе߼š췭ظߵǬǶһ־޴Ͳͬ׼ײԣ״̬λõĸı䡣Щƺһҹ֮ɵġڳ̬ľáλĹУһͥķŬƸľĻ۲һͣͬ׻˵ҲָһͥﲻФҲһ˥Ĺ̡ûйʱε䣬Ϊͨʽthe rites of passageǣҪؿڵʽ˵ݺλı䣬ȫͬ״̬ڡĹҲǾһ׸ʽʵֵģڶʱɣûн䣬ûйɡһⲿǿũģԶԶǼʮϰŬĽıƸݵľУǸܵġǿĹҵĴڡ

3ݻΪұİ׼;ᣨһɺӵḶ́

˵ͨ߿ũĽ׼Ѹ侭áκλʹũܵһΪǵĹô߿ͶѹҲͬʱʹũʶʹһƶȾɹҵ

ظĸ˶У¹Լڵķʽ˴ӸϸıƶũӶĹ⣬оǴݻٺũºʹ޵ϵսʤǿΪͨũηĶ֣ͬʱҲȨũԼʵĹ̡ͨ෴˶ͶڵĶʵֵġ

Charles Tillyڷ塪ҵγʱرעˡȨ衱state-making͡γɡnation buildingĹ̡ҪΪҵϿɡ롢еҳϡ֮һʶϵĹִͬϵĹͬȷԼϵһģȷڹͬĻϲγɡʼڰǰй¹ҵĽ費ͬŷ塪ҵĽ裬ҲͬʱڹҽĹ̡ĹҲ͹ĹңȨĻ硱Ĺҡйظĸ׶γɵĹͬũĸм;ηΪġһ񵱼ĹҵĽҲ䡰񡱱Ĺ̡ĵڣһرڹũĿгΪòһͨʲôΪũܵġ

̽йũظĸĹʱDzϣ׼ͨһϵȨ뼼ﵽͬʵ壬һԽũĿ͹ʵƫ롣һĽṹ֪ȫѵģũһ̵Ļ˵߿Ϊнƶũתܹ̣ǰũĸ֪඼һ̡

߿ࡱһַֽࣨ׼Ḷ́ΪһֶԱķʽ߿عũΧĹϵҵĹϵڱУΪת˼ũĹҹγɵн۵ġе߿ũġ׼򡱺Ͷ¾֪ͻԳΪǵһĻ֪ԡıũ񳣹Ե߼Ϊġһ棬ΪͳεͨݻٴͳȨũηPʾġˣ߿࣬Ĺ󡪡ѿԴΪľƶȣҲͬʱ˻Ĺũ߿ࡢǹҵķΪҴĹǶԱũҪʽũ߿ࡢΪйҳ

һ߿׼ʶͬ߼̡ũͨΪƶũһ׼ijԱΪ¹ҵȺڵġ

ԭڡйѧ20024ԭԼ24000֡߹ڻƽϵ廪ѧѧϵڣ

[1] 棬1994ĻȨҡ룬磬233-237ҳ

[2] ݣ1997¼еġʵũظĸʱļ䡷20°йũռƻϵйġNo.1Ӣ1999߿ࡢͬعԡ˼𡱵һ̬ʷоѧ˶ʿоѧλġ

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